Drugs intended to stimulate brain activity, improve memory and help the body with excessive mental stress, are called nootropics. These pills are often used by students during the session, by the elderly, and by all who work with large amounts of information.
- Piracetam( Lutset, Memotropil, nootropics, Nootsetam, peers, cerebro)
- Formulations enhancing cholinergic processes
- Amiridin( Aksamon, Neuromidin)
- Gliatilin( Gleatser, deletions, Cereton)
- Tacrine Kogneks( Velnakrin, Meltan)
- GABA -ergic preparations
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid( Aminalon, Gamalon)
- Pantogam( Gopantam, Calcium Gopantate, Pantokaltsin)
- Picamilon( Amilonosar, Picanoyl, Pikogam)
- Glutamatergicheskie preparations
- Memantine( Akatinol Memantine, Memantinol, Maruksa)
- Antioxidants and membrane protectors
- meclofenoxate( Lucidril, Tsentrofenoksin, Tserutil)
- Pyritinol( piriditol, Tserebol, Enerbol, Encephabol)
- Formulations Ginkgo Biloba
- Calcium channel blockers
- Nimodipine( Nemotan, Nimodip, Nimotop)
- Cinnarizine( Stugeron, Stugesin)
- Cerebral vasodilators
- Vinpocetine( Cavinton, TeleTotal)
- Nicergoline( Sermion)
- Combined preparations of the new generation
- Fezam( Combotropil, NooCam, Omarone, Piratsin)
Derivatives of pyrrolidone. They are used for memory impairments and concentration of attention, poor learning ability, worsening of metabolic processes in the brain, chronic alcoholism, as well as for treatment of the consequences of stroke, craniocerebral trauma, depressive states.to table of contents ^
Pyracetam( Lucetam, Memotropil, Nootropilum, Noocetam, Pyramem, Cerebril)
The active substance is piracetam.
Drugs are available in the form of tablets, capsules, granules, solutions and suspensions for internal use, a solution in injection ampoules and droppers.
The daily intake for adults is 30-160 milligrams per kilogram of weight, for children 30-50 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
Side effects are extremely rare, they include: dizziness, tremor, nervousness, sleep disturbance, digestive disorders, increased sexual activity.
The active substance is pramiracetam.
Produced in tablets of 600 milligrams. Take 1 tablet 2 times a day.
Side effects: nausea, abdominal pain, urinary and fecal incontinence, anorexia, dizziness, migraines, insomnia, confusion.
Drugs that enhance the cholinergic processes of
In addition to performing the basic functions to improve cerebral circulation and eliminate disorders of the nervous system, this group of nootropics has the greatest effect in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.to contents ^
Amiridin( Aksamon, Neuromidine)
The active ingredient is ipidacrin.
Form release - tablets, solution in ampoules for injection.
The maximum daily dose of the drug is 200 milligrams.
Side effects are rare: salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia, dizziness, rashes on the skin.
Gliatilin( Gleatser, Delitsit, Tsereton)
The active ingredient is choline alphoscerate.
Form release - capsules for oral administration and solution in ampoules for injection.
For chronic diseases take 1 capsule( 0.4 grams) 2-3 times a day for 3-6 months. In acute stages of the disease, 1 ampule( 1 gram of active ingredient) is injected 1-2 times a day, and immediately go to the semiannual capsule intake - 2 capsules in the morning and 1 day.
Side effects are extremely rare, among them nausea, the occurrence of allergic reactions.
Tacrine Cognex( Velnacrin, Meltan)
The active ingredient is tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride.
Produced in capsules of 10-40 milligrams.
The drug should be taken 10 milligrams before meals 4 times a day, if necessary, increasing the dose to a maximum of 160 milligrams per day.
Side effects: dizziness, ataxia( impaired coordination of movements), loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice. Less common bradycardia, tachycardia, decreased or increased pressure, salivation, runny nose, skin rash, difficulty breathing.
GABA -ergic drugs
Drugs of this type enhance the energy processes of the brain, improve and regulate cerebral blood flow.to contents ^
Gamma-aminobutyric acid( Aminalon, Gamalon)
The active substance is gamma-aminobutyric acid.
Produced in tablets of 0.25 grams.
The daily dose is divided into 3 doses and is 1.5-3.75 grams for adults, 0.5-3 grams for children. The course of treatment is from 2-3 weeks to 2-6 months. It is also used to prevent motion sickness.
Side effects are quite rare and occur with a reduced dose. Among them: a feeling of heat, insomnia, fluctuations in blood pressure, nausea, vomiting.
The active ingredient is noopept.
