According to statistics, every tenth woman in our country undergoes surgical treatment of an ovarian cyst. Moreover, in the overwhelming majority of cases (up to 90%), such neoplasms are benign, which makes it possible to use the most gentle methods for their removal.
What should a patient know about an ovarian cyst operation?
- Surgical treatment is justified only if there are signs of malignancy, or if conservative therapy (most often - hormonal drugs + non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) did not bring results after three menstrual cycles from the moment detection of cysts. There is such a thing as functional ovarian cysts - this is how tumor-like formations are called, which form during the menstrual cycle and self-destruct within one to three months. Before deciding on a surgical intervention, you should make sure that the detected neoplasm is not functional.
- Laparoscopy is considered the gold standard for the treatment of this pathology. This method allows you to do without massive damage to healthy tissues, large blood loss and the formation of rough postoperative scars in the future. After laparoscopy, there is practically no pain, the woman begins to get up early and eat, she quickly returns to her usual life. At the same time, the risk of developing adhesive disease and disruption of the reproductive system comes to naught. Often ovarian cyst laparoscopically removed through small (up to 15-20 mm) punctures of the abdominal wall. But some specialists - for example, the surgeon Konstantin Puchkov - perform this operation through the port, which is installed in the umbilical ring, or through the posterior fornix of the vagina. At the same time, even small marks do not remain on the stomach.
- If a woman plans to have children in the future, every precaution must be taken to reduce the damage to the ovary. According to the testimony, the doctor may prescribe an analysis for anti-Müllerian hormone, which will show whether the number of follicles, that is, immature eggs, in a woman has noticeably decreased by the time of the operation. The supply of follicles is already laid during the period of intrauterine development of the female body, therefore, gross damage to the ovarian tissue can adversely affect fertility. An alternative to the standard operation is enucleation - exfoliation of the contents of the cyst, or its careful excision (resection), followed by gluing, rather than suturing, of the incision site. It is imperative that the doctor selects the optimal treatment method based on the patient's health characteristics and wishes.
- When there is a risk that a cyst is malignant, the surgeon should act to minimize the risk of cancer cells spreading. One of the ways to increase the safety of the operation is to immediately after removal, place the formation in a sterile plastic container, and already in this form, remove it from the pelvic cavity.
- Particular attention should be paid to the prevention of adhesions in the postoperative period. In addition to early activity, the prevention of the formation of adhesions is facilitated by the use of special gels and barriers, which are introduced into the pelvic cavity during the operation. Prevention of adhesive disease can prevent many problems - such as chronic pelvic pain or disruption of the pelvic organs, therefore, is of great importance to health patients.
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