- Hormonal cycle and ovulation
- Definition of Abnormal Bleeding
- Physiological causes of pink discharge
- Could this be a sign of pregnancy?
- Causes of implantation bleeding
- When does implantation bleeding occur?
- Risk of bleeding in early pregnancy for mother and baby
- What are other symptoms of implantation in early pregnancy?
- morning sickness
- Sensitivity to smells and tastes
- Frequent urination
- Soreness of the mammary glands
- Stomach cramps
- Causes and symptoms of bleeding and spotting
- Hormones during ovulation
- Early pregnancy
- The impact of hormonal contraceptives
- Causes of spotting not related to cycle days
- Intermenstrual bleeding: when there is cause for concern
- What to do
- Which doctor to contact
Everyone knows that during this period ovulation occurs - an egg ready for fertilization is born. Due to the difference in the length of the cycle and other features, it is impossible to calculate the date mathematically. If the length is 24 days, then it is not at all necessary that ovulation occurs on the 12th day, it can happen later. It's always in the middle, though. The maturation of the egg does not happen every month, the older the woman, the less often the process occurs.
Pink insertions on the 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th day of the cycle are a variant of the norm, since ovulation can occur on any of these days.
After menstruation, the capsule on the ovary, the follicle, ripens and bursts. When the membrane ruptures, a small amount of blood, along with the egg, is absorbed by undulating contractions of the fallopian tubes. After passing through the uterus, it mixes with the secretory fluid of a whitish or transparent hue and as a result a small amount of pale pink discharge occurs. If the movement is long, then oxidation occurs, then the whites will take on a brownish tint. This symptom indicates that ovulation has occurred and pregnancy is most likely to occur within a few days.
Attention! To confirm the maturation of the egg can measure the temperature in the vagina in the morning without getting out of bed. After ovulation, the values rise to 37-37.2 degrees.
Hormonal cycle and ovulation
When the first menstruation appears, a woman enters childbearing age. Normally, the hormonal period goes through two stages:
- Preparations for the attachment of the embryo - the cells of the inner layer of the uterus grow, and when the desired size is reached, the next phase begins
- Ensuring the development of the embryo (hormone progestin) - a nutrient reserve of substances for the fetus is formed.
The ovulation period is the most suitable for conception, since at this time a woman's libido improves, mood improves and vaginal discharge occurs, which lasts up to three days. The consistency of the secretions at this stage contributes to the penetration of spermatozoa to the egg, for its fertilization. Time outside the ovulation period is very problematic for conception.
During ovulation, there is scanty pink discharge on the 10-15th day of the cycle. Such blood smears are usually scarce and last no more than a day. They are conditioned by the breakdown of the follicle.
In the case of a long period of mucous secretions, we can say that the ovulation period does not occur. The body continues to produce estrogens, and the egg does not form and does not leave the ovary. Blood discharge appears, which doctors define as acyclic uterine bleeding. They can occur with or without delay. It is impossible to confuse hormonal secretions with inflammatory processes and pathologies, since there are no other unpleasant sensations (itching, burning or pain during intercourse).
Discharges that are bloody in nature and occur in the middle of the menstrual cycle are a serious reason for contacting a specialist. Such processes may indicate the presence of inflammation and erosion, which are subject to mandatory treatment, as they cause severe consequences and adversely affect the function of childbearing.
The nature and consistency of secretions can be influenced not only by ovulation, but also by hormone emissions, inflammatory processes, diseases of the endocrine system. To determine the exact time of ovulation, to solve the issues of protection against unwanted pregnancy, it is necessary to contact specialists who modern methods diagnose diseases or malfunctions in the hormonal system in time, prescribe treatment, select the most gentle and effective method contraception. For prevention, it is necessary to contact a gynecologist for an examination every six months in order to exclude the development of serious diseases of the genital organs. And in case of a change in the nature of the discharge and a deterioration in well-being, you should not hesitate to visit the hospital.
Definition of Abnormal Bleeding
Physiological uterine bleeding is the discharge of blood from the vagina, which is associated with menstruation or postpartum discharge. The development of gynecological pathologies, accompanied by the appearance of spotting, is most common among adolescents in puberty - they make up 20-30% of all gynecological violations.
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a polyetiological disease that occurs against the background of exposure to adverse endo- and exogenous factors. As a result, the central mechanisms that regulate the functions of the reproductive system are violated. In 95% of cases, the cause of uterine bleeding is functional underdevelopment. hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian connections and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary processes leading to development of the corpus luteum in the ovaries.
