Emphysema of the lung is a chronic disease associated with damage to the alveoli, which are of a systemic nature and become an obstacle to normal breathing. To stop the disease, you must follow the rules of prevention, and in case of manifestation of one of the symptoms - immediately consult a doctor.
- Causes of
- Symptoms of
- Classification of
- Complications of
- Diagnosis of
- Treatment of
- Prevention of
- In children
- Life expectancy
- Treatment with folk remedies
Emphysema of the lungs in many cases is a consequence of bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis that has not been completely cured. Often there are signs of bullous type of emphysema after a tuberculosis or in the presence of an open-form disease. In addition, experts identify several reasons that contribute to the development of abnormal lung alveoli:
- Intensive smoking.
- The presence of a rare genetic disease that causes a deficiency in the body of alpha-1-antitrypsin.
- Inhalation of toxic and toxic fumes for a long time.
- Accommodation in a region with unfavorable ecology.
Symptoms of pulmonary emphysema include:
- Shortness of breath is the main symptom that manifests itself at the initial stage only under considerable physical exertion, and as it spreads - and at rest too.
- Cough appears after a while after dyspnea.
- Disturbance of breathing - a person can not take a deep breath and a full exhalation.
- Weight loss is associated with fatigue of the respiratory muscles, which work at full strength to facilitate exhalation.
- Expanding and twisting intercostal spaces - the patient's chest acquires a cylindrical( barrel-like) shape.
- Reduces the movement of the diaphragm.
- Cyanosis - the patient gets a blue tinge in the patient, and the nails and lips turn blue due to a chronic lack of oxygen.
- Changes in the lungs on the X-ray - the boundaries of the organ become transparent.
Depending on the prevalence of the process, the following forms of emphysema are distinguished:
- Bullous is characterized by partial lung involvement: there are areas filled with air and enlarged in size( bullae), but there are also healthy alveoli that continueperform their functions.
- Chronic diffuse obstructive form occurs against a background of various genetic mutations. The patient does not have healthy areas of the lungs. When a baby is born with such a diagnosis, it is urgently necessary to transplant the new lungs. Diffuse emphysema of one lung is treatable if it is detected in time, but with the spread of this disease it is necessary to do internal organ transplantation.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD) - combines two diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD is characterized by a partially irreversible airflow restriction in the airways.
Also, emphysema is divided into the following types:
- Vesicular - changes in the lung tissue occur, the disease is incurable.
- Vicar( compensatory) - characterized by an increase in one part of the lung and restraining the other.
- Starch - is a natural kind of aging, lung tissue does not collapse, but becomes stiff and weakened.
- McLaud syndrome - characterized by an increase in one lung, more often the disease develops in children due to the transferred bronchitis.
- Congenital lobar( lobar) - occurs in children in the first month of life.
- Chronic focal( cicatrical, perifocal) arises around old post-infarct scars and tuberculosis foci.
- Primary( idiopathic) panacinar is a rare type of emphysema with unknown etiology.
- Interstitial( interstitial) develops when air enters the interstitium( the gap between idiomorphic parts) as a result of spontaneous rupture of the bullae or traumatic rupture of the airways.
- Respiratory failure occurs due to a disturbance in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in altered lungs.
- Infectious complications( lung abscess, pneumonia).
- Heart failure. At the last stage of the disease, the pressure in the arteries of the lungs increases, the right atrium increases, the right ventricle increases. Later such changes cover almost all parts of the heart.
- Pneumothorax( air accumulation in the pleural cavity) is a surgical complication that occurs when a cavity is ruptured near a large bronchus.
The diagnosis of respiratory function is important in the diagnosis. To assess the stage of narrowing of the bronchi, the method of functional diagnostics is used - peakflowmetry. After a few breaths, an exhalation is carried out into the recording device-a peak meter. This method allows distinguishing emphysema from bronchitis and bronchial asthma, as well as pneumosclerosis, which are similar to it in symptomatology.
To determine the degree of lung failure and determine the change in their tidal volume, spirometry is performed. Data are recorded at a time of calm and steady breathing, then the doctor asks for several breaths and exhalations.
