Indispensable components of nutrition in the human diet are carbohydrates. The most useful for humans are complex carbohydrates or polysaccharides. These substances are slowly absorbed by the body, improve the digestive process and gradually increase the level of glucose in the blood. The use of foods with complex carbohydrates also contributes to weight loss. All polysaccharides consist of monosaccharides: fiber, insulin, starch, pectin substances and glycogen.
- Content of fiber and pectic substances in food
- Biological value of insulin
- Starch and glycogen in human diet
- List of products with complex carbohydrates
- Symptoms of deficiency of polysaccharides in the body
- Excess of complex carbohydrates in nutrition
Importance of fiber and pectic substances in
Fiber is found in plant foods. This monosaccharide:
- removes toxins;
- improves the functioning of the digestive system;
- lowers cholesterol;
- prevents putrefactive processes in the intestine.
Regular consumption of food that is rich in fiber protects a person against the development of diabetes, colon cancer, stomach ulcers, gastritis and cardiovascular pathologies. Food with fiber well satisfies hunger and has a low calorie content. A large percentage of fiber is contained in:
- kiwi fruit;
- dry figs;
- brown rice;
- buckwheat groats;
- of green beans;
- brazil nut;
Pectic substances belong to colloidal polysaccharides. A large number of pectins are found in the rind of fruit and ripe berries. These polysaccharides normalize the work of the human gastrointestinal tract and are a preventive remedy for diseases of the digestive system.to contents ^
Biological value of insulin
In the human body, insulin plays an important role and is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This carbohydrate:
- stimulates the formation of glycogen;
- regulates carbohydrate metabolism;
- is involved in lipid and protein metabolism;
- maintains the necessary intracellular ionic environment in the body;
- inhibits the formation of ketone bodies.
Starch and glycogen in human diet
Starch refers to polysaccharides, and under the influence of gastric juice it is split to glucose. For a person, the daily rate of starch is 450 g. A large amount of starch is part of such foods:
- bread made from rye and wheat flour;Pea
- of barley;
- fresh corn;
- corn meal;
- buckwheat groats;
- macaroni products;
- corn flakes.
Glycogen is a reserve polysaccharide that accumulates in the liver and muscle cells. The total amount of this carbohydrate in the body is 450 g. If food is not supplied with polysaccharides, the reserves of glycogen are completely consumed by the body in 18 hours. The daily norm of glycogen should be 25 g. The sources of this polysaccharide are:
- meat products;
- fish products.
List of products with complex carbohydrates
- Legumes. These products are quickly absorbed by the body, contain vegetable protein, trace elements and vitamins. Legumes improve the work of the digestive tract, normalize metabolic reactions, strengthen the vessels and increase immunity. They are composed of valuable substances and isoflavans, which suppress the development of breast cancer.
Product name GI Proteins( g) Fats( g) Carbohydrates( g) Calories( kCal) Beans ordinary 25 6 0.1 8.3 58 Green peas 35 5 0.2 8.3 55 Nut 30 19.8 3.4 48.6 304 Soybean 15 34.9 17.3 17.3 364 White beans 35 22.3 1.7 4.3 309 Lentils 30 24 1,5 46,3 295
- Groats. Nutritionists recommend to include whole grains in the menu. Cereals are high-calorie foods with a low percentage of lipids. They also contain minerals and vitamins. Buckwheat, wheat, oats, bulgur, brown rice are used for dietary nutrition. One serving of porridge provides a person with energy up to four hours.
Product Name GI Proteins( g) Fats( g) Carbohydrates( g) Calories( kCal) Figure 50 7 0,6 77 329 Buckwheat 50 12,6 2,3 65 324 Wheat 40 12 2,9 69 334 Wheat 50 12.7 1.1 73 326 Corn 60 8.3 1.2 75 325 Oats 55 11.9 5.8 65.4 345
- Wholemeal bread and bread with bran. These products contain few calories and a high percentage of fiber, which normalizes the work of the digestive system.
Product Name GI Fibers( g) Fats( g) Carbohydrates( g) Calories( kCal) Whole-grain bread 35 7,6 2,9 44,15 234 Whole-grain bread crumbs 35 10,1 2,3 57,1 294 Oatmeal with bran 25 8 4 52 225 Wheat bran bread 25 8,8 3,4 47,8 248
- Vegetables, berries and fruits. The most useful for humans are products with a low glycemic index. The composition of fresh vegetables, berries and fruits includes vitamins, pectin substances, minerals, fruit acids. Nutritionists are advised to eat them raw.
Product Name GI Fibers( g) Fats( g) Carbohydrates( g) Calories( kCal) Watermelon 25 0.5 - 9.2 38 Eggplant 20 0.3 - 5.4 22 Broccoli 15 2,8 0,5 3,9 26 Cherries 25 0,9 - 11 52 Pomegranate 35 0,7 - 11,3 53 Marrows 15 0,7 - 3,5 16 Onion 15 3 - 9,6 51 Raspberries 25 0,5 - 9 44
- Greens. Nutritionists recommend daily use of a variety of salads with the addition of fresh herbs. These dishes enrich the body with nutrients, vitamins, acids, essential oils and minerals. Green activates the secretion of the glands of the digestive system and normalizes the work of the excretory system.
Product Name GI Proteins( g) Fats( g) Carbohydrates( g) Calories( kCal) Spinach 15 2.9 0.3 2 23 Aspen 10 1.2 0.3 1.3 12 Salad leaves 10 1,5 0,2 2,3 17
- Mushrooms. Fungi contain fiber, glycogen, acids, aromatics, high-grade protein, fatty substances, B vitamins, pantothenic acid, phosphorus. Fungal broths in their nutritional value are not inferior to meat broths.
Product Name GI Fibers( g) Fats( g) Carbohydrates( g) Calories( kCal) White Mushroom 10 3.7 1.7 1.1 34 Mashrooms 10 2,2 1,2 0,5 22 Redhead 15 1,9 0,8 2 22 Champignons 10 4,3 1 0,1 27 Chubby 15 3,3 0,5 1,2 22
Nutritionists advise eating foods saturated with polysaccharides for breakfast and lunch, as in the first half of the day they are more actively absorbed. Consider what foods contain complex carbohydrates:to the table of contents ^
Symptoms of deficiency of polysaccharides in the body
According to medical data, a person should consume at least 130 g of carbohydrates per day. In the menu of carbohydrate diets it is allowed to include 60-100 g of polysaccharides. Nutritionists do not recommend eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. The first signs of a deficiency of carbohydrates are:
- is depressed;
- violation of water balance;
- poor performance of the brain;
- decrease in muscle mass;
The next stage of carbohydrate starvation is the destruction of vital body proteins and the development of ketosis. Deficiency of polysaccharides causes the development of diabetes and diseases of the organs of the circulatory system.to table of contents ^
Excess of complex carbohydrates in
food Excessive consumption of products with polysaccharides can cause diabetes and obesity. Excess fiber leads to gassing and causes indigestion, which is accompanied by pain in the abdomen. The first symptoms of an overabundance of carbohydrates in the body are:
- excess body weight;
- inability to concentrate;
- increase in blood glucose levels;
- tremor of the extremities.