Alopecia( alopecia) is a pathological loss of the scalp. According to statistics, this disease occurs in a third of women after 40 years, often cases of baldness and at an earlier age. Basically, alopecia leads to partial hair thinning, but there are also cases of a more severe form.
- androgenetic( androgenic)
- diffuse( symptomatic)
- Areata( Alopecia)
- transplantation( hair transplantation)
- Cosmetic external agents
- At home
- In children
- In pregnancy
- Frequent hypothermia of the head.
- Polycystic ovary. Alopecia in women is caused by a deficiency in the production of the hormone estrogen and an excess of the hormone testosterone.
- Hypothyroidism and other diseases of the thyroid gland.
- Chemotherapy courses, severe chronic and infectious pathologies.
- Defeat of the skin of the head with parasites( Demodecosis mite).
- Menopause Period.
- Taking medications, whose side effects are associated with hair loss( hormonal contraceptives, drugs for weight loss, antidepressants).
- Pregnancy and lactation period. The deficiency of zinc in the body.
- Stress, poor nutrition, vitamin deficiency. Excessive consumption of caffeine.
- Harmful working conditions in the workplace, the effect of high radiation doses.
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Abuse of styling compositions, especially of poor quality.
- Thermal and chemical effects on the scalp. Regular use of ironing, curling iron, hair dryer, frequent staining, waving with the use of chemicals.
The main symptom of alopecia is loss of hair.
It is possible to determine the onset of the pathological process for such symptoms:
- of itching in the area of the hair;
- dryness and scaling of the scalp;
- changes the structure and color of the hair( if a strand of gray hair appeared and they became thinner);
- hair quickly fats, gets dirty and requires daily washing;
The process is further aggravated:
- by gradual hair loss in a specific area of the head( on the temples, parietal part, along the parting line);
- hair thinning;
- formation of small bald areas, which are gradually expanding;
- complete baldness.
Alopecia is scar and non-scarred in nature.
In scarring alopecia, complete destruction of the hair follicles is observed. Pathological changes are caused by inflammatory processes in bulbs, cutaneous atrophy or scarring.
The causes of scar formation are numerous: dermatitis, burns, infections( tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, herpes), basal cell carcinoma, pigment spots, scarring pemphigus, some types of lichen, congenital defects in the development of hair follicles. This type of alopecia is irreversible and the situation can be remedied only with the help of hair transplantation.
Non-scarring alopecia occurs without previous skin lesions. It is manifested by 3 species - diffuse( anagenic and telogen), androgenic( androgenetic) and focal( circular, nesting) alopecia.
Hereditary variety, which in most cases is diagnosed in men, but sometimes the male hormone dihydrotestosterone affects follicles and female hair.
The development of the pathological process proceeds slowly. Long hair is replaced with short, thin, without pigmentation, then in their place appears a velus( down), which eventually disappears completely. The bald patch is smooth and shiny. Hair follicles are not visible.
The process of hair loss is gradual. First, the hair is thinning in the parietal region, at the second stage the lesion zone expands significantly. Pronounced baldness is observed in the third stage. It touches a wide area of the crown, leaving the frontal zones unchanged.
Androgenic appearance of alopecia is often accompanied by various inflammatory processes on the skin - the presence of acne( acne), seborrhea.to contents ^
It appears as a uniform loss of hair on the head. Diseases are equally affected by both women and men. Diffuse alopecia develops as a result of disruption of the body as a whole.
Allocate 2 forms of diffuse type of pathology:
- Telogen. Characterized by a strong hair loss, and in certain periods, this process can be strengthened. Also, with this form, a slight renewal of the hairline is noted, which is caused by the immersion of 70-80% of its follicles into the telogen stage( rest).
- Anagen. Rapid hair loss, which can result in complete baldness. The impact of pesticides, radioactive radiation and chemotherapy often gives impetus to the rapid development of pathology. When eliminating negative factors and additional stimulation of the follicles, you can completely restore the hairline.
