According to statistics, every third person at least once consulted a dentist for help. Most often this happens with severe pain. It should be remembered that for prophylaxis it is necessary to visit the dentist at least 2 times a year. In this article, we will consider the concept of dentistry, its directions, as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment.
- The concept of dentistry and characteristics of its directions
- Main goals
- Diagnostic methods
- Treatment methods
- What diseases to consult a dentist-therapist
The concept of dentistry and characteristics of its directions
Dentistry is a branch of medicine dedicated to diseases of the teeth, mouth, face and jaws. Dentistry investigates, detects, treats and prevents possible pathologies in this area.
Dentistry has several directions:
- Therapeutic dentistry is the most in demand, because it treats the main pathologies of the teeth, gums and tissues of the maxillofacial region.
- The orthopedic direction develops methods and materials for dentures and other maxillofacial structures. Orthopedists perform prosthetics and dental implantation operations.
- The surgical department is responsible for the removal, treatment of post-surgical and traumatic complications, opening of purulent foci, as well as for operations associated with abnormal development of tissues in oral cavity.
- Aesthetic dentistry uses the latest technologies, materials and tools to correct bite and problems in the form of chips, cracks, spots. Carries out enamel whitening procedures. It makes your smile beautiful and your teeth even and healthy.
- Pediatric dentistry is a special section that is responsible for the treatment and prevention of oral diseases in children, starting with the first tooth. Treatment methods are aimed at preserving, straightening curvatures, and correcting the bite.
Some specialists distinguish dental areas differently.
Each section of dentists solves problems in ways inherent in their direction.
If there are any problems in the oral cavity, a person goes to a dental clinic. The primary appointment is carried out by dentists-therapists of various categories who are involved in the rehabilitation of the oral cavity and its mucous membranes, remove tartar, treat caries, non-carious pathologies: periodontitis, periodontal disease, fill dental channels.
In addition to the treatment and prevention of diseases, therapeutic dentistry is studying the factors that lead to the occurrence of these pathologies. And also develops new diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive methods and ways to overcome the problems of the maxillofacial area.
The main tasks of therapeutic dentistry include:
- identifying the causes of inflammatory diseases;
- prevention and treatment of caries;
- removal of mineralized plaque;
- root canal treatment, filling them with dental cement;
- treatment and prevention of diseases of mucous tissues;
- diagnosis of causes, treatment of periodontal disease (gingivitis, periodontal disease, periodontitis, periodontal disease);
- prevention and treatment of periodontitis;
- diagnostics, prevention, treatment of other non-carious diseases (fluorosis, enamel hypoplasia, hyperplasia, amelogenesis, dentinogenesis, odontogenesis, pigmentation or erosion of teeth, fractures-dislocations of the root or crown, dissection pulp);
- restoration of tooth parts, chips, cracks.
First of all, the dentist examines the patient's oral cavity using dental instruments. To do this, he:
- Taps on the teeth, thus revealing the condition of the periodontium.
- Palpates the gums, reveals tooth mobility, swelling or induration.
- Determines the reaction of tissues to temperature changes (cold-hot).
- Conducts EDI (electrodontodiagnostics) - using an electric current, the electroexcitability of the pulp and the presence of inflammatory processes in it are revealed.
If the diagnostic methods performed are not enough to identify the disease and its causes, then the doctor directs the patient for additional diagnostics:
- X-ray examination reveals changes in the tooth tissues;
- luminescent and translumination diagnostics using beams of different wavelengths, reveals the degree of tissue damage;
- functional tests show the intensity of inflammatory processes and drug sensitivity;
- biological, serological research is carried out to identify viruses and microorganisms that damage healthy tissues.
In most cases, a simple examination and X-ray of the tissues are enough for the dentist to determine the disease.
The main methods of treatment are medication and hardware.
For various diseases, the following methods are used:
- Infiltration method - using a special medical gel and mechanical treatment, they cleanse the inflamed tissues, and then restore the integrity of the tooth with artificial materials;
- Ozonation destroys bacteria, removes the mineralized layer;
- Laser fluorescence - treatment of caries with a laser device, without drilling;
- Air-abrasive method or application - mechanical treatment of carious lesions using special sandblasting machines;
- Ultrasound therapy and other physiotherapy treatments;
The dentist determines an individual method of treatment for each patient, depending on the disease and the degree of its development.
What diseases to consult a dentist-therapist
If you have any problems in the maxillofacial area, you must first visit your dentist. He will identify the causes, type of disease, degree of damage and determine the method and method of treatment. If necessary, he will refer you to another specialist who deals with surgery, aesthetics or orthopedics.
The therapist will treat the following diseases:
- Caries - This is the process of demineralization of tooth tissues, destroying its enamel with the subsequent formation of a cavity in it and causing their inflammation.
- Pulpitis Is an inflammatory process that affects the connective tissues and nerves of the tooth.
- Periodontitis - This is a pulp pathology that occurs in the case of improper treatment of pulpitis.
- Stomatitis - an inflammatory disease that breaks down under the influence of viruses or microbes.
- Heilit Is a lip disease of an inflammatory nature that forms a red border at the corners of the lips. The people call it "jams".
- Glossitis - This is damage to the tissues of the tongue by microorganisms or its injury, which provoked the inflammatory process.
- Periodontitis - inflammation of the tissues of the tooth, gums, followed by their destruction.
- Gingivitis - an inflammatory process affecting the gums without disturbing the connective tissues.
- Periodontal disease - non-inflammatory progressive periodontal disease.
- Paradontomas - these are benign tumors in the form of fibroids, fibroids in the periodontium.
- Hypoplasia - underdevelopment of dental tissues or congenital tooth pathologies.
- Hypersthesia - increasing the sensitivity of tissues with various types of stimuli.
- Hyperplasia - This is a strong overgrowth of tooth or gum tissue.
- Traumatic, allergic, infectious diseases.
- Congenital pathologies.
- Amelogenesis - an inherited disease characterized by abnormal development of the enamel.
- Dentinogenesis - an abnormal structure of the hard tooth tissue associated with a delay in the development of enamel and dentin.
- Pigmentation - This is plaque in the form of spots, stripes on the teeth.
- Erosion - fast erasure of the enamel and dentin layer.
- Fluorosis - pathology that develops before teething is associated with a high consumption of fluoride compounds, leading to damage to the enamel.
Therapeutic dentistry covers a wide range of problems, diseases of the maxillofacial region, mucous tissues in the oral cavity, teeth. Uses modern diagnostics and many progressive ways to eliminate diseases and their causes. Develops measures, means for the prevention of diseases.
The site is for informational purposes only. Do not under any circumstances self-medicate. If you find you have any symptoms of illness, contact your doctor.