Tranquilizers( anxiolytics) are psychotropic medicines, shown primarily for the treatment and elimination of anxiety, anxiety, fear, emotional tension, while they do not practically violate cognitive functions. On the modern pharmaceutical market there is a wide list of various soothing drugs that can be purchased without the prescription of doctors.
- derivatives of benzodiazepine
- Formulations average duration of action
- alprazolam( Xanax, Alzolam, Heleks, Zolomaks)
- lorazepam( Lorafen)
- medazepam( Rudotel)
- Day tranquilizers
- oxazepam( Nozepam, tazepam)
- prazepam( Demetrin)
- Tofizopam( Grandaxin)
- Tranquilizers of a new generation of non-benzodiazepine nature
- Benactitizin( Amisil)
- Buspirone( Spitomin)
- Mebicar( Mebiks, Adaptol)
- Phenibut( Anvifen, Noofen)
- during pregnancy and breastfeeding
- For older children
most famous and common tranquilizers, have a pronounced anxiolytic and anti-anxiety effects. They are divided into 3 subgroups: preparations of a long, medium and short period of action.
Long-acting anxiolytics( phenazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam) are strong drugs and have many undesirable side effects that overlap their dignity and lead to serious complications, so they are rarely dispensed without a prescription.
Medium-to-short( daytime tranquilizer) drugs have fewer side effects and are safer and can be purchased without a prescription, but it is still recommended to take only after consulting a doctor.to table of contents ^
Medium-acting medicationsto table of contents ^
Alprazolam( Xanax, Alzolam, Helex, Zolomax)
The active ingredient is alprazolam.
It is used as a remedy that most actively eliminates panic attacks and acts as a vegetostabilizer. Also, the drug is prescribed for worsening of sleep, loss of appetite, loss of interest in the surrounding world.
At the beginning of treatment, a minimum dose is prescribed, which varies from 0.25 to 0.5 milligrams 3 times a day, then gradually the dose can be brought to a maximum of 4.5 milligrams. For attenuated and elderly patients, the initial dose is 0.25 milligrams 2-3 times per day. Reduce the dose should be gradually to avoid withdrawal syndrome.
Side effects: rash, itching, urinary incontinence, development of leukopenia, anemia, renal dysfunction, etc.
Produced in tablets, coated tablets;the active ingredient is lorazepam.
The medication of medium duration has a hypnotic and powerful antiphobic effect, it is effectively used in all types of neuroses for the treatment of sensopathic, hypochondriacal disorders, helps to stabilize the autonomic nervous system.
Adults and adolescents take 0.5-4 mg 1-3 times a day. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 10 milligrams.
Side effects: ataxia, muscle weakness, dizziness, dysphagia, dry mouth, itching, skin rash.
In pregnancy, use only with strict indications and always under the supervision of a doctor. Use with caution for violations of kidney function, suspicion of sleep apnea, shock, epilepsy, lung diseases.to the table of contents ^
The active ingredient is medazepam.
Eliminates psychoneurotic stress, a sense of fear, anxiety, motor agitation, increased fussiness. Also, the drug stabilizes the work of the autonomic nervous system, helps restore emotional balance and adequately assess their own illness.
Tablets are taken 2-3 times a day, starting at a dosage of 5 milligrams;gradually increase the dose to 30 milligrams per day. It is rare to take 40 milligrams of the drug. To the elderly and to adolescents - 10-20 milligrams per day;children from 10 years and older - 2 milligrams per day. The duration of therapy is not more than 60 days. In a month the course can be repeated.
Side effects: dry mouth, blood pressure drop, disinhibition, depression, loss of orientation, confusion, dyspepsia.
For respiratory failure, intraocular hypertension, cerebellar ataxia, medazepam tablets are administered with caution.to table of contents ^
Drugs with a predominant antianxiety effect and minimal expressed sedative, muscle relaxant and hypnotic properties.
Without prescriptions of doctors you can buy the following medicines:to table of contents ^
The active ingredient is gidazepam.
