Cholesterol is a compound necessary for the vital activity of the body, which is contained in every cell and ensures the stability of its membrane, and it is also necessary for the production of bile acids and hormones. A certain part of it is synthesized by the body, and a large part comes from outside with food. If the amount of this compound in the blood is too high, doctors prescribe diet food and drugs that lower cholesterol.
- classification Statins
- Side effects of
- In pregnancy
Cholesterol is conventionally divided into high density lipoproteins( HDL cholesterol, "good") and low density lipoproteins( LDL, bad cholesterol).LDL form on the walls of arteries sclerotic plaques that can cause cardiovascular diseases. HDL destroy sclerotic plaques, take "bad" cholesterol and move it to the liver for destruction. However, the "bad" cholesterol also performs a useful work for the body: it neutralizes dangerous toxins, thereby maintaining the immune system in norm.
Therefore, you need to ensure that the cholesterol "bad" and "good" are balanced:
- Total cholesterol is below 5.2 mmol / l.
- LDL - below 3-3.5 mmol / l.
- HDL - above 1.0 mmol / l.
- Triglycerides - below 2.0 mmol / l.
As a rule, small excesses of indicators can be corrected by a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition. Medications also block the absorption of excess cholesterol by the cells of the body or reduce its production by liver cells.A significant excess of the normal level of the connection can threaten a person with various diseases of the cardiovascular system: atherosclerosis, angina, etc.
There are 2 groups of drugs that can lower the cholesterol level in the blood:
- Statins of natural or synthetic origin.
The action of statins is aimed at reducing cholesterol production, but at the same time, the production of coenzyme Q10 is blocked, the lack of which in the body leads to increased fatigue, severe weakness, cardiovascular disorders, and muscle soreness. Moreover, the side effects of statins include disorders of the digestive system, severe headaches and abdominal pain.
Therefore, it is not recommended to use these drugs without the appointment of a specialist, who will also prescribe additional drugs with Q10 content.
The effect of fibrates is aimed at increasing the level of "good" and lowering the level of "bad" cholesterol, and also in reducing triglycerides by 25-50%.As a result of this action, fibrates strengthen the internal walls of the blood vessels, provide anti-inflammatory action on the vessels as a whole, prevent the development of atherosclerosis and significantly reduce the risk of death.However, due to the presence of a number of side effects, all patients, especially the elderly, need to prescribe drugs from the group of fibrates with caution, adjusting if necessary daily dose. Side effects can manifest themselves in violation of the heart, skeletal muscles and brain, as well as headaches, digestive disorders, abdominal pain, insomnia and skin rash. Fibrates are contraindicated for people with cholelithiasis, since with prolonged intake of the drug, the lithogenicity of bile increases, which leads to the formation of stones.
Atorvastatin is a synthetic statin that reduces the concentration of lipoproteins and cholesterol in the blood plasma by suppressing its production by liver cells. After a 16-week course of atorvastatin, the risk of developing myocardial ischemia is significantly reduced, and the curative effect is manifested after 2 weeks after the start of the drug.
Inegi - has a combined lipid-lowering action aimed at reducing absorption of cholesterol by intestinal cells, as well as to suppress the production of this compound in the body. In this case, the drug has no effect on the absorption of bile acids, fatty acids, progesterone and other important organic compounds that come with food. Application of Inegia should be carried out in conjunction with a low-cholesterol diet.
Caduette - lowers the level of cholesterol, has antianginal( decrease in the manifestations of symptoms of angina and transient ischemia of the myocardium) and antihypertensive( lowering of arterial pressure) action. Contains amlodipine and atorvastatin. The first substance blocks the calcium channels, that is, it has a direct relaxing effect on the muscular wall of the blood vessels, thereby expanding them, and the second - reduces the concentration of lipoproteins and cholesterol in the blood plasma.
Lovastatin( Mevacor) is a lipid-lowering drug with an additional positive effect on the inner shells of blood vessels, which reduces the severity of atherosclerosis and prevents it at early stages. The drug improves the viscosity of the blood, which contributes to the prevention of thrombosis, and has antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.
