The development of a depressive state occurs when the level of one of the mediators or the biogenic amine is reduced in the brain: norepinephrine, dopamine or serotonin. Antidepressants can help to cope with this condition. They have a corrective and regulatory effect on the biochemical processes of the brain by changing the concentration of one or another neurotransmitter. Currently, the pharmacy chain sells antidepressants without prescriptions, which will help eliminate depression, remove anxiety, improve mood, normalize sleep. The names of over-the-counter drugs are in the article.
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors( SSRIs)
- Paroxetine( Paxil, Adepress, Reksetin)
- fluvoxamine( Luvox)
- Citalopram( Tseleksa, Cipramil)
- Escitalopram( Elitseya, Lenuksin, Tsipraleks)
- tricyclic( TCA)
- Clomipramine( Anafranil)
- Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors( MAOI)
- Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic( NASSA)
- Mianserin( Lerivon)
- Remeron( Mirtazapin, Mirtalan, Kaliksta)
- Serotonin and Nora Reuptake Inhibitorsdrenalina
- Velaksin( Venlaksor, venlafaxine)
- Cymbalta( duloxetine)
- vegetable origin
- Despres( Life 600, Hypericum, gelarium Hypericum)
- Novo passes
- Tryptophan( Timogen)
- For children and adolescents
- When pregnant and breastfeeding
is dangerous Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors( SSRIs)
Antidepressantsants of the last generation have a similar mechanism of action: they selectively block the reuptake of serotonin, without affecting the capture of dopamine and norepinephrine, and do not affect the histaminergic and cholinergic system. Preparations of this group are indicated for the treatment of depressions of various origins, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorders( phobias).
Antidepressants of the SSRI group have minimally significant side effects and in some cases can be dispensed without a prescription.
The most popular selective inhibitors are:to table of contents ^
Paroxetine( Paxil, Adress, Rexetin)
Produced in tablets;active ingredient is paroxetine hydrochloride.
Tablets take 1 time a day in the morning during breakfast. With depressive states, the recommended dose is 20 milligrams. If necessary, the dose is gradually increased to 50 milligrams per day. For the elderly, the daily dose should not be above 30-40 milligrams.
Side effects: convulsions, mania, anxiety, confusion, visual impairment, sexual function( including ejaculatory disorders and impotence), rhinitis, increased sweating, etc.
Produced in tablets;active substance - fluvoxamine maleate.
At the beginning of therapy, the daily dose is 50-100 milligrams, with insufficient efficiency it can be increased to 150-200 milligrams. The maximum daily dose for an adult is 300 milligrams. In elderly patients, the dose should be increased more slowly and with caution. The course of therapy is 6 months.
Side effects: drowsiness, headache, fear, anxiety, dizziness, allergic reaction, weight change.
Citalopram( Cilexa, Cipramil)
Produced in tablets;the active substance is citalopram.
The medicine is indicated for oral administration once a day. Tablets can be drunk at any time of the day( without chewing), regardless of food, but preferably at the same time. Treatment of depression begins with the reception of 20 milligrams per day. Depending on the individual reaction of the patient and the severity of the disease, the dose can be increased to a maximum of 40 milligrams per day. The recommended daily dose for the elderly is 10-20 milligrams. The course of treatment - at least 6 months.
Adverse events: with abrupt cancellation - sleep disturbances, paresthesia, nausea, asthenia, nervousness. Also can be observed: abdominal pain, flatulence, gastrointestinal bleeding, increased palpitation, ringing in the ears, etc.
Escitalopram( Elicia, Lenuksin, Cipralex)
Produced in tablets;active ingredient is escitalopram.
Depending on the health status, the maximum daily dose is - 20 milligrams. When discontinuing therapy, the dose should be reduced gradually over a period of 1-2 weeks in order to avoid withdrawal syndrome. For patients older than 65 years, the dose of the drug should not exceed 5-10 milligrams.
