For several centuries, sapphire has been the top three most expensive and beautiful gems on the planet. Due to its properties, the stone sapphire has long been identified with power, wisdom and justice. It is considered to be a stone of monarchs, dukes, kings and priests.
- Stone history
- Description of
- mineral Description of
- sapphire Chemical composition and physical properties of
- stone Sapphire deposits
- Mineral healing properties
- Magic properties of sapphire
- Sapphire and zodiac signs
- Application of gem
- Interesting facts about stone
- How to distinguish natural sapphire from counterfeiting
- Caring for a gem
- Photos of sapphire and jewelry from it
History of a stone
In ancient times people believed that this stone is a frozen droplei elixir of immortality. Sapphire has always been associated not only with power, but also with dignity, honor, and its color was fairly compared to heavenly purity.
According to scientists, deposits of sapphires were first discovered in placers of India. Later, along with the traders, this beautiful stone landed in Ancient Egypt, where it acquired extraordinary popularity and became an adornment not only of the priests and rich people of the country, but also of Cleopatra herself.
With the emergence of Christianity, sapphires began to decorate the rings of bishops, so that its sky-blue color would inspire clerics to turn their thoughts to the sky more often.
In ancient Russia sapphire also gained popularity, here the stone was given a beautiful name "azachny blue".Russian monarchs called sapphire "the patron of mercy and the enemy of vice."
The first Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible and the Grand Prince of All Russia, Boris Godunov generously showered these jewels with regalia of power, their hats, robes and weapons.
Inlaid with sapphires their attributes of power and clothing and European rulers.
- In the exposition of the Tower of London is a magnificent sapphire of St. Edward( 167 carats) in a dark blue color, which crowns the crown of the British Empire. It is believed that the history of this ancient stone dates back to 1042.
- In storage in the Louvre there is a famous paryura of the French Queen Maria-Amalia, inlaid with sapphires, which was made by the court jeweler Bapst in 1830.
- In the historic royal palace of London, a beautiful set is decorated with sapphires, which George VI in 1947 bought his daughter Princess Elizabeth as a wedding gift.
This precious stone was used as an ornamental stone:
- A model of a European sapphire carved with sapphire, depicting the popular Italian opera playwright Pietro Metastasio, is used as an example of a European 18th-century glyptic.
- In 1870 an Italian master was carved from solid sapphire with a unique cameo depicting the head of Medusa Gorgona.
Description of the mineral
Sapphire rightfully occupies an honorable place among the leaders of the most beautiful precious stones. It is a transparent mineral with a pronounced glassy sheen of unusually beautiful shades - from cornflower blue to pink.
This beautiful stone not in vain stirred imagination of people, after all its color scale really amazes and fascinates.
It is interesting that in ancient times sapphires were mistakenly called all without exception blue stones. Although "sapphire" is translated from Greek "sapfeos"( σάπφειρος) as "blue stone", in nature, pink, green and orange-yellow sapphires are also occasionally found.
All the colors of sapphire, except blue, are usually called fantasy. But still the most valuable stones are considered, the shade of which varies from sky-blue to rich blue.to contents ^
It so happened that the sapphire was considered to be exclusively blue stone. But for today sapphires also include blue, pink, white, green and black corundums.
In nature, there are many varieties of sapphires:
- Alexandrite sapphire is a stone with the so-called "alexandrite effect", in which, depending on the lighting, the sapphire changes its color.
- Cornflower sapphire is a stone that has an unusually beautiful intensive coloration of light blue color.
- Star Sapphire is a stone that has an asterism effect( with a certain illumination inside the crystal, a star-shaped figure is visible).
- Padparadzha is a sapphire that has a bright orange or yellow-orange coloration.
- Leucosapphire is a colorless sapphire.
- FANSY - colored sapphires of all possible shades( except blue).
- Kashmir sapphires are sapphires of the deepest cornflower color of the highest quality. To date, these stones are considered the best in the world. They are mined in Kashmir, the northern valley that now divides Pakistan and India.
The color of the sapphire depends on its chemical composition.to contents ^
Chemical composition and physical properties of
stone For all sapphires, the starting material is corundum - colorless aluminum oxide. Chemical formula of the mineral: Al2O3.
For natural corundum formation, a high content of alumina and a deficiency of silica is necessary. During its formation, impurities of titanium( Ti), iron( Fe) and manganese( Mn) contribute to the formation of sapphire crystals and determine its color. Thus, iron impurities give corundum a light brown shade, manganese additions give the stone a unique pink color, and iron oxide - a yellow tint.
There are about 2000 color varieties of sapphires. However, the color of this stone can change under the influence of temperatures and X-rays.
So, x-ray irradiation is able to color even colorless stones, while heating sapphires leads to loss of color intensity. For example, stones of rich purple hues acquire a pink tint under the influence of high temperature, and yellow stones may become discolored when heated.
Sapphires have the correct crystal structure, have birefringence and are uniaxial.