Eliminates irritability, migraine, soothes, softens withdrawal symptoms with alcoholism, improves sleep.
Take internally 20-50 milligrams 3 times a day. The average dose for the treatment of patients with neurosis-like and neurotic disorders is 60-150 milligrams per day, migraines 40-60 milligrams. The course of treatment is from 7 days to 1-2 months.
Side effects: drowsiness, slowing down the speed of motor and mental reactions, drug dependence, gait disturbance.
Oxazepam( Nozepam, Tazepam)
Active ingredient - oxazepam.
It is prescribed for neuroses, psycho-vegetative disorders( for example, disorders in women associated with a climacteric period or pronounced premenstrual syndrome).As part of complex therapy, the drug is used for reactive depression. The dosage is established depending on the indications, the age of the patient and the development of the therapeutic effect.
The daily dose varies from 10 to 120 milligrams.
Side effects: fatigue, difficulty concentrating, dulling emotions, paradoxical reactions( fear, hallucinations, insomnia, etc.), nausea, vomiting, allergic reaction, urinary retention, renal dysfunction.
The active ingredient is prazepam.
The drug stabilizes affective reactivity, normalizes sleep, improves mood, reduces stress and fear and yet does not reduce concentration and reflexes. In addition, the pills help to rid of functionally autonomic disorders in various psychosomatic disorders.
For adults, the recommended daily dose is 20 milligrams, that is 2 tablets( 0.5 tablets in the morning, 0.5 for lunch and 1 for evening meals).For children from 3 to 12 years, the medication is prescribed for 10-15 milligrams, that is, 2-3 times a day for 0.5 tablets.
Side effects: a feeling of slight fatigue, dizziness.
Produced in tablets, powder;active substance - tofizopam.
The drug is prescribed for the treatment of vegetative disorders, decreased activity, neuroses, severe stress. Also with menopause, premenstrual syndrome, myasthenia gravis, as part of complex treatment with cardialgia.
The daily intake for adults is 150 milligrams. Multiplicity of admission - 3 times a day. Side effects: nausea, decreased appetite, respiratory center depressions, muscle pain, dry mucous membranes, convulsions, confusion, rarely jaundice.
The active ingredient is trimethosine.
Reduces feelings of anxiety, fear, emotional instability.
Adults are prescribed in a dosage of 0.5-1.5 grams per day. If necessary, the dose can be increased to 2.5-3 grams per day. Children from 1 to 6 years are prescribed 0.5 tablets 3-5 times a day;from 7 to 12 years - 1 tablet 3-5 times a day.
Side effects: weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, dry mouth.
Tranquilizers of a new generation of non-benzodiazepine nature
Helps to eliminate almost the entire complex of anxiety-neurotic manifestations, ensure the maintenance of a habitual way of life, social activity, while being safe, that is, they have a minimum number of side effects and unwanted reactions.
OTC drugs are:to the table of contents ^
The active substance is afobazole.
The drug is used in adults with neurasthenia, generalized anxiety disorders, adaptation disorder, bronchial asthma.
ingested by ingestion. The optimal single dose is - 10 milligrams, daily - 30 milligrams. If necessary, the maximum dose can be increased to 60 milligrams. The course of treatment is 2-4 weeks.
Side effects: rarely - headache, allergic reaction.
The active ingredient is benactysin.
In neurological and psychiatric practice, medicine is prescribed as a sedative for neuroses, which are accompanied by fear, anxious tension, mental depression.
Take inside after eating 1-2 milligrams 1-4 times a day;course of treatment - 4-6 weeks.
Side effects: dizziness, constipation, nausea, tachycardia, urinary retention.
The active ingredient is buspirone hydrochloride.
It is used to treat anxiety conditions of various etiologies, especially neuroses, accompanied by a feeling of anxiety, anxiety, irritability, stress.
