This article contains information about allergic rhinitis, its types and methods of treatment.
Allergic rhinitis( common cold) is also known as hay fever. This inflammation of the mucous membrane, which occurs under the influence of various allergens.
Allergic agents get on the nose of a person sensitive to them and there is a response in the form of rhinorrhea( clear mucus discharge from the nose flows), itching in the nose, paroxysmal sneezing, mucosal edema and as a result of difficult nasal breathing, sometimes conjunctivitis.
To diagnose chronic allergic rhinitis or pollinosis( seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis), an ENT doctor and an allergist-immunologist can.
If you suffer from a persistent runny nose and stuffiness in the nose, you should first contact the otolaryngologist to exclude upper respiratory infections. With a preliminary diagnosis, which will put the ENT, you need to go to an allergist.
This specialist will conduct a comprehensive examination based on which the final diagnosis will be made:
These basic methods allow differential diagnosis of allergic and non-allergicallergic rhinitis, identify the main allergens and prescribe a treatment for the patient.
The most common allergens are:
Heredity plays a big role.
Allergic rhinitis is classified:
Depending on the causes of the disease, you can identify severalTypes of allergic rhinitis that determine its symptoms:
Regardless of the form of this ailment, its symptomThe omatic is characteristic.
In addition to the swelling of the nasal mucosa, rhinorrhea, possibly conjunctivitis, the patient has a specific appearance - a puffy face, eyelid edema, maceration of the skin around the wings of the nose. The disease brings tangible suffering and discomfort to the patient.
First of all, it is necessary to ensure maximum restriction of contact with an allergic agent.
The basic principles of treatment of allergic rhinitis - the appointment of antihistamines, local vasoconstrictive, steroidal drugs that have a powerful anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effect.
Symptoms of persistent( chronic) rhinitis are much less pronounced than in pollinosis( seasonal fever). During the exacerbation, systemic antihistamines are prescribed.
Uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictive local remedies is addictive and as a consequence, the vessels of the nasal cavity lose the ability to narrow themselves, which causes constantly shortness of breath. Subsequently, atrophy of the mucosa and permanent edema develop.
This kind of rhinitis can develop after a couple of weeks of uncontrolled use of local vasoconstrictors.
Pharmacological preparations for treatment:
Physiotherapy is applied:
If effThere is no conservative treatment, the doctor can recommend surgical intervention.
temperature Treatment is always prescribed by a doctor.
The combination of allergic and infectious factors of the disease requires a combination treatment, which should be aimed at eliminating the infectious agent and removing symptoms.
Apply anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antihistamines. Local - vasoconstrictor sprays.
If allergic rhinitis is complicated by dermatitis, dermatologist consultation is necessary.
Treatment should be comprehensive. It is necessary to eliminate the provoking factors. The patient is treated with antihistamine, detoxification, glucocorticosteroid, immunotropic therapy.
Use external means in the form of ointments, pastes, creams, aerosols, lotions. Apply physiotherapy procedures.
It should be remembered that self-medication can cause an aggravation of the disease pattern and extremely negative consequences. Treatment should appoint only a specialist.
These two diseases are interrelated. For an attack of asthma, suffocation, coughing with very viscous sputum, wheezing are characteristic.
Prophylaxis and timely treatment of allergic rhinitis can prevent the development of this formidable disease - bronchial asthma.
A patient with bronchial asthma should always have a special inhaler.
Principles of treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are the same:
Chronic allergic runny nose can provoke adenoiditis - proliferation of lymphoid tissue formations located in the nasopharynx.
It is believed that this disease is childish. With age, adenoids decrease, and lymphoid tissue is replaced by connective tissue. This normally occurs by 12-15 years. However, there are cases that this does not happen.
The most effective way to get rid of this disease is surgical intervention - endoscopic adenotomy .
Conservative treatment of adenoiditis consists in local vasoconstrictive therapy, with exacerbation - antibiotic therapy, rinsing of the throat with eucalyptus infusion, washing of the nasopharynx with saline solution.
Conjunctivitis often accompanies allergic rhinitis. It is manifested by the reddening of the eyes( scleritis), lacrimation, or vice versa, due to reduced production of tears, a feeling of itching, reziness, edema of the eyelids, photophobia.
The treatment is aimed at arresting the allergic reaction, i.e.:
Aggravation is treated with antihistamines, local vasoconstrictive sprays to relieve edema, eye drops, systemic corticosteroids( in the form of injections).
It is necessary to eliminate allergen. Define the stabilizers of mast cells.
Particularly severe manifestations of allergic rhinitis and concomitant diseases are treated in a hospital. Assign means to reduce the concentration of allergen in the blood - solutions Reosorbylact , Reopoliglyuki and drip intravenously.
Sometimes hemosorption and plasmapheresis is used - purification of blood by the hardware method.
In seasonal allergic rhinitis, prevention of disease is important. The patient must be prepared for seasonal exacerbation by taking special medications.
During pregnancy, the symptoms of hay fever may worsen. On the child this disease is not reflected in any way, however in the pregnant woman development of complications - a sinusitis or a bronchial asthma is possible.
All preparations for treatment of an exacerbation of an allergic rhinitis during an interesting position should be appointed or nominated only by the doctor!
The implementation of general recommendations will also alleviate the condition:
The main group of drugs used to treat the disease - antihistamines .Appointed drugs 2 and 3 generations that do not have a pronounced sedative effect on the body, are prolonged and effective in removing symptoms: Cetin , Zodak , Erius .
Glucocorticosteroids intranasal will be applied strictly according to the doctor's prescription:
From folk remedies for ailment only washings with saline and inhalation with alkaline mineral water or boiled potato steam are available.
Folk treatment, based on the use of herbs, is contraindicated, as it can aggravate the condition of the patient.
Inhalation for allergic rhinitis is well performed with the nebulizer , which is the most effective.
Any inhalation agent used in mixed with warm saline solution.
1. The main advice for allergic rhinitis is not to self-medicate, but in time to consult a specialist doctor, follow all of its recommendations and observe the dosage of medicines and the duration of their use.
2. Eliminate all possible contacts with allergens
3. Often spend wet cleaning in a dwelling, air it
4. Observe a hypoallergenic diet, especially during the exacerbation of
Ekaterina : From the nose, I have been flowing since May. I already know that I have pollinosis. I save only Prevalin.
Dmitry : I'm helped by the usual Loratadin. I see no reason to overpay. I changed my job, because the previous one was very dusty and smoky, I immediately felt relieved.
Marianna : First of all, you have to go to a good allergist. I'm allergic to house dust. They appointed me Nastoyka, it helps me very well.
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