Forms and symptoms of allergic rhinitis in adults. Treatment of an allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion in the home

This article contains information about allergic rhinitis, its types and methods of treatment.

Contents

  • Which doctor will diagnose allergic rhinitis, pollinosis?
  • Forms and symptoms of allergic rhinitis
  • Treatment of vasomotor, persistent, chronic allergic rhinitis
  • Treatment of drug allergic rhinitis
  • Treatment of infectious allergic rhinitis with
  • temperature How to cure allergic rhinitis complicated by dermatitis?
  • How to cure allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma?
  • How to cure allergic rhinitis and adenoids?
  • How to cure allergic rhinitis with conjunctivitis?
  • How to treat a severe exacerbation of allergic rhinitis in the acute period?
  • Seasonal allergic rhinitis - pollinosis: treatment
  • Allergic rhinitis in pregnancy: treatment
  • Allergic rhinitis: medicinal antihistamines - tablets, drops and others
  • Allergic rhinitis: treatment and prevention of folk remedies
  • Inhalation for allergic rhinitis
  • Allergic rhinitis: tips and reviews
  • Video: allergic rhinitis and its treatment

Allergic rhinitis( common cold) is also known as hay fever. This inflammation of the mucous membrane, which occurs under the influence of various allergens.

Which doctor will diagnose allergic rhinitis, pollinosis?

Allergic agents get on the nose of a person sensitive to them and there is a response in the form of rhinorrhea( clear mucus discharge from the nose flows), itching in the nose, paroxysmal sneezing, mucosal edema and as a result of difficult nasal breathing, sometimes conjunctivitis.

To diagnose chronic allergic rhinitis or pollinosis( seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis), an ENT doctor and an allergist-immunologist can.

If you suffer from a persistent runny nose and stuffiness in the nose, you should first contact the otolaryngologist to exclude upper respiratory infections. With a preliminary diagnosis, which will put the ENT, you need to go to an allergist.

This specialist will conduct a comprehensive examination based on which the final diagnosis will be made:

  • medical history
  • physical examination( rinsoscopy)
  • laboratory diagnostics( skin test, radioallergosorbent test, cytological examination of nasal swabs)

These basic methods allow differential diagnosis of allergic and non-allergicallergic rhinitis, identify the main allergens and prescribe a treatment for the patient.

The most common allergens are:

  • pollen of some plants
  • insects
  • pincers whose habitat is house dust
  • mold
  • yeast fungi
  • individually intolerable food
  • book dust
  • wool and animal dander
  • medicinal substances

Heredity plays a big role.

The forms and symptoms of allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is classified:

  • is acute episodic, resulting in short-term exposure to inhaled allergens
  • seasonal, which occurs as a reaction to the flowering of some plants acting as strong allergens
  • persistent, symptoms that are noted for more than 2 hours dailyor at least 9 months of the year( most often due to household allergens)

Depending on the causes of the disease, you can identify severalTypes of allergic rhinitis that determine its symptoms:

  • drug rhinitis - on the background of getting used to vasoconstricting drops and sprays, usually manifested by a strong prolonged edema and a disruption of nasal breathing
  • vasomotor - on the background of direct contact with the nasal mucosa of allergens there is an acute attack, which is manifested by sharp edema, uncontrolled sneezing, abundant serous discharge from the nose
  • is infectious-allergic - with intense allergostatitis occurs during the season of colds with a virus attack

Regardless of the form of this ailment, its symptomThe omatic is characteristic.

In addition to the swelling of the nasal mucosa, rhinorrhea, possibly conjunctivitis, the patient has a specific appearance - a puffy face, eyelid edema, maceration of the skin around the wings of the nose. The disease brings tangible suffering and discomfort to the patient.

Treatment of vasomotor, persistent, chronic allergic rhinitis

First of all, it is necessary to ensure maximum restriction of contact with an allergic agent.

The basic principles of treatment of allergic rhinitis - the appointment of antihistamines, local vasoconstrictive, steroidal drugs that have a powerful anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effect.

Symptoms of persistent( chronic) rhinitis are much less pronounced than in pollinosis( seasonal fever). During the exacerbation, systemic antihistamines are prescribed.

