While the child is still small and does not interact with a large number of people, he is practically not sick. However, if the kid goes to a kindergarten or if he has older siblings attending organized children's groups, as a rule, various illnesses do not keep you waiting long.
- What is rotavirus
- Causes of infection
- Symptoms of
- How it proceeds in children
- Treatment methods
- Food correction
- Child care after
What is rotavirus
Rotavirus is a family of viruses from the family of Reoviruses. The name "rotavirus" comes from the Latin word "company", which means "wheel", which these viruses resemble by their form. In total, this genus includes 9 viruses( A-I), of which a person can become infected with three( A, B, C), and most often one( A) - in 90% of cases.
Rotaviruses reproduce in the human intestine and at the same time affect the epithelium, resulting in the development of a specific symptomatology, characteristic of rotavirus infection. This virus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children, especially in organized groups.
Rotavirus disease occurs flare-up, with the virus becoming active during the cold season. Children are mostly infected with virus A, while virus B is called the "adult diarrhea virus".to the table of contents ^
Causes of infection
Basically, rotaviruses are carried by a fecal-oral mechanism, that is, through dirty hands and touching contaminated surfaces, but an airborne way of transmission from an infected person to a healthy one is possible. Children over one year of age usually get infected in children's organizations - kindergartens and schools.
Rotaviruses do not perish by hitting the environment, and can persist there for a long time. They are also insensitive to low temperatures. And the usual sanitary and hygienic measures that are applied against other bacteria and viruses do not affect rotavirus. Therefore, outbreaks of rotavirus infection occur both in countries with a low sanitary level, and in those countries where health care is significantly developed.
In organized collectives, the spread of infection can occur not only through contamination of the virus with various surfaces, but also through food. As adults also get sick( and may also be asymptomatic vectors), they can infect foods by participating in their preparation.
The virus in fermented milk products is especially well preserved. Kill the virus can only boil foods at +100 degrees Celsius, but such food processing does not meet the technological requirements for its preparation.
In addition to food, you can get infected through water if the virus has got into it already after boiling, or it did not boil at all. Chlorination of water and chlorine treatment of surfaces will not help prevent infection, since chlorine does not affect rotavirus.
The infected person is dangerous from the moment he had the first signs of the disease, and until the very recovery. And the recovery is determined not by the disappearance of symptoms, but by the negative result of the rotavirus test. The peak of infectiousness occurs on the 3-5th day of the disease, while the maximum number of viruses is allocated with the feces of the patient.
It is important to remember that rotavirus is extremely contagious, and non-compliance with basic hygiene measures at times increases the risk of getting an infection:
- through unwashed hands;
- through contaminated products;
- through contaminated water;
- through the air( with particles of saliva of the infected person).
The disease caused by rotaviruses occurs in cycles:
- incubation period of rotavirus infection in children - up to 5 days from the time of infection;
- Acute illness - 3-7 days( in severe cases it may be longer how many days the rotavirus infection in children lasts, usually depends on age);
- recovery - up to 5 days.
The disease begins acutely, with vomiting, diarrhea of a characteristic kind( the chair looks like clay light, urine dark, maybe with blood inclusions).There is a runny nose, soreness in the throat, loss of appetite and weakness.
As a rule, the peak incidence occurs simultaneously with outbreaks of influenza, and therefore rotavirus infection is also referred to as "intestinal flu".In connection with severe diarrhea, dehydration occurs, because of which even a fatal outcome is possible.
Children are much more likely to get "intestinal flu" because their immunity is weaker than in adults, in addition, the acidity of the adult stomach is higher, which inhibits the reproduction of viruses. As with each such disease immunity is developed, with age, rotavirus is transferred more and more easily( provided that it is the same rotavirus to which immunity is developed).to table of contents ^
How does the child develop
? At an early age, frequent occurrences of rotavirus are enteritis, gastroenteritis and secondary lactase deficiency.
