Treatment of periodontal disease with antibiotics: metronidazole, lincomycin and other drugs

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Periodontal diseasePeriodontal disease is a disease that can lead to the loss of strong and healthy teeth.

Therefore, it is important to identify the causes and symptoms of the pathology in time and start treatment, in which the intake of antibiotics plays a key role.

Content

  • What is periodontal disease?
    • Causes of periodontal disease
    • Symptoms
  • What a dentist should do before prescribing treatment
  • The role of antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal disease
    • Contraindications and side effects
  • What drugs are used
    • Gels and ointments
    • Tablets and capsules
    • Injections
  • Disease Prevention Tips
    • Folk gymnastic method

What is periodontal disease?

Periodontal disease is a dystrophic lesion of the periodontal tissues, which has a chronic type of course and is characteristic of middle-aged and older people.

Periodontal disease is quite rare and is diagnosed in only 5-10% of patients. The rest of the cases of going to the dentist are most often manifestations of periodontitis and gingivitis.

Oral cavity sanitationIf the disease, with severe symptoms, proceeds without therapeutic intervention, then the fixation of the teeth is impaired, they loosen and eventually fall out. Therefore, it is so important to visit the dentist's office at the first signs of pathology.

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Causes of periodontal disease

The causes of the onset of the disease include:

  • pathology of the cardiovascular, nervous, digestive systems;
  • autoimmune connective tissue disease;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • periodontal tissue injuries;
  • bite anomalies;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • diabetes;
  • bone damage;
  • endocrine system diseases;
  • diseases leading to the depletion of the human body and a decrease in immunity.

These are the main factors influencing the development of the disease. Local factors (tartar, pathogenic bacteria, cysts, bruxism, etc.) play an important role in the exacerbation of pathology.

Symptoms

Often a disease comes to light when changes in tissues are visible to the “naked eye”. The clinical picture of the disease is as follows:

  • gums turn pale and itchy;
  • bleeding from the periodontal tissues appears;
  • the tooth necks are exposed, due to which the teeth themselves look elongated, stagger and move apart in different directions;
  • slight plaque on the enamel;
  • painful chewing of food and hypersensitivity of the gums to palpation.

The effectiveness of future treatment will depend on the degree of development of periodontal disease. Conventionally, three main stages can be distinguished:

  1. Changes occur in the periodontal tissues, which at first glance are almost invisible.
  2. The teeth begin to move slowly, the interdental gaps increase and the neck is exposed. The gums become more sensitive to external stimuli.
  3. Loose teeth cause them to fall out. This stage of the disease is reached after 10-15 years from the initial symptoms.

What a dentist should do before prescribing treatment

Diagnosis of periodontal diseaseAt the first appointment, the dentist should ask the patient about the possibility of a hereditary nature. diseases, the presence of other dental lesions or diseases of internal organs, as well as disturbing symptoms.

These data will help to identify the stage of development of the pathology. The doctor then examines the patient for facial symmetry, skin condition, and lymph node enlargement.

When examining the oral cavity, the doctor takes a smear, which will help to identify which group of microorganisms the causative agent belongs to.

The next most important step in diagnosis of periodontal disease is the sanitation of the oral cavity. During this examination, the doctor should pay attention to the color and condition of the gums, the color and sensitivity of the enamel, the presence of bleeding and exposure of the necks.

With the help of a probe, the dentist examines the periodontal cavities. Thanks to this study, it is possible to timely stop the penetration of periodontal disease into the depths of these recesses.

To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may ask the patient to undergo additional examinations (X-ray, complete blood count, echoosteometry, etc.).

Only after carrying out all the above procedures, the dentist prescribes a suitable treatment.

The role of antibiotics in the treatment of periodontal disease

Periodontal disease treatment is a long-term exercise that can take months or even years.

First of all, the fight against the local irritant is carried out (removal of tartar, smoothing of the sharp edges of the teeth, alignment of fillings, etc.). Also, you cannot do without replacing teeth cleaning tools (brush, paste, floss and rinse).

The next step in the treatment of periodontal disease is to adjust the patient's diet. It must necessarily be saturated with fruits, vegetables, seafood and legumes, and also have a liquid or puree-like consistency.

Antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial infections, serious plaque, or in cases where other equally serious pathologies develop against the background of periodontal disease.

The essence of antibiotics is to destroy pathogens, which is often necessary in the later stages of periodontal disease.

Additional treatments include physiotherapy (gum massage, darsonvalization, electrophoresis, hirudotherapy), orthopedic (the imposition of a plastic splint for retention of teeth), folk remedies (rubbing yarrow juice into the gums, decoctions of horsetail and nettle) and surgical intervention. The latter is prescribed only in the most extreme cases, when the gums and bones are deformed too much and require restoration.

Contraindications and side effects

Antibiotics are the mainstay of the treatment of periodontal disease, but they have a number of contraindications:

  • individual intolerance to the components of the drug;
  • allergy to antibiotic components;
  • pathology of the cardiovascular and nervous system;
  • gastrointestinal diseases.