Most experts agree that the pathogenesis of uterine bleeding is based on hormonal disorders, as well as the impact of adverse factors of exogenous and endogenous origin. Dysfunctions can develop against the background of thyroid pathologies, in which there is an increase in the content of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Abnormal uterine bleeding can be the result of not only gynecological diseases, but also somatic pathologies (spontaneous abortion, kidney and liver disease). Blood diseases, taking glucocorticosteroids, oral contraceptives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc., also have a negative effect.
Physiological causes of pink discharge
It is considered normal when pink discharge is a harbinger of a full menstruation. In the first days of menstruation, the so-called daub can be observed, the color of which can vary from light pink, scarlet to frankly brown. And all this may be due to the individual characteristics of the female body. Menstruation can also end with a gradual decrease in the volume of secretions and a change in their color.
There are certain conditions that are not associated with any pathology, in which scanty periods can be observed with a change in their color closer to the pink palette. The following circumstances should be highlighted here:
- taking oral contraceptives;
- installation of an inappropriate contraceptive spiral;
- slight fluctuations in the work of the thyroid gland;
- ovulation in the middle of the cycle;
- malnutrition or nutritional deficiencies in the diet;
- the effect of strong prolonged stress, overwork;
- depressive or neurotic states.
But even if one of these factors is present, the need to visit a gynecologist does not disappear anywhere. This is due to the fact that such a symptom can be a bell of serious pathological processes in the body - it is always better to play it safe.
Another possible, but now joyful, reason for the appearance of pink discharge instead of menstruation may be pregnancy. And this circumstance also requires a visit to the gynecology and registration.
Mucous whites from the vagina may acquire a brown tint due to the ingress of already coagulated blood from the rupture of the follicle. If the blood has not clotted, the discharge will be pink or scarlet, depending on the amount of bleeding. The poorer the selection, the more brown you will observe.
Could this be a sign of pregnancy?
A characteristic symptom is a delay and pink discharge, since implantation bleeding occurs around the date of the next menstruation. Pink discharge can also appear on the 20th day of the cycle, which is just a week after ovulation. But late maturation or a second ovulation in one cycle is not ruled out. Then conception could happen during or immediately after menstruation. The test will put everything in its place, but not everyone is able to give a reliable result for a period of 2-3 weeks. The most accurate way is a blood test for hCG levels.
Causes of implantation bleeding
During conception, the partner's sperm fertilizes the egg, and an embryo is formed. Then the embryo passes through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, where it is embedded in the wall of the organ. The implant destroys some of the blood vessels, causing light bleeding in the early stages of pregnancy. The process does not lead to any problems for the developing child.
When does implantation bleeding occur?
Implantation bleeding usually occurs 6-12 days after conception. If ovulation is on the 10th day of the cycle, then on the 16th - 22nd day of the cycle there will be pink implantation discharge. If ovulation is on the 16th day of the cycle, then the implantation discharge will be from the 22nd day until the day the menstruation begins. It turns out that the discharge associated with conception can be on any day from the 16th day of the cycle. This early sign of pregnancy may well coincide with the time of your period. Therefore, you may mistake light bleeding in early pregnancy for regular cyclic discharge.
Risk of bleeding in early pregnancy for mother and baby
The consequences and risks of bleeding in early pregnancy depend on the cause and whether it can be treated or not.
- Ectopic pregnancy. This is a pathological pregnancy that requires immediate intervention. With proper treatment, the prognosis of an ectopic pregnancy for the mother is good, but carrying such a pregnancy is impossible.
- Threatened abortion. With timely treatment, there is a 50% chance of a normal pregnancy and childbirth. If during the examination, an ultrasound of the uterus shows the fetal heartbeat, then the chances of a normal pregnancy are 75 - 90%.
- Complete miscarriage. Risks for a mother who has not consulted a doctor - the preservation of the remnants of the fetal egg in the uterus. Subject to the examination and, if necessary, cleaning the uterus, the risks for the woman are minimal.
- Molar pregnancy. In this type of pregnancy, there is no fetal formation, therefore, there is no true pregnancy. Molar pregnancy can have serious complications, including certain types of cancer that require early treatment.
What are other symptoms of implantation in early pregnancy?
Since implantation bleeding only occurs in about a third of pregnancies, you are likely to be among the majority who do not experience it. However, your vigilance for the signs and symptoms of successful implantation is probably still massively high! So what are other early signs that you might be pregnant? They may include:
This can start as early as 4 weeks after conception (10-14 days after embryo transfer), although more often it happens after about 6 weeks. Luckily for those who go through this, morning sickness is usually temporary and usually improves by 16-20 weeks of pregnancy.
Sensitivity to smells and tastes
Sudden sensitivity to smell and taste can be a sign of early pregnancy and no doubt contributes to the long tales of pregnancy “cravings” for certain foods. Both heightened sensitivity and morning sickness are the result of hormonal changes taking place in your body.
