What types of massage exist - their classification and description

Massage - is the impact on the patient's body with the help of hands, special devices and apparatus, performed by a massage therapist, in order to provide a therapeutic, wellness, relaxation and relaxing effect. Some types of massage for the body have formed as a primary therapeutic direction, and some techniques are aimed at meditation and the study of their sensuality.

  • Sport
  • Healing
  • Relaxing
  • Child
  • Cosmetic
  • Oriental
  • Apparatus
  • Erotic
  • Exotic types of massage

Sports

Designed specifically for athletes, refers to the types of massage for men and women who lead an active lifestyle. His goals:

  • fatigue relief;
  • relaxation and release of the body from stress;
  • rehabilitation after injuries.

Sports massage is included in the complex of training and adjusts athletes for successful participation in competitions. Direction of restoring effect:

  • increased blood supply to the joints;
  • muscle relaxation;
  • skin cleansing from dying cells, activation of capillary circulation;


  • opening of pores for respiration of the epithelium;
  • removal of slags through the sebaceous and sweat glands;
  • restoration of vascular activity.

After the massage, the ability of all parts of the body for normal functioning is updated, the rested and restored muscles are ready for a new job.

Indication: changes in the muscular system due to stress, injury risk, rehabilitation after injury.

Contraindications: disease, inflammation, pregnancy.

The techniques of sports massage can both excite the nervous system and soothe it. Often they consist of:

  • Strokes. Rhythmic stroking movements of the hands can be carried out, either at a fast or slow pace. Feature: one hand copies the movement of the second. A slow pace leads to relaxation.
  • Compressive movements. They are produced by pressing the palm and thumb.
  • Rubbing is a vigorous action, it is necessary to disperse stagnant phenomena and further their withdrawal through the lymph nodes.
  • The effects on the body are related to the resistance of the massaged. It is made for kneading muscles.
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Therapeutic

The function of therapeutic massage is the restoration of the organism after the transferred diseases. The technique of a wellness massage depends on what kind of ailment rehabilitation takes place.

Massive movements can be carried out, both on the whole body, and on its separate parts. Movements are performed along the direction of the lymph current and allow it to be stimulated.

During the therapeutic massage procedure, ointments, special preparations can be used. The number of sessions is appointed by the doctor, it is important to follow the course of treatment precisely. The main massage techniques: kneading, rubbing, hand movements in the direction of the lymph flow. The peculiarity of massage is that similar movements can last for 30-60 minutes.

Diseases that require restorative massage procedures:


  • radiculitis;
  • arthritis;
  • bronchitis;
  • diseases of the stomach and intestines;
  • nerve diseases;
  • cardiovascular;
  • disorders in the musculoskeletal system.
  • intense physical activity and recovery after fractures.

Massage is not intended to treat diseases, but to recover from a cure. Therefore, the main contraindication is the disease in its active phase, both physical ailment and mental illness, as well as any kinds of intoxication, pregnancy.

Species:

  • The classic is a complex of methods for influencing body tissues based on the principle of deepening penetration into layers of tissues. Types of European classical massage: Russian, Finnish and Swedish. Russian massage is performed in the form of movements along the course of the lymph flow, during the movements strokes and tweaks are used. Finnish refers to the types of back massage, designed to relieve pain. Swedish - a sub-type of classical massage with an accentuated effect on the joints.
  • Reflective .It affects the zones with the aim of triggering nervous reflexes, which have a certain effect on the nervous system.
  • Pointed .Activation of body points, each of which has a certain effect on the body.
  • Connective tissue massage .Its purpose is to cause reflexes in the connective tissue to trigger regeneration processes.
  • Visceral - a massage of the abdomen. It is indicated for triggering intestinal peristalsis, removing slags, activating the work of the gastrointestinal tract, improving blood circulation and lymph flow in the visceral region.
  • Manual therapy for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system is one of the types of massage of the spine.
  • Instrumental - massage with special massagers and accessories.
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Relaxing

Massage affects mainly the back, which has a lot of points and nerve endings, when activated, the state of rest and relaxation spreads through the body. The process is carried out with the use of special aromatic oils, accompanied by unobtrusive music, promoting the activation of alpha waves( waves that arise in the brain during sleep).