At the beginning of treatment appoint 5 milligrams 2-3 times a day. To achieve maximum therapeutic effect, the daily dose is gradually increased to 15-30 milligrams. Tablets should be drunk at the same time of the day, without chewing, with water.
Side effects: nonspecific chest pain, hypertension, unconsciousness, heart failure, changes in blood counts, bradycardia, nightmares, etc.
Mebicar( Mebiks, Adaptol)
The active substance is tetramethyltetraazabicyclooctanedione.
The drug is intended for the treatment of neurotic disorders( emotional lability, panic disorders, irritability, anxiety, etc.), which appeared as a result of exhausting neuropsychiatric, psychoemotional and physical exertion. Also, the tablets are indicated for the treatment of patients with ischemic myocardial disease, post-infarct rehabilitation, to reduce the craving for smoking, with neurosis-like conditions in patients with alcoholism.
Take inside 0.3-0.9 grams 2-3 times a day( regardless of food).The maximum daily dosage is 10 grams. The course for therapy and prevention - from a week to 6 months.
Side effects: an allergic reaction, hyperthermia, a decrease in body temperature and blood pressure, dyspeptic disorders.
Active substance - ethyl methylhydroxypyridine succinate.
The drug has antioxidant, tranquilizing, nootropic, antihypoxic, membrane-stabilizing properties. In addition, it improves memory, has a pronounced stress-protective action( increases the resistance of the body to stress), has the ability to stop and prevent seizures.
For the treatment of nervozopodobnyh and neurotic states to take inside at 125-250 milligrams;the maximum daily dose is 800 milligrams( 6 tablets).The duration of therapy is 2-6 weeks.
Side effects: allergic reactions are possible.
The active ingredient is benzoclidine hydrochloride.
Has a calming effect, reduces the excitability of the nervous system, intensifies the action of painkillers, hypnotics and narcotics. It is used for all types of neuroses, cerebral circulation, atherosclerosis.
At the beginning of treatment take 0,02 grams 3-4 times a day before meals;Further, the daily dose is increased to 0.2-0.3 grams. After achieving the desired effect, the dose should be reduced to 0.02 grams per day. Duration of treatment is from 2 weeks to 2 months.
Side effects: nausea, allergic reaction.
Available in capsules;active ingredient is etifoxine hydrochloride.
Stabilizes and significantly improves the condition with a sense of fear, anxiety disorders, a depressed mood, without causing drowsiness and inhibition, allows you to lead a habitual way of life.
Take either 50 milligrams( 1 capsule) orally three times a day, or 100 milligrams( 2 capsules) twice a day, regardless of food intake. Duration of treatment is from several days to 4-6 weeks.
Side effects: urticaria, skin rashes, angioedema.
Phenibut( Anvifen, Noofen)
The active ingredient is aminophenylbutyric acid.
The tranquilizing effect of the drug is realized by reducing the excitability of the brain structures that are responsible for inhibition and emotions. The main indications for the use of Phenibut are: anxiety disorders, symptoms of asthenic syndrome, memory disorder, decreased emotional activity, insomnia, etc.
Adults should take a medication at a daily dose of 0.75-1.5 grams. Multiplicity of admission - 3 times a day. Children from 3 to 14 years - to 0.25 grams 3 times a day.
Side effects: nausea, blood pressure jumps, headaches.
When pregnant and breastfeeding
Almost all of the above drugs have toxic effects on the fetus and increase the risk of developing congenital malformations, so during pregnancy, the anxiolytic can only be prescribed by a doctor, and only if urgently needed.
During lactation it is also not recommended to take tranquilizers, because the active substances of the drugs and their metabolites can be excreted in breast milk and thereby harm the child.to the table of contents ^
At the age of 3 to 18 years with the permission of a doctor, such drugs as Prazepam( Demetrin), Trioxazine, Phenibut, Oxazepam( Nosepam, Tazepam) can be prescribed.to contents ^
In the absence of contraindications, all drugs are allowed only in lower doses. The necessary dosage is prescribed by the attending physician.