  • With , is easy to use for the treatment of nasal sprays based on sodium cromoglycate( Kromoglin, Kromogeksal ), or preparations forming a protective film on the mucosa, made on the basis of cellulose( NAZAWAL ). These products are allowed to be used for a long time, inthis is their advantage, however they provide more preventive effect.
  • Drugs of choice for severe allergic rhinitis - intranasal corticosteroid .Release of these drugs - in the form of sprays, with the correct dosage, this makes it possible to avoid the systemic action of
  • . During the period of remission of to a patient with persistent allergic rhinitis, the allergist can offer allergen-specific therapy to , the essence of which is the introduction( in injections) of increasing doses of allergens fordevelopment of resistance to them. This therapy is carried out by a specialist permanently

Treatment of drug allergic rhinitis

Uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictive local remedies is addictive and as a consequence, the vessels of the nasal cavity lose the ability to narrow themselves, which causes constantly shortness of breath. Subsequently, atrophy of the mucosa and permanent edema develop.

This kind of rhinitis can develop after a couple of weeks of uncontrolled use of local vasoconstrictors.

Pharmacological preparations for treatment:

  • glucocorticosteroids
  • antihistamines
  • procedures: washing the nasal cavity( saline solution or special preparations, for example, Aquamaris)
  • ointment filling

Folk remedies:

  • washing with sea salt solution
  • treatment of tea tree mucosa
  • applications
  • instillationmixtures of oils, aloe juice

Physiotherapy is applied:

  • electrophoresis
  • UHF
  • phonophoresis
  • acupuncture

If effThere is no conservative treatment, the doctor can recommend surgical intervention.

Treatment of infectious - allergic rhinitis with

temperature Treatment is always prescribed by a doctor.

The combination of allergic and infectious factors of the disease requires a combination treatment, which should be aimed at eliminating the infectious agent and removing symptoms.

Apply anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antihistamines. Local - vasoconstrictor sprays.

How to cure allergic rhinitis complicated by dermatitis?

If allergic rhinitis is complicated by dermatitis, dermatologist consultation is necessary.

Treatment should be comprehensive. It is necessary to eliminate the provoking factors. The patient is treated with antihistamine, detoxification, glucocorticosteroid, immunotropic therapy.

Use external means in the form of ointments, pastes, creams, aerosols, lotions. Apply physiotherapy procedures.

It should be remembered that self-medication can cause an aggravation of the disease pattern and extremely negative consequences. Treatment should appoint only a specialist.

How to cure allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma?

These two diseases are interrelated. For an attack of asthma, suffocation, coughing with very viscous sputum, wheezing are characteristic.

Prophylaxis and timely treatment of allergic rhinitis can prevent the development of this formidable disease - bronchial asthma.

A patient with bronchial asthma should always have a special inhaler.

Principles of treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are the same:

  • eliminate allergens
  • antiallergic( antihistamines) preparations
  • preparations for bronchospasm removal,
  • glucocorticosteroids
  • ASIT( allergen-specific immunotherapy)

How to cure allergic rhinitis and adenoids?

Chronic allergic runny nose can provoke adenoiditis - proliferation of lymphoid tissue formations located in the nasopharynx.

It is believed that this disease is childish. With age, adenoids decrease, and lymphoid tissue is replaced by connective tissue. This normally occurs by 12-15 years. However, there are cases that this does not happen.

The most effective way to get rid of this disease is surgical intervention - endoscopic adenotomy .

Conservative treatment of adenoiditis consists in local vasoconstrictive therapy, with exacerbation - antibiotic therapy, rinsing of the throat with eucalyptus infusion, washing of the nasopharynx with saline solution.

How to cure allergic rhinitis with conjunctivitis?

Conjunctivitis often accompanies allergic rhinitis. It is manifested by the reddening of the eyes( scleritis), lacrimation, or vice versa, due to reduced production of tears, a feeling of itching, reziness, edema of the eyelids, photophobia.

The treatment is aimed at arresting the allergic reaction, i.e.:

  • antihistamine systemic remedies
  • antiallergic eye drops
  • mast cell stabilizers( histamine blockers)
  • with severe current - corticosteroids in the form of drops or ointments

How to treat severe exacerbation of allergic rhinitis in acute period?

Aggravation is treated with antihistamines, local vasoconstrictive sprays to relieve edema, eye drops, systemic corticosteroids( in the form of injections).

It is necessary to eliminate allergen. Define the stabilizers of mast cells.

Particularly severe manifestations of allergic rhinitis and concomitant diseases are treated in a hospital. Assign means to reduce the concentration of allergen in the blood - solutions Reosorbylact , Reopoliglyuki and drip intravenously.

Sometimes hemosorption and plasmapheresis is used - purification of blood by the hardware method.

Seasonal allergic rhinitis - pollinosis: treatment with

In seasonal allergic rhinitis, prevention of disease is important. The patient must be prepared for seasonal exacerbation by taking special medications.

