Four years - quite difficult for the child age, when he internally feels old enough, but still remains small. He is not yet a preschool child, but he is far away and not a baby. During this period, the child's self-consciousness as a person, the emergence of his character, so that parents need maximum patience and delicacy, to gently and unobtrusively guide him.
- Physical development
- mental development
- Speech Development The world
- Graphic activity
- Musical education
- Mental development
- Emotional development
During this period, the child continues to grow and gainthe weight. Normally, the weight of boys at the age of four years ranges from 14.5 to 18.5 kg, and girls - from 13.9 to 18.2 kg. In this case, the growth of four-year-old boys is usually 99-109 cm, and girls 98-109 cm. The chest circumference in boys varies from 51 to 55.3 cm, and in girls 49.3 to 54 cm. To this age, children already have everything20 milk teeth.
These data are only a part of the indicators that determine the normal physical development of a four-year-old baby. It is equally important that he possesses certain physical skills, develops endurance and agility.
So, normally a four-year-old child should:
- walk in the specified direction confidently, straight, not shuffling his legs;
- run, changing the pace and direction of movement, while maintaining balance;
- quickly run a distance of 10-20 m;
- continuously run for 1 minute;
- be able to stand for a few seconds on one leg;
- jump on two legs with a slight advance forward( 2-3 m);
- several times in a row vigorously bounce on one leg;
- jump from a height of 15-20 cm;
- jump from place to place at a distance of 40 cm;
- step over objects;
- jump in turns through 5-6 parallel lines located at a distance of 25-30 cm;
- climb under low objects( about 40 cm);
- keep the balance by moving on a gym bench;
- climb on the gym wall;
- be able to play with the ball, confidently throwing and catching it;
- hit the ball in the objects at a distance of 1.5 m;
- roll the ball between the objects placed on the floor, not touching them;
- to ride a bicycle;
- not be afraid of water, learn to swim.
For the development of fine motor skills, a four-year-old child should be able to:
- launch a small size yule;
- do "flashlights" with your hands;
- string large buttons or beads;
- tie knots on a cord or thick rope;Fasten hooks, zippers, buttons.
Intellectual development of
The intellectual development of a four-year-old baby is mainly due to developing games and illustrative examples. At this age, the child is very curious and must have certain knowledge in various fields of knowledge.
Normally, at the age of four, the child must:
- know the numbers to 5;
- confidently own the concepts of "a lot" and "one", "more" and "less";
- compare groups of objects, including using overlay techniques;
- compare two subjects in size, length, shape, height and be able to express the existing difference in words;
- to know and show the right or left hand;
- own concepts: "top", "bottom", "left", "right", "left", "right";
- know the ordinal count to ten.
At the age of four years, the child's vocabulary is usually about four thousand words. In this case, the baby is able to speak in a coherent language in his native language, know by heart small poems and tell tales.
Normally, a child of 4 years old must:
- articulate sounds( exception may be only hissing and sonorous);
- reproduce polysyllabic words;
- to harmonize spoken words in gender, case and number;
- to understand all generalizing words( dishes, clothes, furniture, transport, toys, shoes);
- answer simple questions;
- use sentences with homogeneous terms in speech;
- be able to compose a simple descriptive story about a seen picture or toy of three or four sentences;
- arbitrarily adjust the power of its voice, its pace, use a variety of intonations;
- divide two- and three-syllable words into syllables, define in words the first and last sounds;
- correctly use prepositions( "under", "in", "on", "for") with nouns;
- understand the terms "sound", "word", "letter".
The world around
The knowledge of the four-year-old child of the world around him increases.
So, normally at this age the child must:
- know their own name and surname, as well as the names and patronymics of parents, relatives, educators and other people who surround it;
- know your address( name of the settlement, street and house number);
- know your age;
- know the names of many domestic and wild birds and animals;
- know the names of the young of these animals and birds;
- know the sounds that these animals and birds publish( the dog barks, the cow mumbles, the mouse squeaks, the cat meows, the cock crows, etc.);
- know what these birds and animals can do( the snake creeps, the fish floats, the hare jumps, the bird flies, etc.);
- to know, to name and distinguish surrounding objects, their purpose, size, shape, color and essential details;
- know the names of the seasons, their differences, describe what happens in every season( flowers grow, snow melts, butterflies fly, etc.);
- distinguish between the taste of several types of vegetables and fruits;
- be able to distinguish and name different weather phenomena;
- know the names of several professions.
In 4 years the child must:
- know and call all the basic colors( black, red, green, white, yellow, blue, blue, pink);
- correctly work with pencils and a brush;
- draw lines by points without taking a pencil or pen from the paper;
- smoothly draw different lines( vertical, inclined or horizontal) of the right size;
- gently shade figures and paint drawings, without leaving the contours;
- to depict the simplest objects and phenomena;
- be able to select the color that corresponds to the depicted object;
- sculpting from plasticine or clay objects consisting of several parts;
- do the applications from the ready-made forms, using glue.
In 4 years the child already knows how to play with a designer. He must:
- to know and name the basic details of the designer;
- be able to horizontally and vertically arrange cubes, bricks and other details of the designer;
- to change "buildings", replacing some parts of the constructor with others;
- distinguish the parts of the building in height and size.
In 4 years the child already knows and can name some musical instruments, such as: pianoforte, drum, guitar, violin. He must be able to listen from beginning to end of small musical works, notice changes in the sound of the song( quietly - loudly), learn by ear the melodies that are familiar to him, and sing along with him.to the table of contents ^
Psychic development of
At this age the psyche of the baby actively develops, it starts to experience various emotions and becomes very sensitive to the reactions of adults. Parents and educators should understand that their respectful and approving attitude towards a four-year-old child forms a correct positive image of himself. During this period, the child's behavior determines the level of his self-esteem. If adults consider it good, then the child also considers himself to be so, and behaves accordingly. Conversely, the hooligan is capricious if he considers himself to be bad.
Basic mental functions develop at this age as follows.to the table of contents ^
In 4 years the child must:
- independently find and name the signs of similarity and differences between toys or pictures;
- keep at least 4-5 objects in sight;
- independently find the same items;
- without distraction, perform certain tasks within 6-7 minutes;
- be able to repeat the movements in a certain sequence, for example: raise or lower hands, clap your hands, etc.
- clap your hands or stamp with a foot while pronouncing an adult certain word;
- be able to construct simple constructions from the details of the designer according to the proposed sample;
- independently fold a picture or a card, cut into 3-4 parts.
In 4 years the child should be able to:
- independently in the correct order to collect a pyramid of 6-7 rings;
- know and use generic words;
- find the matching pair of any object;
- find in each group an extra subject and be able to explain your choice;
- select the words-antonyms;
- find inconsistencies in a picture depicting absurdities;
- solve simple logical tasks.
In 4 years the child should be able to:
- remember the content of the plot;
- retell the contents of the fairy tale heard;
- to know and recite poems, nursery rhymes, riddles;
- to play in memory and be able to describe the recent events that happened brightly in your life;
- repeat the heard different words, numbers or syllables( 4-5 pieces);
- accurately perform tasks consisting of several( 3-4) teams;
- memorize and independently name 4-5 items seen.
Emotional development of
And, finally, no less important factor in the full development of a four-year-old baby is his emotional becoming. In this childhood, the child begins to orientate in human relationships, he feels and understands the attitude towards himself, benevolent or spiteful, is able to notice the change in the mood of the people around him, shows sympathy and attention, can express his emotions.
This is the best time to educate the child's behavior culture.