Side effects: panic attack, loss of appetite, hallucinations, anxiety, dryness of oral mucosa, urinary retention, myalgia, etc.
Drugs interfere with the re-acquisition of the neurotransmitter( norepinephrine) in the presynaptic nerve cell, thereby increasing its free concentration. They have a powerful antidepressant effect: some drugs in this group have a stimulating effect, others have a sedative effect.
Tricyclic drugs act faster than other groups - in some cases, positive mood changes can be observed several days after the start of treatment. However, TCAs cause a number of undesirable side effects and therefore many are dispensed by prescription.to table of contents ^
Produced in tablets;The active ingredient is clomipramine hydrochloride.
It is used to treat depressive conditions of various origins, depressive syndromes in personality disorders and schizophrenia, long-term pains, chronic somatic diseases, neurotic, reactive and psychopathic disorders.
The drug is administered to adults - 25-50 milligrams 2-3 times a day;children depending on their age - 25-50 milligrams per day.
Side effects: nightmares, convulsions, glaucoma, sinus tachycardia, cardiac conduction disorder, diarrhea, nausea, increased appetite, etc.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors( MAOI)
An enzyme called monoamine oxidase can reduce the amount of serotonin and norepinephrine between the presynaptic and nerve cells and neurons in the synaptic cleft. MAOI blocks its action, thereby increasing the concentration of neurotransmitters.
Drugs of this group have a large number of side effects, and they are not recommended to be bought without a doctor's prescription, even if it is possible.
These antidepressants include Tranylcipromine( Parnate), Pyrazidol, Fenelzin( Nardil), Moclobemide( Mannerix), Isocarboxazide( Marplan).to table of contents ^
Noradrenergic and special serotonergic( NASSA)
Modern antidepressants are well tolerated and help to get out of depression, depressed state, cope with anxiety. They have fewer side effects than previous generations. NASSA reduces the absorption of norepinephrine with a presynaptic nerve cell, which increases its concentration in a free form.to table of contents ^
Produced in tablets;active substance - mianserin hydrochloride.
It is indicated for the treatment of depression of various origins.
Dosage is determined individually. The recommended initial dose is 30 milligrams per day, the maximum is 60-90 milligrams per day.
Side effects: weight gain, seizures, jaundice, arthralgia, etc.
Remeron( Mirtazapin, Mirtalan, Kaliksta)
Produced in tablets;the active substance is mirtazapine.
Relieves of depressive conditions, improves mood, increases stress resistance, eliminates feelings of anxiety, fear, etc.
Tablets should be taken orally, washed down with water and swallowed without chewing. For adults, the daily dose is from 15 to 45 milligrams;the initial dose is 15-30 milligrams. Elderly, the dose is the same, but always under the supervision of a doctor. Remeron should be taken 1 time per day at the same time, before bedtime. The duration of treatment is 4-6 months.
Side effects: drowsiness, dry mouth, rarely - diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, increased appetite, fatigue, arterial hypotension, weight gain, confusion.
Inhibitors of reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine
The mechanism of action of drugs is to stop or inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline, resulting in increased neurotransmitter activity in the central nervous system.to table of contents ^
Velaxin( Venlaksor, Venlafaxine)
Produced in tablets, capsules;the active ingredient is venlafaxine.
It is prescribed for depression of various etiology, generalized and social anxiety disorders.
Tablets should be drunk with food, washed down with water. They can not be chewed, crumbled or dissolved. With depression, the initial daily dose is 75 milligrams, the maximum - 225 milligrams.
Side effects: chills, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain, etc.
Produced in tablets;active ingredient is duloxetine.
It is prescribed for the treatment of painful forms of diabetic neuropathy, depression, generalized type anxiety disorders, chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome.
The recommended initial dose is 60 milligrams per day, the maximum is 120 milligrams per day.
Side effects: development of hypothyroidism, laryngitis, dehydration, dry mouth, headache, etc.