Omacor( Omega-3) is a natural statin that exerts a stabilizing effect on the lipid composition in the blood and gives an antiarrhythmic effect, raises the level of "good" cholesterol, thus preventing the development of cardiovascular pathologies. Has almost no side effects.Read also about the beneficial properties of the Brazil nut, including the ability to normalize blood cholesterol level. Http://woman-l.ru/brazilskij-orex-svojstva-polza-i-vred/back to contents ^
Lipanor- is a broad-spectrum lipid-lowering drug. Ciprofibrate( active substance) reduces the concentration of TG, inhibits the biosynthesis of cholesterol in the liver, accelerates its decay and promotes excretion with bile. Helps restore plasma lipoprotein profile: increases good cholesterol and reduces bad. As a result of long-term treatment, Lipanor achieves the necessary balance of combination of HDL and LDL.
Lipantil 200 M - a drug that reduces the level of total cholesterol in the blood, helps to reduce the concentration of low and very low density lipoproteins, as well as increase the high density lipoprotein content. Due to activation of lipoprotein lipase increases the intensity of lipolysis and the removal of particles rich in triglycerides from the blood. In addition, the drug is able to lower the blood glucose level in patients with diabetes, thereby improving their condition in diabetic dyslipidemia( a complication of diabetes, provoked by a metabolic disorder).Lipantil reduces the level of uric acid by 15-25%, so it is effective when the patient has gout and hyperlipidemia.
Fenofibrate( Trakor) lowers cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Its use helps the cavity to get rid of extravascular deposits of cholesterol. By reducing the rate of blood clotting, Fenofibrate is the prevention of blood clots in the body, and also helps reduce inflammation markers, such as C-reactive protein and others.to contents ^
IndicationsThe use of drugs from the statin group is rational in the presence of the following indications:
- Severe manifestations of atherosclerosis.
- Hypercholesterolemia( serum cholesterol content exceeding 5.5 mmol / l), which is not adjusted by the diet for 3 months.
- Ischemic heart disease.
The administration of drugs from the statin group is also necessary for very low cholesterol levels( below 3.2 mmol / l) if the patient has one or more risk factors for ischemic heart muscle damage: genetic predisposition, old age, obesity, male sex, hypertension, diabetes.The use of drugs from the group of fibrates is rational in the presence of the following indications:
- Hypertriglyceridemia( increased triglyceride content).
- Family combined dyslipidemia( imbalance of serum lipids due to poor quality of life or heredity).
- Diabetic dyslipidemia( complication of diabetes mellitus caused by a metabolic disorder).
- For lowering bad( LDL) and increasing good( HDL) cholesterol.
Statins should not be used if the patient has a hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, acute liver disease or increased activity of "liver enzymes"( more than 2.5-3 times) of unclear etiology, thyroid dysfunction,hypotension. In addition, with caution and under the supervision of a specialist in the presence of arterial hypotension, chronic heart failure of non-ischemic etiology, aortic stenosis, weakness syndrome sinus node, chronic alcoholism, acute myocardial infarction, obstructive cardiomyopathy, in old age.
Fibrates are prohibited for patients with cholelithiasis, with hepatic and renal insufficiency, cirrhosis, hypersensitivity to the prescribed medication, hereditary diseases associated with metabolic disorders( fructose, galactosemia), gallbladder disease, chronic alcoholism, allergic reaction to soy lecithinand peanuts.to contents ^
Side effects ofAll drugs in the statin group have a number of unpleasant effects when taken:
Drugs from the group of fibrates can cause the following effects:
- Impaired taste.
- Jaundice of the skin.
- Abdominal pain.
- Digestive disorders.
- Skin rash.
- Muscle spasm and weakness.
The use of drugs that reduce cholesterol in the blood of pregnant women and breastfeeding women is limited, but it is possible that the drugs are selected individually in each case.