Special tests with bronchodilators help distinguish different lung diseases and assess the effectiveness of the treatment.
X-ray in pulmonary emphysema allows to diagnose enlarged cavities in various parts of the lungs, as well as to determine the increase in the volume of organs.
Computed tomography allows you to identify cavities in the lungs and their increased airiness.to contents ^
- Surgical intervention requires the bullous form of emphysema. The operation involves the removal of bulls by the endoscopic way.
- Medication. In case of exacerbation of the inflammatory process, the patient is prescribed antibacterial drugs. For the treatment of bronchial asthma or bronchitis with bouts of breathing difficulties, medications are prescribed to help extend the bronchi( Berodual, Salbutamol, Theophylline, Euphyllin, etc.).Mucolytics( Ambrobe, Flavamed, Ambrol, etc.) contribute to the alleviation of sputum excretion.
- Oxygen therapy helps to improve gas exchange at an early stage of the disease. The patient inhales air with a reduced amount of oxygen for 5 minutes, then breathes air with a normal amount of oxygen for the same amount of time. In 1 session there are 6 such cycles. The course of treatment is 15-20 days. If for some reason it is impossible to apply oxygen therapy, then to facilitate the patient's condition will help inhale moistened oxygen through a special nasal catheter.
- Massage facilitates sputum evacuation and promotes bronchial dilatation. In medical practice, segmental, classical and acupressure massage is used. The most pronounced bronchodilator effect is acupressure.
- Diet. It is recommended that a patient with lung emphysema observe a low-calorie diet( 600 kcal per day) with sufficient content of all vitamins and microelements. The diet should include raw vegetables, fruits, as well as natural juices and purees from them. The amount of carbohydrates should be reduced, as their excess can lead to a lack of oxygen. With a positive dynamics caloric content of food can be expanded to 800 calories per day.
- Therapeutic physical training. To prevent muscle overload, doctors prescribe exercise therapy for pulmonary eczema, which includes exercises:
- for training diaphragmatic breathing;
- with artificial creation of positive exhalation pressure;
- for training the rhythm of breathing.
To prevent the appearance and exacerbation of emphysema, it is recommended:
- Refuse from smoking.
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene when working with harmful substances.
- Correctly to eat and normalize power loads on an organism.
- Timely treatment of lung diseases( bronchial asthma, bronchitis), which can lead to the development of the disease.
The causes of congenital( lobar) emphysema in children are genetic pathologies of development, p2-macroglobulin deficiency, a1-antitrypsin, estrogen and androgen disturbance, smoking, and work with women's chemicals during pregnancy.
Interstitial emphysema often affects newborns and infants, the disease develops with a long cry, a strong cough, and endotracheal anesthesia. The disease can be complicated by pneumothorax, as a result of which the child has cyanosis, severe dyspnea, muffled heart sounds and a decrease in blood pressure. Sometimes there is a development of pneumopericardium and inevomediastinum with compression of the vessels and signs of tamponade of the heart muscle.
Treatment of emphysema in a child depending on its course is:
- outpatient if the disease manifests itself only in the case of stress;
- surgically - in the case of a complicated course of the disease.
In addition, the child undergoes procedures for enriching the lungs with oxygen and prescribed therapeutic exercises, with which you can control the air volume in the body.to table of contents ^
Treatment with folk remedies
Treatment of emphysema at home can be done only with the permission of the attending physician. For this it is recommended:
- Drink the juice of the green potato leaves, starting the reception with 2.5 ml and gradually bringing up to 125 ml.
- Drink milk with birch tar in the following sequence: 1st day - 1 drop of tar per 200 ml of milk, 2nd - 2 drops, 3rd - 3 drops. Then within 10 days every day add 1 drop, then reduce the same by 1 drop. The course of treatment with tar and milk is 20 days.
- For severe dyspnea, it is necessary to take in equal proportions the leaves of mint, sage, thyme, eucalyptus and elecampane root, mix and 1 tablespoon of mixture to pour 200 ml of boiling water. After this, insist, strain and consume ¼ cup 3 times a day after meals.