Hair loss due to damage to the root system. Characterized by the manifestation of one or more foci of alopecia rounded. It starts from the head and slowly spreads throughout the body. In addition to the hair cover nest alopecia also damages the nails.
Foci of alopecia have clear boundaries, perhaps a slight reddening of the skin inside the bald nests. At the edges of the affected areas, healthy hair breaks out easily without any effort and pain. A characteristic symptom of focal alopecia is the club-shaped small hairy processes with split and thickened ends. There are cases when hair growth occurs in the middle of the nests.
There are several forms of this type of alopecia:
- Local - manifested by isolated bald focal lesions.
- Subtotal - differs by slow progression, drawing into the process of falling out the most part of the scalp, leaving small areas of healthy growing strands. Without treatment of focal alopecia of this form, the disease seizes eyebrows and eyelids.
- Ribbon-shaped - characterized by ribbon-like hair loss from the occiput to the temples and the auricles( unfavorable shape).
- Total - is characterized by the rapid formation and fusion of focal alopecia, which lead to the complete disappearance of the scalp. The period from the beginning of the process to complete baldness takes no more than 3 months. At the initial stage, the process can still be stopped.
- Universal - baldness spreads over the entire surface of the body. It is caused by the absence of treatment of the disease in the stage of focal formations.
- Nodular - accompanied by dystrophic changes in the nail plates and vegetative disorders.
Most common in women, sometimes in children. In this case, the cause of alopecia is prolonged mechanical, thermal or chemical damage to the hair:
- hairstyles with strong hair tension( tight braid, bundle, ponytail);
- use of poor quality hair dyes or chemical perm;
- use of hair dryer, ironing for hair.
- Hair loss can occur with their constant pulling out( trichotillomania).In this case, it is necessary not only to consult a trichologist, but also a psychotherapist.
The process of hair loss often begins as early as in adolescence and causes a significant erosion by the age of 30-35.In the development of pathology involved neuroregulatory and endocrine mechanisms of the body.
This type of baldness begins with peeling and itching of the scalp, then gray-yellow flakes appear, which become noticeable not only on the skin but also in the hair. Gradually, there is thinning and thinning of hair, stopping their loss is possible only after curing seborrhea.to table of contents ^
There are 3 stages of alopecia:
- Stage 1 is characterized by a slight hair thinning, mainly in the forehead and crown area.
- 2 stage - moderately expressed hair loss in the frontal and parietal zone.
- 3 stage - a sharp pronounced hair thinning in the same zones. On the sides of the head hair remains, but become thin and sparse.
To determine the cause of hair loss, the following can be assigned:
- Analysis of iron and ferritin in the blood and iron binding capacity.
- Determination of the hormonal background( analysis showing the level of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenodione and prolactin).
- Examination of the thyroid gland for pathology.
- General blood test.
- Test for syphilis.
- Test for the strength of hair follicles: with nested hair loss, the hair falls easily after easy handling.
- Skin biopsy with suspected diffuse alopecia.
- Densitometry for determining the degree of alopecia.
- Investigation of peeling sites for fungus and dermatomycosis.
Treatment of female and male alopecia is performed only by a trichologist with the participation of other specialists. The complex is made taking into account the type of pathology, its possible cause, the presence of background diseases.to table of contents ^
The choice of medical devices has features for each form of alopecia. Some drugs have universal action and are suitable for treating various types of baldness.
- Antiandrogens to reduce the activity of the male hormone dihydrotestosterone is prescribed with androgenic form of baldness to protect hair bulbs. Finasteride( Proscar, Propecia), Dutasteride, Spironolactone, Cimetidine, Cyproterone( Androkur), Flutamide( Eulexin), and others.
- Phytoestrogens is used to reduce the side effects of potent antiandrogens. These are plant analogues of female sex hormones with an estrogen-like effect. They gently regulate the level of hormones, which favorably affects the condition of the hair in the presence of hormonal dysfunctions. Extracts of soy, wild yam, St. John's wort, red clover, seeds and grape rind, sage leaves.
