Cardio is a cardiovascular system that is recommended for weight loss, maintaining the body in tone, and also used by athletes with strength training. Cardio has both a number of pluses and a number of drawbacks, which must be read.
main disadvantage enhanced cardio - a decrease in the hormone cortisol, which leads toThe following:
- cells develop resistance to insulin( the body can not burn fat);
- increases ghrelin and decreases leptin( faster comes the feeling of hunger);
- decreased testosterone and growth hormone;
- loss of muscle mass;
- reduced stress resistance.
Because of this, people who began to perform cardio training, quickly disappointed, because they do not see the result. After reading this article, you will learn how to avoid the above negative features of cardio.
Pulse in cardio plays a dominant role. During training, you need to constantly monitor your heart rate and not give him a break from the norm.
Approximate formula for determining the maximum heart rate:
220 - Y = X
Where Y is your age and X is your maximum heart rate.
The pulse rate during training should be 65-85% of the maximum. Exceeding the norm can lead to significant problems, and the defect does not bring results at all.
If during the training you have exceeded the threshold of the heart rate, you should slow down, but it is strictly forbidden to stop and try to catch your breath. Increase the load should be gradual, avoiding pulse surges. Your pulse should not be 40% of the norm in one measurement, but at the next 80%.
If you do not have a heart rate monitor, you will have to check it yourself. It is necessary to put two fingers to the neck and count the number of strokes within 10 seconds, then multiply the number by 6.
The pulse should be measured every 5 minutes of training, and you do not need to take breaks for counting, you must continue exercising during the heart rate measurement.
How to breathe
Experts advise to breathe deeply and not to make intermittent and short breathsand exhalations. In training, you must observe comfort, feel that you started to choke - lowered the tempo.to table of contents ^
Breathing when running
The most generally accepted is the system & lt; 2-2 & gt;, when it is observed, you need to take two steps in inspiration and expiration. There are also similar breathing systems & lt; 3-3 & gt;and & lt; 4-4 & gt; , you must try each one to know exactly which one is right for you, because each person is individual.
Another tip for runners is to breathe not with your chest, but with your stomach. To do this, practice a few minutes standing still.
In order for the lungs to get more oxygen, they need to breathe through the mouth.to the table of contents ^
Breathing during cardio exhalations
There is a rule to breathe out with your mouth when your body is straightened and inhaled with your nose, while tilting. But everyone during cardio exercises must certainly find his own rhythm of breathing and feel great and easy, because you can not always rely on the advice of athletes.to contents ^
When and how much to do
The time and frequency of classes directly depends on your goals, therefore, to decide when and how much you need to do, you need to study the pulse zones.to contents ^
Zone 1. Aerobic zone( 50-60% of the norm)
The zone is recommended for beginners, or for people with very large excess weight. It is also advised to use the first aerobic zone as a warm-up before and after the workout. The heart and muscles receive minimal stress. Use recommended for 20-40 minutes.to contents ^
Zone 2. Fitness zone( 60-75% of norm)
The zone is recommended for fat burning and suitable for everyone. Training is built in such a way that all the energy expended is taken from the fat deposits. Use is recommended for 40-80 minutes.
Zone 3. Force endurance zone( 75-85% of the norm)
It requires great endurance and preparedness, but beginners are advised to train in this zone for no longer than 10 minutes. In the zone of power endurance, more calories are expended, but as a "fuel" the body can use not only the fat layer, but also the muscles.to contents ^
Area 4. Heavy improvement zone( 85-90% of the norm)
The mode is suitable only for professional / experienced athletes, with this load, not fat, but only carbohydrates. Frequent use of this zone in training can be detrimental to the body. Use is recommended for 2-10 minutes.to contents ^
Zone 5. Maximum improvement zone( 90-100% of the norm)
Limit of body capacity, it is not recommended to conduct training in this area for longer than 2-5 minutes, to use only trained athletes. Be clearly controlled so that the pulse does not go up even higher. Frequent and prolonged training in the 5th zone can lead to death.
Therefore, for weight loss, it is necessary to conduct training in the second pulse zone, to ensure that the pulse does not rise above 75% of the norm, and it takes about 40 minutes. The optimal number of loads will be training 2-3 times a week. Time of training: either in the morning from 7.00 to 9.00, or in the evening from 18.00 to 21.00.to contents ^
Building a power
No training, no matter how effective it is, will not bring any results if you do not keep the correct diet.
- Nutrition time: you should eat at least 1.5-2 hours before training and not earlier than 45 minutes after.
- Ration: here you need to give preference to a normal, healthy diet, and not to debilitating diets. Your ideal diet should consist of 50% carbohydrates, 30% protein and 20% fat.
- Food up to: proteins and complex carbohydrates with a reduced glycemic index( boiled chicken breast, lean fish and cheese, skim milk products, cereals).
- Eating during: it is necessary to drink water, a lot and often, but in small sips.
- Eating after: you need to use fast proteins after 45 minutes( for example, egg whites), and after 45 minutes complex carbohydrates.
Also, some experts recommend eating squirrels immediately after training, and carbohydrates after an hour.to table of contents ^
For classes at home
For the best result, you must perform all three workouts at a time, the total time then is 48 minutes, which is optimal for losing weight.
