Modern antiplatelet agents: a list of drugs according to the classification
Antiaggregants refer to drugs that can affect the human blood coagulation system, stopping its main function.
They inhibit the metabolism of substances that produce thrombin and other components that cause thrombosis in the vessels.
Most often, antiaggregants are used in diseases of the cardiovascular system to avoid the risk of thrombi in the veins of the lower limbs. These drugs are able to prevent platelet aggregation, as well as their adhesion to the inner walls of blood vessels.
- History of discovery
- Antiaggregants and anticoagulants - is there any difference?
- Contraindications and possible "pobochki»
- Classification antiagregantov
- Platelet group
- Erythrocyte group
- Complex preparations
- application features
- selection problem Specific guidance and advice
History of discovery
beginning of the twentieth century - the period of onset of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. In the 1950s, it was possible to buy
a drug that affects the density of blood, the active substance in its composition was called coumarin. This medicine diluted the blood well, which prevented the formation of blood clots.
Then, antiaggregants and anticoagulants appeared on a free sale and were increasingly used to treat and prevent vascular diseases.
Antiaggregants and anticoagulants - is there a difference?
When any damage occurs in the human body, to prevent large blood loss platelets are glued together with red blood cells and form clots or thrombi. This helps stop the bleeding.
But in some cases, blood vessels are damaged, inflamed or develop atherosclerosis, and then the platelets will form clots already inside such a damaged vessel.
Antiaggregants prevent platelet gluing while acting with a soft, soft, they are prescribed for people with a high risk of thrombosis, in contrast to them, anticoagulants - more powerful drugs in their effect, they do not allow blood to clot, which prevents the development of varicose veins, thrombosis, heart attacks and strokes.
Basic pharmacology and mechanism of action of antiplatelet agents:
Scope of application
Antiaggregant effect is advisable in the following diseases:
- prophylaxis of arterial and venous thrombi;
- ischemic heart disease;
- transient ischemic attack;
- peripheral vascular disease;
- retinopathy in diabetes mellitus;
- Vascular Shunting.
Contraindications and possible "pobochki"
All medicines have contraindications. Consider in more detail the contraindications for the administration of antiplatelet agents:
- gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
- dysfunction of the liver and kidney;
- heart failure;
- hemorrhagic stroke;
- pregnancy and lactation.
Aspirin can cause spasm of the bronchi, therefore, patients with bronchial asthma should not take acetylsalicylic acid. It should also be remembered that Aspirin may contribute to the occurrence of stomach ulcers.
The most common side effects when taking antiplatelet agents are:
- nausea and vomiting;
- arterial hypotension;
- occurrence of bleeding;
- allergic reactions.
Therefore, these drugs are taken under the strict supervision of a doctor.
Classification of antiplatelet agents
There are two types of major antiplatelet agents - platelet and erythrocyte. To thrombocytic include acetylsalicylic acid, Heparin, Indobufen, Dipiridamol. Erythrocyte are Pentoxifylline and Reopoliglyukin.
In more detail, platelet antiplatelet agents that prevent the aggregation of platelets, a list of the most popular drugs:
- The most famous drug of this group is Acetylsalicylic acid or Aspirin .This drug is inexpensive and affordable for everyone. It is used to dilute blood in small doses. But if the dose is exceeded, Aspirin will work as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug. Take acetylsalicylic acid for a long time to get a pronounced effect. This period can be months or even years. Preparations with acetylsalicylic acid have different names - Aspirin Cardio, Cardiomagnolo, Acecardol, Aspicor and others.
- Another known antiaggregant is Ticlopidine .His action is stronger than that of Aspirin. It is indicated for thrombosis, ischemic heart disease, in those cases when arteriosclerosis of the vessels is clearly expressed.
- Dipyridamole( Kurantil) - dilates blood vessels and reduces pressure. The blood flow increases its speed, the cells are better supplied with oxygen. Aggregation of platelets is reduced. Can help with angina pectoris, namely, dilate the coronary vessels. Has no harmful effect on the gastrointestinal tract.
- Clopidogrel - similar in its action to Tiklopedin. Reduces the aggregation of platelets, but almost no side effects and does not cause allergies. Adopted course for a long time. It is indicated for all types of thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases.
- Abciximab - has an antithrombotic effect. Acts quickly, but for a short time. It is used in hospital in-vitro in a complex with Acetylsalicylic acid and Heparin. The indication is acute coronary syndrome and vascular angioplasty.
- Theonikol - has anti-aggregative and vasodilating effect, improves the supply of oxygen to the brain.
- Eptifibatid( Integrilin) - is prescribed with Aspirin to patients who have an acute coronary syndrome or who need coronary angioplasty. It is used in a hospital.
- Iloprost( Ilomedin) - prevents the adhesion of platelets, can dissolve the thrombus that has already formed. The drug is sufficiently powerful, it is used in stationary conditions with critical ischemia and Raynaud's syndrome.
- Trifusal( Disgen) - the action of the drug is aimed at reducing the biosynthesis of thromboxane, since platelet cyclooxygenase is inhibited.
Anti-aggregation agents for red blood cells( erythrocyte antiplatelet agents):
- Pentoxifylline( Trental) - due to the action of the drug, the rheological properties of the blood improve. Erythrocytes become more flexible, as a result they can safely pass through the capillaries. The cells do not stick together, the blood becomes more fluid. The effect of Trental comes a month later. It is indicated for use in problems with blood circulation. But people who have already suffered myocardial infarction, it is contraindicated.
- Reopoliglyukin .It has almost the same properties as Trental, but is more safe.
There are drugs that contain several antiplatelet agents of different directions of action. One active substance enhances the action of the other.
We list the most popular of these medicines:
- Cardiomagnet ( Aspirin plus magnesium);
- Agrenoks ( Dipyridamole and Aspirin);
- Aspigrel ( Clopidogrel and Aspirin).
Features of application of
It is necessary to start the reception of antiaggregants only after consultation with the attending physician. It is inadmissible to engage in self-medication, because there are contraindications to their reception and the occurrence of side effects is not excluded.
If any unusual symptoms or manifestations of an allergic reaction occur, stop taking the drug immediately and consult a doctor.
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The purpose of antiplatelet agents is performed by different specialists depending on the disease:
- cardiologist with heart diseases;
- neurologist in diseases of cerebral vessels;
- phlebologist or vascular surgeon with lesions of veins and arteries of the lower limbs.
The problem of choosing
Often picking a certain drug is not easy. Since antiplatelet agents are now on sale very much, it is necessary to carefully study the mechanism of action of a given drug, as well as possible side effects.
So, for example, in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, do not take drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid. This can lead to serious consequences.
Special instructions and advice
Take antiaggregants for a long time in the correct dosages. Do not exceed or reduce the dose, and do not cancel the drug yourself. Regularly you need to do a blood test to control the number of platelets.
Drugs of this group are an indispensable preventive for vascular diseases. Thanks to them, it is possible for to maintain their health for many years, and also to prolong their life. The main thing in time is to identify the presence of a disease, which shows the reception of antiplatelet agents.
The doctor will help to choose the right medicine, prescribe a course of treatment. It is necessary to adhere to these recommendations, not to cancel the medicine on your own.
In addition to taking drugs, it is worth revising your lifestyle. Adjust the food, enter into the diet more fresh vegetables and fruits.
Less should eat fatty foods, floury. Also, the correct and feasible physical load will help strengthen the body. You need to walk more in the open air and get the maximum amount of positive emotions.