- Estrogen is used in androgenic alopecia only in women during menopause, when the amount of hormones is significantly reduced. Proginova, Klimara, Estrogel and others.
- Glucocorticoid creams and ointments ( Prednisolone, Hydrocortisone, Deperzolone, Lorinden C, Dexamethasone, Betamethasone, Fluticasone, Dermovate, Elokom and so on) are used both as part of the complex and as an auxiliary treatment. In severe cases, treatment with corticosteroids is given in the form of injections or tablets( Diprospan, Flosteron, Kenalog and others).
- Sedatives are recommended for increased fatigue, nervous tension. Preparations of motherwort, valerian, Persen, Novopassit and so on.
- Generic drugs are necessary to improve the general condition of the body. Extract of the placenta, eleutherococcus, Pantocrinum, tincture of magnolia vine, aralia and so on.
- Anti-inflammatory and antimycotic topical preparations are indicated for fungal or bacterial damage to the hair or scalp. Naphthyfine, Fluconazole, Econazole, Thioconazole, Sertaconazole, Chloronitrophenol, Acyclovir, Sintomycin Emulsion, Zincopap and others. In psoriatic lesions of the skin, Antramine ointment is effective.
- Antibiotics are given a short course if there are chronic foci of infection.
- Iron preparations is prescribed if one of the causes of baldness is anemia. Hemofer, Totem, Ferroplex, Ferretaba and others.
- Vitamins and dietary supplements are recommended for insufficient nutrition of follicles. For healthy and strong curls, B vitamins, retinol, tocopherol, brewer's yeast, ascorbic acid, proteins and minerals are needed. Merz, Vitrum Beauty, Panto-vigar, Nutrikap, Esvitsin, Perfectil, Phytoval, Revalid, Selenzin, Pyridoxine, dietary supplements with beer yeast and others.
- Immunomodulators and immunostimulators are prescribed to enhance immunity( Imunofan and others).
An affordable and effective treatment for alopecia is the Darsonval apparatus.
- to restore the patency of the blood vessels of the head;
- accelerate the metabolism;
- improve blood circulation;
- saturate the hair follicles and scalp with oxygen;
- block the work of peripheral nerve endings;
- to reduce the secretion of sebaceous glands.
You can use the device not only in clinics, but also at home. To do this, it is necessary: to wash and dry the head;
The power of the device in the first 2-3 sessions is set at a minimum, so the skin adapts better to the device, then it needs to be gradually increased.
Darsonval is prohibited to be used in the following cases:
- , oncological diseases;
- fever, fever;
- bleeding disorder;
- excess hair growth on the face and body;
- period of menstruation;
- child's age.
It is indicated in cases when the increase in male hormones is insignificant and sufficient to strengthenhair follicles.
Most often, for therapeutic purposes, such procedures are carried out:
- Mesotherapy is an injection method for injecting vitamin cocktails and medicines into the skin. Individually selected therapeutic composition is administered subcutaneously, opens access to hair follicles and stops intensive hair loss.
- Ultraphonophoresis - introduction to the scalp of special medicinal formulations by means of ultrasonic waves.
- Phototherapy is treated with an artificial light stream that emits a laser. The method allows the maximum activation of hair follicles.
- Head massage - recommended at the initial stage of pathology. The fingers of the hands need to make circular movements, moving from the base of the scalp to the parietal region. Perform the procedure every day for 10 minutes, it helps improve blood circulation and, accordingly, nourishment of the scalp. In addition, thanks to the massage, well-heeled layers of skin peel off well.
Transplantation( hair transplant)
During the procedure, the surgeon cuts a narrow strip of skin and divides it into many small grafts, each of which consists of only a few hairs. After that, on the area of baldness with the help of a blade forms channels, where each graft transplant separately.
Adverse effects associated with transplantation:
- The patient can develop folliculitis( inflammation of the follicles) after the operation, which is treated with antibiotics and compresses.
