The intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the most effective methods of contraception. It is a small device made of plastic and copper, silver, which is inserted into the uterus of a woman. The intrauterine device operates through several mechanisms that provide a contraceptive effect, placement of a coil in the uterus carried out by a gynecologist.
One of the main mechanisms of action of the IUD is to prevent fertilization. The spiral changes the state of the surface layer of the uterus, making it unsuitable for the attachment of a fertilized egg. In addition, the presence of a spiral in the uterus creates unfavorable conditions for the passage of spermatozoa, making the mucus in the cervical canal thicker.
The second mechanism that provides the contraceptive effect of the IUD is the rejection of a fertilized egg along with the endometrium. If fertilization does occur, and the egg is attached to the wall of the uterus, the spiral creates such conditions that it will be rejected. When a woman has a spiral installed, she has an incomplete maturation of the endometrium, that is, even the chance of attaching a fertilized egg is significantly reduced. Phagocytosis of spermatozoa by macrophages also occurs. That is, several mechanisms at once provide a reliable long-term contraceptive effect.
The intrauterine device has a number of advantages that make it an attractive choice for women looking for a reliable method of contraception. First of all, the IUD provides a long-term contraceptive effect. In the case of a medical coil (without hormonal components), it can be used for up to 10 years, and hormonal coils do not need to be changed for 3-5 years. This frees the woman from the need to take oral contraceptives or condoms every day.
Moreover, the IUD does not affect sexual intercourse and does not limit physical activity. A woman can lead a normal sex life without worrying about the presence of contraception. The intrauterine device also does not affect sexual desire and the ability to achieve orgasm.
Another advantage of spirals is that removal of the navy does not amount to any work. This means that if a woman decides to become pregnant or choose another method of contraception, the coil can be removed by a gynecologist and her fertility will quickly return.
However, in addition to the conventional medical coil, there are also hormonal intrauterine devices on the market. They contain derivatives of progestin, a hormone that is secreted in small amounts directly into the uterus. Hormonal coils provide a contraceptive effect by changing the hormonal background, like COCs. One of the benefits of hormonal coils is that they can reduce the intensity of menstrual bleeding and alleviate pain during menstruation. They are often prescribed for women with endometriosis.
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