The patient needs to show confidence in the process, release all unnecessary thoughts, then his feelings will be deeper, a minimum of resistance will allow the masseur to get in touch with the patient. The meditative and emotional component makes a relaxing massage one of the favorite types of massage for women.

The main purposes of massage:

  • fatigue relief;
  • immersing in deep relaxation;
  • calming the nervous system.

Indications: stress, fatigue, chronic tension of individual body parts.

Contraindications: oncology, skin lesions, blood, inflammatory and purulent processes, infections, thrombosis.

The practice of relaxing massage is connected, both with the movements of the hands, and with the skill of the masseur to get in touch with the patient, to carry out special movements intuitively.
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Techniques:

  • Stroking - wide movements of the palm and its rib for the purpose of primary softening of the epithelium, designed to prepare the skin for deeper effects.
  • Rubbing is done to warm up deeper layers of the skin, it is performed with the help of hand movements in the form of a zigzag.
  • The kneading of individual points is done on the heated skin. Ways of kneading: knuckles fingers, thumbs, by pressing the right hand on the left, elbow. Muds can be both pointlike and rhythmic up the spine. This technique is carried out with the purpose of activating the blood flow in the spinal column.
  • Vibratory pressing is performed with the help of rhythmical point influences of the index and middle finger with both hands.

Species:

  • Standard back massage with oil;
  • Full body massage.
  • Foot massage.
  • Neck and shoulder massage.
  • Head and face massage.
  • Deep massage - a longer session, able to enter into a deep trance state and start the process of self-healing of the body.
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Children's

Children's massage can be prescribed to the child from the first 3 months after birth, the equipment is selected depending on age and problematics.

Children's massage is indicated for the treatment of hypertonia and hypotension of muscles, increased nervousness, scoliosis, curvature of legs, infantile cerebral palsy, clubfoot, prematurity.

Contraindications: vaccinations, crying before the procedure, disease.

Types:

  • Therapeutic .It is intended for the treatment of pathologies of development.
  • Correction .It is prescribed after a course of treatment.
  • Preventative .Used to avoid developmental abnormalities.

Techniques:

  • Stroking - soothing movements towards the lymphatic drain.
  • Rubbing - intensive actions are performed by phalanxes of fingers.
  • Mutations - circular movements, aimed at the muscles.
  • Vibration - vibrations of individual areas of the body to relieve spasms, performed by two index fingers at the same time.
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Cosmetic

Cosmetic massage is done for the face and body. Its functions are - improving the quality of the skin, fighting skin diseases, stopping the aging of the epithelium. During the session, special agents( ointments, oils, cosmetic products) are used.

Indications for facial massage : skin diseases, excessive fat content of the epithelial cover, aging, chronic tension of the facial muscles, dark circles around the eyes, flaccidity of the contour of the face.

Contraindications : allergic reactions to oils used for massage, increased intracranial pressure, viral infections and inflammatory processes in the body.

Types:

  • Classic .Produced using a cream or oil, is the stroking and rubbing movements of the fingers.
  • Myostimulating .Movement on dry skin is carried out with force and pressure. It helps to get rid of excessive fat content of the skin, improve the muscle tone of the face.
  • Plucked in Jacquet .His technique is to tear the skin through massage lines.
  • Sculpting .This is a kind of manual massage, associated with a deep impact on all layers of the skin with the help of several types of massaging movements - pressing, stroking, tweaking.
  • Lymphatic drainage .This type of massage triggers the right movement of lymph in the facial area. Helps rejuvenate the face. It is done both manually and with the help of a special device.
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East

Countries of the East are rich in massage techniques.