With the uncontrolled use of drugs, the following side effects are possible:

  • disruption of the digestive system;
  • a sharp decline in immunity;
  • destruction of beneficial microflora;
  • the appearance of fungal diseases.

What drugs are used

Antibiotics are available in the form of gels, ointments, capsules, intramuscular injections, and tablets. The periodontist decides which type is suitable for a particular patient.

To enhance the effect of taking antibiotics, antiseptic agents (solution of Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide or Triclosan) are included in the course of this therapy. Rinsing with such means can be prescribed throughout the entire antibacterial drug treatment.

Gels and ointments

Gels, ointmentsGels and ointments with antimicrobial effect regenerate gum tissue and, as it were, create a protective film on them. They must have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic and cooling effects.

The most famous local remedies:

Metrogyl Denta. This anti-inflammatory gel combines the properties of Metronidazole and the antiseptic Chlorhexidine.

Ortofen. The ointment contains Diclofenac, which reduces inflammation, relieves bleeding gums and regenerates the periodontal tissues.

Levomekol. Ointment with antibacterial effect based on Chloramphenicol and Methyluracil. The product effectively destroys harmful microflora and has a healing effect.

Holisal. The product is based on salicylic acid, which not only kills microorganisms, but also eliminates inflammation. The gel also effectively relieves pain.

Heparin ointment. The tool is based on heparin, which perfectly fights inflammation and improves blood circulation in tissues.

S. Homeopathic remedy. The creators of the drug claim that it not only eliminates the symptoms of periodontal disease, but also increases the general immunity of the patient.

It is very important not to stop the course of treatment after the disappearance of the disturbing symptoms. This is the only way to completely cure the disease and prevent its recurrence.

Tablets and capsules

Tablets and capsulesThanks to this form of the drug, there is an effect not only on the affected areas, but also on the body as a whole.

The most popular drugs that kill the pathogen:

Metronidazole. Destroys the simplest infectious bacteria by affecting their DNA.

Trichopolus. Allows to treat all diseases caused by bacteria, as it has a wide spectrum of action of synthetic components.

Doxycycline. It is prescribed for exacerbated forms of periodontal disease. It inhibits the growth of bacteria and fights anaerobic gram-positive microorganisms.

Lincomycin. An effective modern drug that allows you to fight staphylococcal and streptococcal infections.

Amoxiclav. A broad-spectrum drug based on Amoxicillin and Clavulanate. Perfectly fights against gram-positive microorganisms.

Ciprofloxacin. Kills bacteria at any stage of development. Effective for any gum disease.

Ericyclin. A broad-spectrum drug based on Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline. Effectively destroys gram-positive microflora.

Azithromycin. This semi-synthetic drug inhibits the development and growth of pathogenic microorganisms.

Rondomycin is antibacterial. The antibiotic disrupts the protein synthesis of microorganisms, thereby destroying them.

As a result of taking antibiotics in tablets, the patient manages to completely get rid of the unfavorable symptoms. The course lasts about 2 weeks, depending on the severity of the situation. The attending physician prescribes the dosage and drug for the patient.

Injections

InjectionsThe method of treatment with injections in the gums is very popular in our country. The disadvantage of this treatment is the too high concentration of the drug in the periodontal tissues.

Due to this, pathogens die almost instantly, and a large amount of toxins are released into the gums, which provoke the onset of inflammation and necrosis of the periodontium.

This treatment will eradicate the infection, but it will almost certainly not cure the problems of loose teeth. The patient will immediately feel pain relief and reduced bleeding. But the area of ​​attachment of the tooth to the bone will be greatly reduced. Therefore, if the doctor suggests injections, then it is better to try to discuss other methods of drug therapy with him.

Disease Prevention Tips

Subject to prevention rules, you can avoid the occurrence of infections and inflammation of the gum tissue. It is imperative:

  • monitor oral hygiene;
  • give up addictions;
  • reduce sugar intake;
  • use dental floss to clean the interdental space;
  • take vitamin complexes;
  • eat properly and in a balanced way;
  • strengthen immunity.

The most important preventive measure is a regular examination of the oral cavity by a dentist (every six months). Thus, it is possible to identify the emerging pathology in time and start treating it.

Folk gymnastic method

Gymnastics for teethV folk medicine the gymnastic method of preventing periodontal disease is widely known. To implement it, you need to take an oak or coniferous twig in your teeth and bite it in different directions (right-to-left, front-back, bottom-up). After several repetitions, you need to start pulling the twig to the side with your hand, but at the same time, trying to keep it in your mouth as long as possible.

This technique strengthens the jaw muscles, which improves blood flow to the teeth and gums.

Antibiotics are the most effective treatment for periodontal disease. But to receive them, you need to be examined by a dentist and periodontist, who will identify the nature of the disease and prescribe a suitable course of drug therapy.

The site is for informational purposes only. Do not under any circumstances self-medicate. If you find you have any symptoms of illness, contact your doctor.

  • Oct 28, 2021
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