- Sudden alopecia is a more serious complication that develops in the transplantation area. The side effect is temporary and is observed only in 30% of patients undergoing surgery.
Cosmetic external means
There are many different shampoos, balms, medicinal compounds in ampoules, sprays intended for the treatment of alopecia.
- Shampoo TianDe - a remedy on the prescription of Chinese folk medicine not only stops hair loss, but restores the locks to the same density and volume. It includes extracts from angels and ligusticum with anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effect. Shampoo soothes the skin of the head, providing an opportunity for the healing substances of the root of the Julian and Chinese ginseng, to freely penetrate into the hair bulb, which allows you to restore and strengthen the roots and rods of hair.
- Minoxidil is the most popular drug for the treatment of alopecia. The agent and its analogues( Regein, Alerana, Revasil) are used to stimulate hair growth. The drug improves microcirculation of blood in the scalp and trophic hair follicles, stimulates the transition of hair follicles from the resting phase to the growth phase.
- Placenta The formula is an effective and qualitative biostimulator of local action containing amino acids and vitamins with an extract of placenta of sheep. The product stops hair loss, normalizes the acid-base balance of the scalp, adds splendor, restores the hair structure and accelerates their growth.
- Shampoo KeraNova - a highly effective cosmetic product is indicated for the prevention and treatment of hair loss. With regular use, hair loss is markedly reduced, they acquire volume and shine. To improve the effect in combination with shampoo, it is recommended to use a hair mask from the same series.
- Vichy Dercos is a therapeutic shampoo for hair loss. Its constituent okolofollikulyarny collagen and aminoksil strengthen hair rods, giving them increased elasticity. Vitamins B6, B5 and PP protect the hair from the harmful effects of the environment and improve their structure. In combination with shampoo, you can use ampoules with therapeutic serum.
- Keto Plus is a therapeutic shampoo with an antifungal effect. The drug is suitable for the treatment and prevention of fungal lesions of the skin and scalp, provoked by yeast-like microorganisms. It is recommended to apply 2 times a week for 1 month.
Folk recipes with medicinal herbs, essential oils and useful products are indispensable in the treatment of many types of alopecia. Trichologists and phytotherapeutists advise patients on folk medicine throughout the course of treatment.
- Honey onion mask. Combine 1 teaspoon of liquid honey and onion juice, 1 tablespoon burdock oil and 1 whipped yolk. Stir the mass and apply to the roots, massage, warm the head and leave for 20-30 minutes. After rinse with a decoction of nettle.
- Mask with aloe juice. In a water bath warm to a warm state 2 tablespoons of honey, add 1 tablespoon of aloe juice, yolk and 4 drops of rosemary oil. The composition should be thoroughly mixed, applied to the scalp, massage, topped with a cellophane bag and wrapped with a towel. After 40-50 minutes, the head should be well washed with shampoo.
- Calendula tincture and castor oil. Combine 2 tablespoons of the ingredients and add the beaten yolk. With the mixture, treat the basal area, massage the head and wrap the strands. After 20 minutes, wash the head with shampoo. Healing herbal decoction. Mix 1 tablespoon of nettle, hop cones, chamomile, root of aira, sage and burdock. Herbal mixture pour 1 liter of warm water and boil for 10 minutes. Let it brew for 30 minutes, drain and rinse the hair daily without washing off.
- Decoction of birch buds. 1 tablespoon of raw material pour a liter of water and boil on low heat for 45 minutes. Cool down the liquid and strain and rinse it with hair after each washing of the head.
- Mask for hair from onions and olive oil. On a small grater, rub a large onion, add 1 tablespoon of oil, mix, rub the paste into the scalp, put on a plastic bag or a special cap, wrap it with a towel. Leave the medical compress for 45 minutes, then wash the head with shampoo.
With abundant hair loss, food should be as natural and balanced as possible.