It seems strange when your baby is still very young, but the need to urinate more often in early pregnancy is one of the most common symptoms. It is also the result of hormonal changes that cause faster blood flow through the liver and kidneys to remove waste as efficiently as possible. In addition, the uterus rapidly increases in size even at this early stage of pregnancy and therefore puts more pressure on the bladder, especially at night.
Soreness of the mammary glands
The well-known symptom of breast tenderness is another sign of early pregnancy. This is the result of an increase in blood flow and fluid retention in the mammary glands against the background of a sharp increase in the level of female sex hormones in the blood serum.
Spasms may occur on their own or be accompanied by slight bleeding, which may be a signal of implantation. You might think that all these possible early signs and symptoms of pregnancy will help to be easily confident in its onset. But the fact is that some symptoms are also present in some people as a harbinger of their normal monthly cycle in premenstrual syndrome. Thus, despite all the possible clues, the only way to be sure of pregnancy is to take a pregnancy test, and with it, confirm the pregnancy with your doctor.
Causes and symptoms of bleeding and spotting
Uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia) is life-threatening bloody discharge that lasts more than 7 days.
Causes of metrorrhagia:
- organic, caused by gynecological pathology (submucosal myomatous node, polyp, endometrial hyperplasia, uterine adenocarcinoma);
- functional, caused by severe stress or disruption of the endocrine organs (thyroid gland, adrenal glands) and ovaries;
- bleeding during pregnancy (threat of miscarriage and premature birth, missed pregnancy, placental abruption);
- other causes (diseases of the blood, liver, taking drugs that thin the blood - antiplatelet agents).
There are several reasons for intermenstrual bleeding. The main one is the pathology of the ovaries themselves. It can have the character of inflammatory processes, benign tumors and tumor-like formations (cysts, fibromas), and in some cases malignant tumors.
Ovarian function is affected by other organs of the endocrine system, incl. and thyroid gland. Strengthening or weakening of thyroid function is reflected in the state of the ovaries, and leads to hemorrhagic discharge in the intermenstrual period. The same applies to the pituitary gland, which controls all organs of the endocrine system.
Naturally low levels of estrogen and progesterone are noted at the very beginning of puberty, and during menopause. Therefore, intermenstrual spotting often occurs in the first 2 years after the first menstruation (menarche), when the menstrual cycle is just being established. The same is possible in the premenopausal period, before the natural extinction of the reproductive function.
The hormonal background can change artificially when taking oral contraceptives. These drugs contain synthetic analogues of estrogens and progesterone. Their action is aimed at suppressing ovulation. And if ovulation does occur, hormonal changes make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant.
Gynecologists claim that oral contraceptives have a beneficial effect on the menstrual cycle. This is true - after taking these drugs, the duration of the cycle, the volume of bleeding are normalized, and intermenstrual bleeding disappears. However, these drugs inhibit the synthesis of natural estrogens. Therefore, at the end of their intake, spotting is sometimes noted in the middle of the cycle.
Other causes of intermenstrual hemorrhagic discharge associated with endometriosis, benign and malignant tumor processes of the body and cervix are also possible. But in these cases, bleeding is not dysfunctional - they are due to organic pathology.
Sometimes intermenstrual bleeding may not be associated with gynecological diseases. Blood clotting disorders (coagulopathy) in women are manifested not only by profuse long menstruation (menorrhagia), but also by metrorrhagia.
But not all spotting is associated with pathology. For example, ovulation is often accompanied by such secretions, which are caused by a rupture of the follicle wall. In addition, ovulation is a favorable period for conception and pregnancy. Implantation of the embryo into the myometrium 5-10 days after fertilization is accompanied by slight bleeding. Needless to say, the next menstruation after this will not come. But at the same time, one should not forget that hemorrhages can indicate not only pregnancy, but also its interruption, miscarriage.
Some women testify to the presence of spotting after the onset of pregnancy. These discharges are perceived as monthly. In fact, this is a partial rejection of the endometrium, which also indicates the risk of miscarriage.
Hormones during ovulation
When the egg matures and the follicle exits, minor blood clots may occur. Such secretions are brown, pink, reddish in color, they do not pose any concern. A serious signal for concern is hormonal changes, against which spotting may occur in the middle of the cycle.
This phenomenon causes concern for the following reasons:
- the uterus reacted to the increased production of estrogen;
- insufficient production of the hormone progesterone;
- the development of neoplasms that affect the reproductive system;
- low thyroid activity.