The hardness of sapphire surpasses only diamond. On the Mohs scale, the hardness of the sapphire is 9 units, and the density is 4.00 g / cm3.to contents ^
The main deposits of sapphires are in Australia, Kenya, Cambodia, the USA, Tanzania, Thailand. But the rarest and most expensive stones are mined today in Madagascar and Sri Lanka. Also, stones from Myanmar and Kashmir are particularly appreciated.to the table of contents ^
The healing properties of the mineral
People have long believed that sapphire can cure leprosy, and also serves as an effective antidote. The healing properties of sapphire were used in their practice by supporters of the Indian health system Ayurveda, and folk healers of different countries.
Modern lithotherapists advise sapphire when:
- back pain;
- heart disease;
- bronchial asthma;
- kidney disease;
- increased arterial pressure.
Magic properties of sapphire
The magical properties of sapphire impress with its variety.
- This stone is not only a talisman of sincere and true love, but also gives its owner the courage, strengthens the man's discretion and faith in himself.
- Sapphire helps overcome all internal fears and depression, brings peace of mind and tames all earthly passions.
- The stone has a powerful cosmic energy that promotes the awakening of creative fire. Sapphire gives clarity to thoughts and strengthens memory.
- Sometimes sapphire is called a "stone of nuns" because of its unique property to encourage people to spiritual development. Also sapphire is a symbol of salvation and reconciliation of people with God.
- Sapphire has the ability to purify human energy, so often a stone is used for meditation.
Sapphire and zodiac signs
The most favorable sapphire affects people born under the sign of Sagittarius. Men of this sign, possessing a sapphire, become more confident in themselves and achieve their goals faster, while women acquire extraordinary attractiveness.
Besides this sapphire gives wisdom and insight to Aquarius, Aries, Taurus, Scorpions and Virgins.
But Capricorn sapphire can do much harm.to contents ^
Application of gem
In the modern world, sapphires have been used in various fields:
- In jewelry. Sapphires, especially blue, are used as an excellent jewelry material. They serve as inserts in various jewelry: pendants, pendants, earrings, rings, bracelets and other ornaments.
- In medicine:
- in ophthalmology( for the manufacture of artificial lens lenses);
- in dentistry( for the manufacture of aesthetic and reliable braces);
- in traumatology and prosthetics( for the manufacture of implant joints).
- In the aviation industry and rocket engineering( made from the mineral "sapphire crystal" has proven itself in the production of protective glasses for aircraft and rockets).
- In instrument engineering( often sapphire is used as a substrate in chips).
- In industry( for the manufacture of strong nozzles for waterjet machines).
- In laser technology.
- In construction( for manufacturing of high-quality heat-insulating materials).
Interesting facts about the stone
- On the island of Ceylon, there is a legend about the origin of sapphires: once Mount Kailash was the abode of the gods themselves, and everyone wanted to see the abode of eternal life and youth. Thousands of inhabitants of the country came to the foot of the sacred mountain and began to pray for this of the gods. Hearing their prayers, the god Brahma took a wonderful cup of amrita( the elixir of immortality) and splashed the elixir over the whole world. Touching the ground, every drop of it turned into beautiful sapphires. Since then, all the monks have decorated themselves with a "spray of the sky" as a sign that they bear the seal of God himself.
- In India, it is believed that sapphire can emit "prana" of good, so there the stone symbolizes friendship, unselfishness and help.
- Buddhist legends say that at the world's pole under the radiance of the North Star there is a high four-sided mountain, built of precious stones. The side that faces the world of people is laid out of sapphires, so the sky that we see is blue.
- Hebrew tales say that sapphire is a symbol of justice.
- It is known that John the Theologian in revelation describes exactly the sapphire penultimate stage that leads to Heavenly Jerusalem.
- Also recalls the famous sapphire ring-seal of the biblical king Solomon, with which he tamed the jinn.
How to distinguish natural sapphire from forgery
In the modern world it is difficult to distinguish natural sapphire from artificially grown, because the physical properties of a synthetic stone are in no way inferior to natural sapphire, and sometimes even surpass it.
When choosing a natural stone, do not forget:
- The price of natural stone is much higher than the price of forgery.
- Natural sapphires have defects. In fakes there are no inclusions in the form of gas bubbles and the presence of various impurities.
- Under natural X-ray irradiation, natural sapphire acquires a brighter shade.
- Under the influence of ultraviolet, the artificial stone acquires a greenish tinge.
Care for the gem
Due to the hardness of the sapphire it is difficult to damage, so taking care of the stone is quite simple.
- Keep in velvet, separate from other jewelry.
- Protect sapphire against persistent ultraviolet rays.
- Avoid exposure to various chemicals.
There are several ways to clean sapphire:
- It is necessary to load the pouch with the stone in a container with spring water and leave it there for a while.
- Fill the sapphire with salt and leave it for a couple of hours.
- Place the vessel with soapy water in the sun and leave the stone there for 3-4 hours.
- Dilute several spoons of sea salt in 0.5 liters of clean water and leave the stone in the solution for 4-5 hours.
Photos of sapphire and jewelry from it