Eastern methods are based not only on knowledge of the physical structure of the organism, but also on the ideas about its energy field. Many types of massage affect the person at the physical and energy level.

Indications for use: nerve disorders, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, stress. Oriental massages will help achieve a state of deep meditation, which will allow us to start recovery processes in the energy and physical body.

Almost for each subspecies of oriental massage, contraindication can be - skin diseases, inflammatory processes, infections. If the purpose of the massage is treatment, then it is necessary to discuss the existing diseases with the master and find out what pathological processes of the body can cure the massage. If the purpose of massage is relaxation, the presence of diseases is a contraindication.

Species:

  • Spot( Acupressure) .Based on the idea of ​​the presence of channels-meridians, through which the Qi energy flows, in the basic state these channels are clean and supply the human body with energy, its organs receive sufficient nutrition. According to Chinese philosophy, if these channels become clogged, then energy ceases to flow into the physical body and a problem arises. Point massage is designed by stimulating certain points to unlock the clogged channel and restore the correct energy flow along the meridian. Types of acupressure: acupuncture and stimulation of points with fingers. The very location of the points is the same, however, for the procedure of acupuncture it is necessary to have a very fine command of the technique and have the appropriate instrument. To implement acupressure, it is enough to know the location of the points and learn how to correctly press on them with your thumbs.
  • Thai .The massage is based on Ayurveda and Chinese medicine. It is not intended for relaxation, but for treatment. It consists of a complex of movements of hands and feet from the position, both standing and sitting, the masseur can occupy a certain position, being in contact with the client. Pressing can occur with the hand, foot, elbow. With the hands of a massage therapist can probe the body, examining it and finding a pain point, which he then seeks to massage. Relaxation and therapeutic effect is due to the removal of clamps of internal muscles.
  • Gouache is one of the types of Chinese massage. It is carried out using scrapers - these are plates of various sizes from stones and bones of animals. Massage is carried out using oil, the technique allows you to adjust the depth of pressure.
  • The canned is another kind of Chinese massage. In can massage, the original technique is used. Special banks are located at certain points along the energy of the meridians, previously the skin is lubricated with ointment or oil. After installation, the masseur performs a soft slide of the cans, this procedure has a relaxing effect and harmonizes the energy of the meridians.
  • Qigong .This is a very delicate form of Chinese massage, it is aimed at healing not only the body, but also the energy field. The masseur does not need to know any learned movements, he must feel the human body and know about where the meridians pass. The masseur tests how the energy passes through the meridians. With the help of special movements, he carries out the harmonization of the body, intuitively feeling where to make a touch. Movements correspond to the elements. Strong pressing - earth, point - metal, grinding - fire, stroking - water, contactless touch - air, tingle - wood.
  • Amma is a Japanese massage of meridians. Produced from sitting position. The master determines which parts correspond to the energy of Yang, and which are the Yin energies. Then he covers the parts of Yin with a pillow and stimulates the Yan zones. It is believed that such a procedure harmonizes the energies of Yin and Yang in the body.
  • Shiatsu is a kind of Japanese massage, which is performed by pressing on biologically active points of the body, which are chosen intuitively. Pressing is done, with both fingers and the base of the palm. It can be short in a few seconds and a long one - 1-3 minutes.
  • Ayurvedic .It is a lubrication of the human body with essential oils for the purpose of relaxing along certain lines. Various oils can be used, each of which brings the effect described in Ayurveda. Massage can be as short or as long as 3 hours, which leads to deep relaxation.
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Hardware

Hardware hygienic procedures are manufactured using various technical aids. Its advantages: a more intensive production of collagen, a stronger vibration of the muscles and their relaxation.

Indications for the massage : cellulite, nerve diseases, overweight, sciatica.

Contraindications : diseases of the cardiovascular system, pressure problems, pregnancy, infections, inflammatory processes, diseases of the blood and lymph.