Equipment: skipping rope, ball for aerobics, mat, several light dumbbell, step platform. Also, you can perform home cardio fitness training at home without any equipment.to the table of contents ^
- Running with raising knees. Pull forward the palms and during the run as high as possible and quickly raise your knees, so that they touch the palms.
- Jumping and push-ups. Initial position: feet are shoulder width apart, arms raised. We need to sit down and jump to the bar by leap, wring one time, then jump back to the ground, and then take the starting position by jumping. Exercise should be done as quickly as possible.
- Squats. It is necessary to crouch quickly and deeply. Hands stretched out.
Training the second
- Dynamic jumps. Feet together, legs apart - 5 times. Jump, squat, jump - 5 times. Fast jumps on socks - 5 times.
- Kicks and kicks. The arms are bent at the elbows and are at the level of the jaw, the legs are bent at the knees, making sharp and strong attacks with the foot to the side. Upon impact, the body rotates 45 degrees, the supporting leg does not move. Change your foot every 10 strokes.
- Falls with a change of legs. It is necessary to change the leg of the lunge in a jump.
- Mountaineer. It is necessary to stand in the position of "bar" and quickly change your legs, pulling them in turn to yourself, trying to reach them to the knees.
- Jumping with a skipping rope. It is necessary to start jumping on two legs, at a slow pace, gradually accelerating and alternating between legs.
- Pulling your legs to yourself lying down. You need to lie on your back, spread your knees so that the feet are brought together and lift both the body and legs.
For classes in the gym
The following options for single training are suitable.to table of contents ^
- Hold on to the rail;
- Get on the track before turning it on;
- Do not wear shoes;
- Start at high speed.
What is needed:
- It is necessary to do stretching;
- To deal only with health and well-being;
- It is advisable to purchase running light sneakers or sneakers.
Interval running system:
- Spend a warm-up, going for 10-15 minutes at a speed of 5 km / h;
- Increase the degree of the slope of the track from zero to 3-6 degrees and continue to walk for another 10 minutes at a speed of 5 km / h;
- Lower the track again to a zero degree of slope and run at a speed of 8 km / h for three minutes;
- Run at the maximum speed for you 2 minutes.
Everything except workout, perform 3 times. Complete the workout with a hitch.to contents ^
- Head down during class;
- Transfer the body weight to the hands;
- Sit straining and arching your back.
- Keep your hands relaxed;
- Keep your head straight, look in front of you;
- Keep feet parallel to the floor;
- Adjust the desired seat height;
- Choose light, comfortable clothes( for example, shorts and a T-shirt) and sneakers;
- Perform a warm-up and a hitch.
Interval training system on a stationary bike:
- Spend a warm-up for 5-10 minutes, pedaling at the most comfortable pace;
- Turn pedals faster than warming up, but slower than at an average tempo of 5 minutes;
- Accelerate for 3 minutes, moving at an average pace;
- Within 2 minutes, pedal at the highest possible speed for yourself.
Repeat all, except workout, 3 times. Complete the workout with a hitch, similar to a warm-up.to contents ^
What can not be done:
- To deal with poor health;
- Allow clothing to enter the moving parts of the simulator;
- Start classes without a warm-up.
What is needed:
- Lightweight and comfortable clothing;
- Observance of the operating rules;
- Regular wiping of the simulator, to avoid accumulation of dust in the gaps.
Interval training system on the elliptical simulator:
- As a warm-up, move in a light, comfortable pace for 10 minutes;
- Accelerate to an average pace and move for 5 minutes;
- Drive 3 minutes at the maximum possible speed;
- Increase the load on the simulator and continue to move at an average pace of 5 minutes;
- Drive for 2 minutes at maximum speed.
Repeat all, except warm-up, 2 times. Complete the workout with a hitch, similar to a warm-up.to the table of contents ^
For outdoor activities
For the best result, it is necessary to perform all three workouts at a time, the total time then will be 48-50 minutes, which is optimal for losing weight.to contents ^
Begin training with an easy warm-up and jog for 15-20 minutes, only then go on to the following exercises:
- Body and leg lying down. Lay down on a bench or rug, lift the trunk and legs, leaning on the palms and pelvis, bend and bend your legs, not lowering them to the ground.
- Alternate bearing change. Stand on the palm of your hand and feet and in turn raise that right hand with your left foot, then your left arm with your right foot.
- Plank with jumps. Stand in the bar, jump apart your legs, then also jump back to the starting position, jump with your legs towards you, pressing them to your chest, and again return to the starting position.
Training the second
- Mahi feet standing. Legs on the width of the shoulders, hands in front of you, alternately perform a wave with your feet, changing your leg every 5 attacks.
- Pulling the knees to the elbows lying on the back. Lay down on your back and try to perform the exercise so that the knees the right knee touches the left elbow, and the left with the right.
- Raising the pelvis and swinging the legs. Lie on your back and bend your knees, raise the pelvis with the leg stretched perpendicular to the floor so that the angle in the knee of the second leg is 90 degrees. The palms and back are tightly pressed to the floor, changing feet after each lunge.
Training the third
- Push-ups from the bench. Lean your hands on the bench and do push-ups, trying to keep your back straight and do not bend your legs.
- Back push-ups from the bench. Lean your hands on the bench and lower the case. The floor should touch only the heel.
- Falls with support. With your right hand, lean on the support, making a sweep with your left foot, after 10 strokes, change the supporting arm.
- Perform a hitch by running at an easy pace for 10 minutes.