Vegetable originto contents ^
Produced in tablets, powder;The active ingredient is glycine microencapsulated.
Improves the metabolism of the brain and is used for psychoemotional stress, organic and functional diseases of the nervous system, which are accompanied by increased excitability, emotional instability, neuroses, depressive states, sleep disturbance, and decreased mental performance.
In case of depression, Glycine is prescribed to adults and children over 3 years of age for 1 tablet 2-3 times a day for 7-14 days;children under 3 years - 0.5 tablets 2-3 times a day for 7-14 days. If necessary, the course of treatment can be repeated 4-6 times.
Side effects: allergic reactions are possible.
Decim( Life 600, St. John's wort, Helarium Hypericum)
Produced in tablets, capsules;active substance - St. John's wort extract.
Shown with reduced mood, mild to moderate depressive conditions accompanied by anxiety.
Adults and children over 12 years of age are prescribed 1 tablet three times a day( preferably at the same time);if necessary, the dose can be increased to 2 tablets( in 2 divided doses).Children from 6 to 12 years - under the supervision of a doctor for 1-2 tablets in the morning and afternoon.
Side effects: a feeling of fatigue, nausea, constipation, restlessness, skin itch, hyperemia of the skin, in people with increased sensitivity to sunlight, simultaneous medication and sunbathing can trigger burns.
Available in capsules;active substances - amino acids( L-Tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-Glutamine), vitamin B6 and St. John's wort extract.
Antidepressant improves mood, effectively fights against depressive conditions;Relieves of sensations of anxiety, melancholy, apathy;It suppresses the motivation for self-blame and self-destruction, thoughts of suicide;normalizes sleep, etc.
Take an adult 1 capsule daily during meals. The course of treatment is 1 month.
Side effects: an allergic reaction.
Produced in tablets, solution;active substances - extracts of dried herbs( St. John's wort, lemon balm, valerian, hawthorn, etc.).
It is prescribed for neurotic reactions and neurasthenia, accompanied by anxiety, irritability, fatigue, fear, distraction. It is shown in the syndrome of the manager( a state of constant mental stress);insomnia;headaches caused by nervous tension;functional gastrointestinal tract diseases( irritable bowel syndrome, dyspeptic syndrome);migraine;itching dermatoses( eczema, urticaria), caused by psychological stress.
Take in children over 12 years and adults 1 tablet three times a day. If necessary, the dose can be increased to 2 tablets 3 times a day. The interval between doses should be 4-6 hours. In case of nausea, the tablets should be drunk during meals.
Side effects: spasms, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, heartburn, drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, muscle weakness, allergic reaction.
Produced in tablets;active substances - extracts of herbs( valerian, lemon balm, peppermint).
Assign with increased nervous excitability, irritability, depressive states, insomnia.
Phytomedication should be taken orally, washed down with water, regardless of eating. Adults and children after 12 years with depression, nervous irritability and irritability take 2-3 tablets 2-3 times a day. The maximum daily dose is 12 tablets. Persen is not recommended for continuous use for more than 1.5-2 months.
Adverse events: peripheral edema, skin rash, allergic dermatitis, hyperemia, bronchospasm, constipation( with prolonged use).
Produced in tablets;the active ingredient is the amino acid L-tryptophan.
The main component of the drug is involved in the synthesis of melatonin and serotonin, as well as hormones that regulate the general mood and biological rhythms. With its application, resistance to depressions and stresses increases, and the permanent fatigue syndrome is removed.the drug is prescribed for depression of various origin, seasonal functional disorders, mood swings, obsessive-compulsive disorder, aggressiveness, increased irritability, anxiety, sleep disorders, alcohol dependence, chronic fatigue syndrome.
When depressed, prescribe 1-3 grams of medication before bedtime. The duration of the course is no more than 1 month.
Side effects: rarely - dry mouth, decreased appetite, drowsiness.