Species:

  • Vibromassage .It is carried out with the help of the device vibrato. It is indicated for the restoration of lymph flow, kneading muscles.
  • Hydromassage .It has several subspecies: underwater massage, Charcot's shower, circular. They are all types of massage for weight loss and give an anti-cellulite effect. Massage with the help of directed water jets in special baths, for example, jacuzzi and swimming pools, helps to calm the nervous system, is used for varicose veins, it can treat the spine and relieve chronic fatigue.
  • Ultrasound .Produced by special equipment. Relieves spasms, pain and inflammation.
  • Vacuum .This is a kind of anti-cellulite massage. The impact is carried out by means of a special apparatus, the suckers of which attach to the body and pump the air over certain areas, and then start it again. Promotes the healing of the nervous system.
  • Can. It is produced by sliding the cans on an oiled body in the direction of the lymph flow. Types of can massage: Chinese and Russian. Their procedure is similar. The only difference is that the Chinese massage takes into account the meridian lines, and the Russian - only the direction of the movement of the lymph.
  • Pressure chamber .The massage is performed inside the pressure chamber by means of an artificial change of atmospheric pressure.
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Erotic

Erotic massage is received to experience sexual pleasure, satisfaction and to study its sensuality. The session requires an appropriate atmosphere, which causes complete relaxation and pleasant music.

The techniques of erotic massage are different, this is the field for experiments. Its peculiarity is that it starts with a full body massage. The masseur passes pleasant stroking movements on a back, legs, buttocks. Massed can be, as in a position lying on a back, and on a stomach.

Gradually, as you stroke, the massage therapist affects the erogenous zones. In men - buttocks, testicles, penis. Women start with light touches of erogenous zones, then random tingle can occur, clitoral stimulation begins with rare touches. The essence of erotic massage in the gradual increase of pleasure, due to the fact that the touch flows from very light to more intense and smoothly pass into the targeted stimulation of one or two erogenous zones simultaneously, which leads the patient to an imminent orgasm. However, in the process of erotic massage is important not so much the orgasm itself, as the whole process.

Erotic massage can be used, both for pleasure and for therapeutic purposes - vaginismus, anorgasmia in women, erectile dysfunction in men. Difficulties of arousal are sometimes associated with mental stress arising from a relationship with a partner, massage promotes mental relaxation and helps focus on sensations, rather than emotions related to relationships. This helps a person learn to distinguish their sensuality as an independent process.

Massage is contraindicated in any infectious and venereal diseases, with inflammatory purulent processes, irregular structure of the uterus, during pregnancy.

Kinds:

  • Classic massage with stimulation of erogenous zones by massage techniques;
  • Thai body massage , which the girl spends with her body;
  • Aqua-foam , carried out in the bathroom or in a Turkish steam room using a gel or soap foam.
  • Tantric massage is a massage line that has emerged on the basis of Osho Tantra practices. The practice of tantra leads to the achievement of inner harmony between feelings and sensations in the process of intimacy with the partner. Tantric meditative massage is performed by a massage therapist, which helps the patient enter into a state of contact, trust and meditation.
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Exotic types of massage

  • Massage with singing bowls .Kind of massage, native to Tibet. It is based on the principle of the energy vibrational effect of singing bowls, harmonizing the energy field. It is a non-contact type. His technique is to hold a singing bowl over the body of a man. The massage develops synaesthesia - the ability to perceive sound and sensation at the same time.
  • Philippine massage with cockleshells causes pleasant sensations, to remove fatigue and stress.
  • Massage with volcanic stones .Very useful for the spine, also has a relaxing effect. Stones during the massage are usually heated.
  • Massage with snails is done in Japan. Its therapeutic effect is associated with the beneficial properties of mucus secreted by cochlea, the effect of this mucus on the skin of the face is valuable.
  • Massage with snakes .This practice is used to treat the nervous system. It allows you to get rid of fear and depression. In its course, non-venomous snakes are used, which crawl along the client's body.
  • Jun 04, 2018
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