In children under the age of five, the disease is very difficult and is accompanied by severe intoxication. Signs of rotavirus infection in children:
- intoxication( especially this is typical of infants): the child is capricious, sweats, moves little and eats badly;
- febrile fever( temperature above 38 degrees);
- diarrhea - in young children can last up to 2 weeks, leading to dehydration of the body, causing increased intoxication;
- vomiting - lasts up to about 2 days, less often longer;
- abdominal pain - not strongly pronounced, but can be amplified by palpation.
The younger the child, the heavier the course of the disease. If any of these symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor, since for babies rotavirus is very dangerous.
In addition, there are a number of signs that appear at any age to cause immediate hospitalization:
- an admixture of scarlet blood in feces or their black color, which means that the intestinal bleeding has begun;
- more than tenfold diarrhea and more than seven times vomiting, which causes dehydration, which can cause the patient's death;
- rash on the body, which may indicate typhoid fever or paratyphoid;
- very severe abdominal pain can mean damage to the intestines.
In all these cases, you need to immediately call an ambulance, as the patient must be urgently hospitalized and begin treatment as soon as possible, since such conditions threaten life.to table of contents ^
Infection with rotavirus infection can be suspected by characteristic symptoms: intoxication, febrility, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain. However, in order to diagnose it is necessary to conduct research:
- study of faeces for the presence of viruses: viruses are isolated and cultivated in chick embryos, on which the viruses act in a certain way;
- blood test for serology: the determination of antibodies to rotaviruses.
But the treatment of the disease should begin immediately( by symptoms), without waiting for the laboratory. Upon receipt of the test results, the treatment will simply be adjusted accordingly.
Methods of treatment
There is no specific way to treat rotavirus. Antibiotics for rotavirus infection in children are not used. Therefore, the symptoms of the disease are treated and the patient is relieved at home.to table of contents ^
Correction of food
During this period it is important to take care of the question of what to feed the child with rotavirus infection:
- If the baby is breastfeeding, then it should be fed in the same way as before the illness, and since there is dehydration, it is necessary to feed on demand( at least 5 times a day).
- Children on artificial feeding give a mixture without lactose or with a reduced content to reduce the intensity of diarrhea.
- Do not give new food during illness.
- Older children need to follow a diet. Diet with rotavirus infection in children involves the exclusion of the following foods: vegetables, fruits, berries, fried, fatty, milk, dairy products, flour and broths.
- You can eat porridge on the water, and drink more water.
For rotavirus infection, children are prescribed:
- sorbents( coal, Enterodes, Polysorb, Smecta, Neosmectin);
- antiviral( Arbidol, Anaferon);
- detoxification therapy( Regidron, Toast, Glucosolan);
- probiotics( Bifiform, Bifidumbarterin, Lineks).
In addition, infants need to change diapers as often as possible due to diarrhea. If signs of worsening appear, you should immediately call an ambulance.back to contents ^
Child care after
The child's normal diet should be restored slowly and gradually. A strict diet is necessary after rotavirus infection in children. The fact is that there are consequences of rotavirus infection in children.
Babies breastfed can, as a complication, disrupt the absorption of breast milk, in this case, temporarily, the baby should be transferred to a lactose-free mixture. And my mother in this period will need to be expressed, so that milk is not lost. This milk intolerance can last about 3 weeks.
Older children also do not eat dairy products for 3 weeks.
With 3 days allowed buckwheat and oatmeal in water without oil. You can also mashed potatoes( only without milk and butter!).
Mandatory copious drinking in the first month after the illness, since rotavirus infection is associated with severe dehydration. With caution, you can start giving milk products by the end of the first month after the illness.to contents ^
To protect the child from rotavirus infection, for the purpose of prophylaxis it is necessary:
- To carry out vaccination( vaccination against rotavirus infection for children is done with Rotarix and RotaTech vaccines) is the most effective measure, since sanitary measures, although they can protect against the virus, but not significantly reduce the incidence.
- Be sure to wash your hands as often as possible, without fail - before meals, after the toilet, after the street.
- If possible, boil all the food you can boil.
- Drink only boiled water and from known sources.
- Do not swallow water while bathing.
In children's institutions, rotavirus or, as it is also called, "intestinal flu" is quite common. Usually for school age, almost every child has already been ill with this illness at least once. Immunity after the disease is formed unstable, so you can get infected repeatedly.