It is necessary to stop using:
- acute, salty;
- smoked products, canned products;
- carbonated and alcoholic beverages;
- greasy and fried foods;
- fast food.
It is also recommended to quit smoking.
List of useful products in alopecia:
- Ryazhenka, cottage cheese, yoghurt, kefir - whey and casein contribute to hair strengthening.
- Chicken eggs - supply hair follicles with biotin, magnesium, B vitamins.
- Seafood and fish - contain iodine, vitamin B12, proteins that make hair thicker and give it shine.
- Parsley, cabbage, lettuce, dill and other green vegetables - contain antioxidants, iron, magnesium, which help to restore cells, and vitamins A and C are responsible for nutrition and moisturizing hair follicles.
- Seeds and nuts - zinc, selenium, fatty amino acids prevent hair loss and cross-section.
- Carrots are the most useful product for hair and the whole body. It includes vitamin A and beta-carotene, which soothe the skin and strengthen the roots of the hair.
- Beans. The included vitamins B, PP, zinc, iron, biotin provide strong and thick hair.
- Poultry meat contains a large amount of folic acid, copper, riboflavin, which eliminate brittle hair.
- Whole-grain baking - improves the work of the digestive tract and, accordingly, digestibility of nutrients.
- Green tea, as a powerful antioxidant, rejuvenates the body as a whole and hair as well.
The main cause of pediatric alopecia is the impact on hair bulbs of unfavorable factors that lead to abundant hair loss.
Babies often have alopecia for 2 reasons:
- Constant rubbing of the head against the pillow. Manifestations of the disease pass independently for several months.
- Rickets. Symptoms go away after appropriate treatment.
In toddlers, hair loss begins as a result of mechanical action on the hair. The child can actively pull them, fiddle, wind on the finger. If such a habit lasts for 3-4 years, then it is recommended to contact a child psychologist.
Since the age of 3 years, babies are beginning to communicate more with children of their age, adults and animals, as a result, they can become infected with fungal diseases, for example, ringworm( microsporia, trichophytosis) that cause baldness.
Broca pseudocollet( atrophic alopecia) and focal pathology can also occur in children older than 3 years, but their origin is not known. Doctors believe that the disease appears against the backdrop of glitches in the immune system. The forecast in this case is unpredictable. In some children, hair is completely restored over time, while in others the pathology continues to progress, despite therapy.
In the age of 6-7, children go to school, and during this period the load on the immune and nervous system increases. There may be trichotillomania( hair pulling on the nerves) and telogenetic alopecia. The reaction of hair follicles to any factor unfavorable for the body( telogen form) can develop with any pathological process. Therefore, its treatment is closely related to the identification and elimination of the underlying cause, the subsequent strengthening of hair follicles.
Also pathology may occur due to:
- localized inflammatory processes in the body, for example, angina, otitis, caries or appendicitis;
- infectious diseases - pneumonia, influenza, smallpox, typhus;
- infection of the skin with staphylococcus aureus;
- administration of antibiotics;
- helminthic invasions;
- overdose of vitamin A;
Treatment of baldness in children is to eliminate the root cause that caused this unpleasant phenomenon.
In addition to the treatment of the underlying disease, the physician prescribes an individually selected concomitant medication:
- vitamin complexes, pantothenic acid, phytin, methionine;
- injection of aloe and placenta extract;
- preparations of iron;
- nootropic and psychotropic drugs;
- agents that improve blood circulation in lesions;
- immunomodulators and so on.
When pregnancy is
Statistically, in pregnant women hair falls out less than usual. They, on the contrary, become thicker and stronger, especially after the first trimester of pregnancy.
However, there are frequent cases when the future mother begins to lose hair abundantly and the main reasons are:
- decrease in immunity due to lack of mineral and vitamin substances;
- nerve strain;
- hormonal disorder.
Treatment of alopecia in pregnancy is based on the use of several methods:
- reception of vitamin-mineral complexes;
- power supply correction;
- application of cosmetics for hair care;
- is a way out of the state of depression and stress.