Successfully used to treat depressive conditions, especially mild and moderate severity. The drugs have sedative, psychostimulating, antidepressant, anti-asthenic, antiepileptic, and adoptogenic action.to contents ^
Produced in tablets;active substance - antibodies to the brain-specific protein purified.
Has an anti-anxiety, calming effect, without inducing a negative muscle relaxant and hypnogenic effect, improves the tolerance of psychoemotional loads. Has nootropic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antihypoxic effect.
When depression is prescribed inside during meals 1-2 tablets( keep in your mouth until completely dissolved) 2 times a day.
Side effects: not identified.
Produced in tablets;active ingredient is phenotropil.
It is prescribed for depression of moderate and mild severity, adaptation disorder, neurasthenia, convulsive state, psycho-organic syndrome( vyaloapaticheskoe state, intellectual-mnesticheskie violations, etc.), diseases of the central nervous system of various origins.
Take after meals, the average daily dose is 200-300 milligrams, distributed to 2 doses;the maximum is 750 milligrams. The duration of therapy, depending on the patient's condition, can range from 2 weeks to 3 months. It is advisable to take phenteropine before 15.00.
Side effects: rarely - headache, insomnia, increased blood pressure, allergic reaction.
In the treatment of mild degrees of depression, it is recommended to use homeopathic antidepressants that are dispensed without a doctor's prescription.to contents ^
Produced in tablets;active ingredients - Cypripedium pubescens D4 15 mg, Magnesium carbonicum D10 20 mg, Zincum valerianicum D12 15 mg.
It is prescribed for children under 6 years old for normalization of sleep and wakefulness, elimination of insomnia, irritability, tearfulness, anxiety, increased excitability.
Children under the age of 6 take 1 tablet 4 times a day. Dilute tablets should be drunk 30 minutes before meals or 1 hour after. The course of treatment is 3-4 weeks. When treating infants, tablets should be ground and dissolved in a small amount of warm water.
Side effects: not revealed:
Produced in tablets;active substances - phosphoric acid, potassium bromide, bitter ignition, etc.
Has a sedative and anticonvulsant effect, normalizes sleep, improves mood, reduces irritability, eliminates apathic state. Substances that are part of the drug, do not cause addiction, loss of attention and concentration and do not affect the reaction rate, so the drug can be used in children from the age of three.
For adults, Nervocel is prescribed 1 tablet three times a day for 30 minutes before meals or 1 hour after. The duration of the course of therapy is 2-3 weeks.
Side effects: an allergic reaction.
For children and adolescents
Babies under 3 years old are recommended to use homeopathic( Dormikind) or herbal( Glycine) preparations as a sedative.
From 3 to 6 years, the list of antidepressants for children is slightly increased, allowed Tenoten child, Nervohel;from 6 to 12 years - Amitriptyline( Elavil), Deprim, Trittico, etc.; from 12 to 18 years - Persen, Nervochel, Clomipramine, etc.
However, before giving the child any of the listed drugs, you need to consult a pediatric neurologist.to the table of contents ^
During pregnancy and breastfeeding
Despite the lack of information about the harmful effects of the drug, taking Deprim, Novo-Passit, Remeron, Fevarin, Tenoten during pregnancy is possible only if the expected benefit for the mother exceeds the potential risk to the fetus. During lactation it is recommended to stop using any antidepressant so as not to harm the baby.
is dangerousAssessing the harm from the use of antidepressants, the doctor identifies 2 key problems:
- Toxic liver damage. Especially dangerous drugs tricyclic group, their long use contributes to the development of toxic drug hepatitis.
- Addiction to a drug with a subsequent withdrawal syndrome. When a person suffering from chronic depression and stress, took antidepressants for a long time and then stopped, then such a sharp refusal can provoke the development of a pronounced depressive state, often with attempts at suicide. This condition is caused by an acute shortage of serotonin, a level previously artificially maintained by the drug. Avoid withdrawal syndrome can only be a smooth stop taking antidepressants.