  • recommended sprays Kromgeksal or Kromosol - derivatives of sodium cromoglycate
  • drug Nazaval to protect the nasal mucosa from irritants allergens
  • Asit during
  • remission During exacerbation apply the above formulations: Antiallergic to reduce mucus secretion, antiedematousfacilities. Nasal corticosteroid sprays are the most effective means for treating hay fever.

Allergic rhinitis in pregnancy: treatment

During pregnancy, the symptoms of hay fever may worsen. On the child this disease is not reflected in any way, however in the pregnant woman development of complications - a sinusitis or a bronchial asthma is possible.

All preparations for treatment of an exacerbation of an allergic rhinitis during an interesting position should be appointed or nominated only by the doctor!

  • In the first trimester, medications that are usually used to relieve the symptoms of the disease are not prescribed. Contraindicated corticosteroids
  • First of all, it is necessary to protect the future mother from contact with the allergen.
    If the doctor deems it necessary to prescribe antihistamines, then drugs of the third generation( Telfast ) are prescribed, in the smallest doses
  • The drug of choice for women is considered to be sprays Kromogeksal or Kromoglin, and also Nasawal( cellulose powder spray)
  • Vasodilating dropscontraindicated because they can have a negative impact on uteroplacental blood circulation, thereby worsening the supply of oxygen to the baby
  • Of the available remedies for alleviating the symptomsTreatment in a pregnant woman usually recommends doctors washing the nasopharynx with saline solutions prepared independently or purchased at the pharmacy( Saline , Aquamaris ).Inhalations can be used to alleviate the condition: with alkaline mineral water, with boiled potatoes
  • Inhalations with essential oils are contraindicated

The implementation of general recommendations will also alleviate the condition:

  • frequent outdoor walks
  • aeration of housing
  • frequent wet cleaning

Allergic rhinitis: medicinal antihistamines - tablets, drops and others

The main group of drugs used to treat the disease - antihistamines .Appointed drugs 2 and 3 generations that do not have a pronounced sedative effect on the body, are prolonged and effective in removing symptoms: Cetin , Zodak , Erius .

Glucocorticosteroids intranasal will be applied strictly according to the doctor's prescription:

  • Budesonide , Flicosanze , Fascination , Benorin .Contraindicated in children and prescribed with care in the elderly
  • leukotriene antagonists prescribed for severe course: Akolat , Singulair
  • nasal vasoconstrictor drops and sprays to eliminate edema nasopharynx appoint no more than 5 days: Farmazolin , Tizin , Nazel , Vibrocil
  • A separate group of drugs that create a barrier to contact allergic agents with the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx: NAZAWAL ( based on nRosca cellulose), Prevalin ( mixture of oils and emulsifiers)

  • Kromones - preparations based on sodium cromoglycate: Kromosol , Kromogeksal , Kromoglin , they are indicated for the prevention and easy course of the disease
  • Histamine blocker as a nasal spray Allergodil ( Azelastin)
  • Enterosorbents also have their ownplace in the treatment of the disease, since they help to cleanse the body of allergens, all kinds of toxins, toxins: Enterosgel , Polysorb , Polyphepan .The intake of these sorbents is recommended separately from other drugs and only 2 weeks

Allergic rhinitis: treatment and prevention of folk remedies

From folk remedies for ailment only washings with saline and inhalation with alkaline mineral water or boiled potato steam are available.

Folk treatment, based on the use of herbs, is contraindicated, as it can aggravate the condition of the patient.

Inhalation for allergic rhinitis

Inhalation for allergic rhinitis is well performed with the nebulizer , which is the most effective.

Inhalation:

  • with saline solution for purifying and moisturizing nasopharyngeal nasopharyngeal
  • with alkaline mineral waters
  • with saline solution of hypertonic
  • with various anti-inflammatory drugs
  • with kromones( fat cell membranes stabilizers)

Any inhalation agent used in mixed with warm saline solution.

Allergic rhinitis: advice and feedback

1. The main advice for allergic rhinitis is not to self-medicate, but in time to consult a specialist doctor, follow all of its recommendations and observe the dosage of medicines and the duration of their use.
2. Eliminate all possible contacts with allergens
3. Often spend wet cleaning in a dwelling, air it
4. Observe a hypoallergenic diet, especially during the exacerbation of

Ekaterina : From the nose, I have been flowing since May. I already know that I have pollinosis. I save only Prevalin.

Dmitry : I'm helped by the usual Loratadin. I see no reason to overpay. I changed my job, because the previous one was very dusty and smoky, I immediately felt relieved.

Marianna : First of all, you have to go to a good allergist. I'm allergic to house dust. They appointed me Nastoyka, it helps me very well.

Video: allergic rhinitis and its treatment

  • May 13, 2018
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