In the early stages of pregnancy, the patient's body may react to the days on which menstruation used to come. However, if brown discharge begins with characteristic pain, then an urgent consultation with a gynecologist is necessary. Because such ointments may indicate a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy.
The impact of hormonal contraceptives
To avoid unwanted pregnancy, women use birth control pills, which in turn can cause bleeding in the middle of the cycle. This phenomenon is considered within the normal range. However, if the discharge is plentiful and protracted, then you need to visit the clinic.
Causes of spotting not related to cycle days
Postcoital bleeding that occurs after sexual intercourse. In this case, blood is released due to bleeding of the cervix affected by tumors and precancer (dysplasia). Bloody daub can occur with erosions, cysts and polyps of the cervical canal.
Significant physical activity. In this situation, the appearance of a slight bloody daub is caused by increased fragility of the vessels. Since the blood in this case is immediately in contact with air, such secretions often have a brownish color. Their appearance is a reason to check your reproductive system and reduce stress.
Inflammatory processes, including those caused by sexual infections. A woman has purulent discharge mixed with blood, sometimes with an unpleasant odor. This condition is accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, fever, deterioration of well-being.
Malignant tumors of the body of the uterus, in which discharge appears, resembling meat slops. They may contain impurities of pus and have an unpleasant fetid odor.
Intermenstrual bleeding: when there is cause for concern
Light spotting after your period, which occurs around ovulation and stops quickly, is usually nothing to worry about. However, in this case, the gynecologist should still be visited to make sure that there are no serious diseases.
If bleeding in the middle of the cycle increases, is accompanied by pain, or does not go away after 2-3 days, you should seek medical help without delay. The specialist will be able to determine why intermenstrual bleeding has occurred, and will prescribe the appropriate treatment.
If the bleeding becomes severe, and the woman's condition worsens, you should immediately call an ambulance. These symptoms indicate the presence of serious problems, many of which require urgent surgical intervention.
What to do
With smearing pinkish discharge that occurred once in the middle of the cycle, you should not worry. This is a confirmation that the reproductive function is normal and ovulation has occurred. During this period, you can conceive a child.
You should visit a gynecologist if you experience the following symptoms:
- The discharge has a strong odor;
- Continues to smear for several days;
- Pulls the lower abdomen;
- Increased body temperature;
- Acute pain in the sides, abdomen, lower back and sacrum radiating to the shoulders, collarbone, anus, legs;
- The next menstruation has not come;
- The genitals sting and itch.
Attention! If a woman wants to get pregnant, then she definitely needs to be examined first. To exclude diseases before conception.
Which doctor to contact
The appearance of pink discharge before menstruation, not associated with ovulation and pregnancy, requires the help of a specialist. Considering the fact that this may be a symptom of oncology, it definitely should not be delayed. In this case, such specialists are needed.
It is necessary to contact the gynecologist immediately. He will be able to conduct an examination and understand whether it is necessary to continue the diagnosis. The help of a second specialist will be required if harmful microbes in the body have become the cause of untimely discharge. At the first appointment with a gynecologist, you will have to answer the following questions:
- Is sexual activity regular?
- What methods of contraception are used?
- Have you had an abortion?
- What infectious diseases have you had recently?
Having collected anamnesis, the gynecologist will be able to understand what actions need to be taken, and what kind of diagnosis is required to understand the cause of the appearance of uncharacteristic discharge.
If there is blood between periods for an unknown reason, it is very important to consult a doctor in a timely manner. There are many tests that can be done to find out the causes of bleeding between periods. Analyzes and methods for diagnosing intermenstrual bleeding, depending on the situation, include:
- Gynecological examination (mirrors and manual).
- Vaginal swabs to rule out infection.
- Cervical screening test (Pap test) - if necessary, to look for abnormal cells.
- General blood tests - to rule out anemia if the bleeding is heavy.
- Ultrasound of the pelvis - to look for fibroids and check the ovaries.
- Colposcopy is a detailed examination of the cervix.
- Hysteroscopy - examination of the uterine cavity using a camera.
- A biopsy is the removal of tissue samples for examination under a microscope.
Most often, prolonged and painful spotting in the middle of the cycle is due to the presence of genital infections. Treatment is prescribed after examining the patient and conducting tests. Therapy consists in taking antibacterial drugs and topical agents.
If the tests did not detect sexually transmitted diseases, then a diagnosis of non-infectious causes of bleeding is carried out. For this, a hormonal analysis is often prescribed. If a hormonal imbalance is detected, the doctor prescribes therapy to correct it.
Extensive uterine bleeding is a possible symptom of such diseases:
- cervical erosion;
- cervical cancer.
For the treatment of these diseases, as a rule, surgical intervention is already necessary.