Produced in tablets of 10 milligrams.
Take 1 tablet 2-3 times a day.
Side effects: increased pressure, allergic reactions.
Pantogam( Hopantam, Calcium Gopantenate, Pantokaltsin)
The active ingredient is the calcium salt of gopantenic acid.
Produced in the form of syrup and in tablets of 0.25 and 0.5 grams.
The daily dose is broken down 3-4 times and makes up for adults - 1,5-3 grams, for children - 0,75-3 grams. The course of treatment - from 1-3 months to six months with the possibility of recurrence in 3-6 months.
Side effects: allergic reactions - skin rash, rhinitis, conjunctivitis.
Picamylon( Amilonosar, Picanoyl, Picogam)
The active ingredient is nicotinoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid.
Form release - tablets, solution in ampoules for intramuscular and intravenous administration.
Depending on the complexity of the disease take from 40 to 400 milligrams per day for 2 to 3 months.
Side effects: irritability, anxiety, headaches, dizziness, nausea, rash on the skin.
The active ingredient is gamma-amino-beta-phenylbutyric acid hydrochloride.
The daily dose varies from the nature of the disease, the age of the patient, the tolerability of the remedy and ranges from 250 milligrams to 2.5 grams for adults and 150 to 900 milligrams for children.
Side effects: drowsiness, dizziness, migraine, excitability, nausea.
The glutamatergic system plays an important role in the realization of many brain functions, including learning, memory, adaptation processes.to contents ^
The active ingredient is glycine( aminoacetic acid).
Produced in tablets of 100 milligrams, which are placed under the tongue for resorption or pulverized and used internally.
The dosage depends on the age and condition of the person and ranges from 0.5 to 2 tablets 1-3 times a day.
Side effects: allergic reactions.
Memantine( Acatinol Memantine, Memantinol, Maruksu)
The active ingredient is memantine hydrochloride.
Produced in tablets and drops for oral administration.
Eat 5-20 milligrams per day. In addition to nootropic action, it possesses neuroprotective activity and is capable of affecting motor disorders in the lesions of the brain or spinal cord.
Among the side effects of the drug are dizziness, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, fatigue, heaviness in the head, anxiety, increased pressure.
Antioxidants and membrane protectors
Focus on the fight against free radicals damaging the membrane of neurons.to contents ^
Active substances - antibodies to the brain-specific protein S-100, antibodies to endothelial NO synthase.
Produced in tablets.
Take 1 tablet 3 times a day( in rare cases - up to 6 tablets per day) 2-6 months.
Side effects: an allergic rash.
Meclofenoxate( Acefen, Centrofenoxin, Cerular)
The active ingredient is meclofenoxate hydrochloride.
Form release - tablets, substance-powder.
The daily dose is divided into 3 doses and is 250-1500 milligrams for adults, for children the doses are reduced and calculated in accordance with the body weight.
Side effects: dry mouth, nausea, heartburn, drowsiness.
The active substance is ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate.
Produced in tablets and solution in ampoules.
Tablets are taken orally 125-250 milligrams 1-3 times a day. The daily dose is no more than 800 milligrams. The course of treatment is 2-6 weeks, for elimination of alcoholic syndrome - 5-7 days.
Side effects: drowsiness, allergy manifestations.
Pyrithinol( Pyriditol, Cerebol, Enerbol, Encephabol)
The active ingredient is pyrithinol.
Take inside after eating 100-300 milligrams 2-3 times a day for 1-3 months( in rare cases up to 8 months).The daily dose for children 1-3 years is 50-100 milligrams, 4-10 years - 100-150 milligrams, 11-14 years - 200-300 milligrams.
Side effects: decreased appetite, nausea, irritability, headache, sleep disturbance. Rarely there is a change in taste, stagnation of bile, increased levels of hepatic transaminases, changes in blood composition, joint pain, skin allergic reactions.
Preparations Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo biloba plant based products contain flavonoids and neuroactive elements, due to which they possess antioxidant activity, enhance energy metabolism in the brain, increase blood circulation, reduce edema.
Ginkgo Biloba( Bilobil, Vitrum memorial, Gingium, Memoplant, Tanakan) .The active substance is the extract of the leaves of Ginkgo Biloba. Produced in capsules and tablets of 40-60 milligrams. The daily dose is 120 milligrams.
Side effects: headache, allergic rash, indigestion( a violation of the stomach).There are cases of hemorrhage( intracranial hemorrhage).
Calcium channel blockers
Intracellular calcium concentration plays an important role in mechanisms of memory impairment. In turn, calcium channel blockers contribute to improving cerebral blood flow.to table of contents ^
Nimodipine( Nemotan, Nimodip, Nimotop)
The active substance is nimodipine.
Produced in tablets and injectable solutions.
For functional brain disorders, take 1 tablet 3 times a day for several months. Side effects: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, decreased or increased pressure, hot flashes, tachycardia, bradycardia, swelling, shortness of breath, dizziness, sleep disorders, aggressiveness, depression, allergies.
Cinnarizine( Stugeron, Stugesin)
The active ingredient is cinnarizine.
Produced in tablets of 25 milligrams.
Take 1-3 tablets 3 times a day. From motion sickness take 1 tablet 30 minutes before the trip. The dose for children is half an adult.
Side effects: drowsiness, fatigue, increased tonus of the extremities, dry mouth, abdominal pain, weight gain, lowering of pressure, jaundice, sweating, rash.
Possess various mechanisms of nootropic influence, improving cerebral circulation.to contents ^
Vinpocetine( Cavinton, TeleTol)
The active ingredient is vinpocetine.
Form release - a tablet of 5 milligrams.
Assign 1-2 tablets 3 times a day for 2 months.
Adverse effects: decreased pressure, tachycardia.
Active substances - hexobendin, etamivan and etofillin.
Form release - tablets and solution for intravenous administration.
Assign 1-2 tablets 3 times a day for 6 weeks.
Side effects: tachycardia, lowering blood pressure, headaches, heart pain, facial hyperemia.
The active ingredient is nicergoline.
Form release - tablets and powder in ampoules for injection.
Apply inside 5-10 milligrams 3 times a day for 3 or more months, intramuscularly - 2-4 milligrams 2 times a day.
Side effects: dizziness, fainting, decreased pressure, anxiety, nausea, decreased appetite, hives.
Combined preparations of the new generation
Consist of several active substances, one of which is usually the ratsetam:to contents ^
The active ingredients are piracetam and gamma-aminobutyric acid( aminalon).Form release - capsules of 250 milligrams of pyracetam and 125 milligrams of aminalon. Adults take 1 capsule before meals 3-4 times a day, but not more than 6 capsules a day. Children are prescribed 1 capsule 3 times a day. The course of treatment is 1-2 months and can be repeated after 6-8 weeks.
Adverse effects: hyperkinesia, headaches, sleep disturbances, anxiety, abdominal pain, digestive disorders, allergic skin reactions, increased pressure, weight gain.
Active ingredients - piracetam and thiotriazoline. The form of the release is a tablet containing 200 milligrams of pyracetam and 50 milligrams of thiotriazoline, and also an ampoule with a solution for injection. Take 2 tablets 3 times a day for 30 minutes before meals for 1-4 months.
Side effects: anxiety, irritability, mental agitation, imbalance, headaches, confusion, nausea, vomiting, increased pressure, heart pain, shortness of breath, allergic reactions.
Fezam( Combbitropyl, NooCam, Omarone, Piratsin)
Active ingredients are piracetam and cinnarizine.
Form release capsules or oral tablets containing 400 milligrams of pyracetam and 25 milligrams of cinnarizine.
Adults take 1-2 capsules 3 times a day, children - 1-2 capsules 1-2 times a day, depending on the age and severity of the disease. The course of treatment is 1-3 months.
Side effects: increased motor activity, nervousness, depression, sleep disorders, headaches, nausea, digestive disorders, allergic rashes.
The use of
Nootropic drugs are used in the following cases:
- For correction of impaired cognitive functions( memory, speech, perception, concentration), with a decrease in vital activity due to diseases and extreme effects.
- With the deterioration of adaptation and mental activity as a result of aging, in particular - with the development of dementia( dementia).
- In cases of blood circulation disorders in the brain, intoxications( including alcoholic), depressions and asthenia after traumatic brain injuries and infections that affect nerve cells, as well as to eliminate side effects from taking medications( during treatment with antidepressants, psychostimulants, neuroleptics).
- It is possible to use drugs in healthy people - to relieve mental fatigue in extreme situations, improve brain performance( for example, during examinations).
Nootropic drugs are characterized by low toxicity and infrequent development of side effects, however, they should be selected by a doctor based on the individual needs of the patient. Starting taking pills yourself is very dangerous for the following reasons:
- The stimulating effect of nootropics can provoke a hysterical state, sleep disturbance and even the degradation of diseased parts of the brain.
- Uncontrolled intake of certain drugs leads to the expansion of normally functioning vessels and increased supply of oxygen to healthy brain areas. In this case, sick areas can be exposed to oxygen starvation.
- Individual drugs lower blood pressure, so it is contraindicated to hypotension.