Types of anemia, their causes, symptoms and treatment

Anemia( anemia) - a pathological condition of the body, in which the concentration of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells in the blood decreases. At the same time, the supply of tissues and organs with oxygen decreases, which negatively affects their functioning. Anemia is not an independent diagnosis, but one of the symptoms of the underlying disease. However, the lack of adequate treatment of anemia can lead to serious complications, up to a lethal outcome.


Contents:
  • Symptoms
  • Anemic
  • syndrome sideropenic syndrome
  • Gastrointestinal
  • syndrome neuralgic syndrome
  • Hemorrhagic Syndrome
  • reasons and factors
  • Food
  • Genetic
  • Physical
  • tumors and chronic nature of the disease
  • Infectious lesions
  • intoxication and exposure to medications
  • Classification
  • Onthe mechanism of occurrence of
  • According to the color index of blood
  • According to the morphological feature
  • According to the type oftransform of erythrocytes( erythropoiesis)
  • By marrow ability
  • regeneration by the degree
  • gravity of the most common types
  • Iron( IDA)
  • folievodefitsitnoy
  • B12 deficiency( pernicious)
  • Hemolytic
  • Posthemorrhagic
  • Aplastic( hypoplastic)
  • Implications
  • Diagnostics
  • Poll andanamnesis history
  • Inspection
  • Assays
  • Sampling of the bone marrow
  • Instrumental diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Drugs
  • Chiurgicheskoe treatment
  • Folk remedies
  • Power
  • When iron and post-hemorrhagic
  • When folievodefitsitnoy
  • When B12-deficiency
  • Disability
  • during pregnancy
  • Children
  • in infants and young children
  • have school-age children and adolescents
  • Prevention

Symptoms

Red blood cells- erythrocytes - are formed in the red bone marrow, and make up about 1/4 of all cells of the body. Their cavity is filled with the protein hemoglobin, which includes iron, binding oxygen and giving the blood a rich red color.

The main function of erythrocytes is gas exchange, that is, the transport of oxygen from the lungs to organs and tissues, as well as the transfer of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The lifespan of red corpuscles is 100-120 days, after which their destruction( hemolysis) takes place.


In anemia, the body's ability to metabolize gas is reduced, causing a deterioration in the person's well-being. The clinical picture can be represented by one or more syndromes.

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Anemia syndrome

  • Severe weakness of the body;
  • increased fatigue;
  • inability to concentrate attention;
  • memory reduction;
  • dizziness, headache;
  • drowsiness;
  • general malaise;
  • flickering flies before your eyes;
  • tinnitus;
  • syncope;
  • increase or decrease in blood pressure;
  • arrhythmia and tachycardia - violation of heart rate;
  • shortness of breath.
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Sideropenic Syndrome

  • Perversion of taste - for example, the desire to eat raw meat, chalk, ground, gnaw dry pasta, try cold snow and ice;
  • perversion of the sense of smell - sick like to smell the paint, acetone, gasoline;
  • changes the structure of the hair - they become dull, brittle, split, early gray;
  • fragility of nails, appearance of white spots on them;
  • skin deterioration - peeling, pale skin;
  • appearance of cracks and jaunts in the corners of the mouth;
  • bluish coloring sclera;
  • hyperpigmentation of the skin;
  • marked predisposition to frequent viral infections and inflammatory processes.
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Gastrointestinal syndrome

Develops due to atrophic changes in the mucous membrane of the mouth, stomach and intestines:

  • glossitis is a brilliant, bright red tongue, causing a feeling of raspiraniya and pain;
  • aphthous stomatitis - small sores in the oral cavity;
  • decrease or loss of appetite;
  • pain when swallowing food;
  • heaviness in the stomach after eating;
  • weight loss;
  • pain in the rectum;
  • abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, stool disorders;
  • change in stool color to black( characteristic of gastrointestinal bleeding);
  • darkening of urine;
  • imperative urge to urinate, unable to hold urine when laughing, coughing;
  • splenomegaly - an increase in the size of the spleen;
  • hepatomegaly - enlargement of the liver;
  • jaundice of the skin due to liver damage;
  • formation of gallstones.

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Neuralgic syndrome

  • Increased muscle weakness and fatigue, especially in the legs with prolonged walking or lifting up;
  • tingling or numbness of the limbs;
  • violation of peripheral sensitivity - in the area of ​​hands and feet;
  • atrophic changes in the muscles of the lower limbs;
  • occurrence of seizures.
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Hemorrhagic syndrome

Represents a tendency to skin hemorrhage and bleeding of the mucous membranes. It is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • ulcers and swelling on the legs;
  • gum bleeding, ulcers in the oral cavity;
  • appearance of bruises or petechial rash - small red spots on the skin.
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Causes and factors of

There are 3 main causes of anemia:

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  • blood loss - acute and chronic bleeding;
  • elevated hemolysis( decay of erythrocytes);
  • reduced production of red blood cells.

Among the factors provoking the development of pathology, the following:

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Food

Is a deficit of certain elements in the diet:

  • iron;
  • folic acid( vitamin B9);
  • vitamin B12;
  • ascorbic acid( vitamin C).

Anemia also develops with systematic starvation and malnutrition.

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Genetic

The occurrence of anemia is possible against the background of the following inherited diseases:

  • hemoglobinopathy - a violation of hemoglobin synthesis, is characteristic of thalassemia( Cooley's anemia), sickle-cell anemia;
  • defects in a cluster of proteins responsible for DNA repair - a condition inherent in Fanconi anemia;
  • enzymatic defects in erythrocytes;
  • defects of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton - a cellular framework located in the cytoplasm;
  • impaired erythrocyte formation - congenital dyseritropoietic anemia;
  • lack of beta-lipoprotein in intestinal cells, leading to impaired absorption of nutrients - abetalipoproteinemia or Bassen-Cornzweig syndrome;
  • is a spherical form of erythrocytes due to a disruption of the cell membrane - spherocytosis, spherocytic anemia or Minkowski-Schoffar disease.
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Physical

  • Injuries;
  • burns;
  • frostbite.
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Tumors and chronic diseases

  • Kidney diseases - glomerulonephritis, kidney tuberculosis;
  • liver damage - hepatitis, cirrhosis;
  • abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract - gastric or duodenal ulcer, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, atrophic gastritis;
  • Collagen vascular diseases - systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis;
  • benign and cancerous growths - polyps in the intestines, uterine myomas, oncological lesions of the kidneys or lungs.
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Infectious lesions

  • Viral diseases - hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, infectious mononucleosis;
  • bacterial infections - obstructive bronchitis, tuberculosis of the lungs or kidneys, leptospirosis;
  • protozoal infections - toxoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, malaria.
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Intoxication and exposure to medicines

  • Radioactive damage;
  • poisoning with inorganic arsenic, benzene;
  • exposure to cytostatics - chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of tumors;
  • antibacterial drugs;
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs);
  • antiepileptic drugs;
  • antithyroid drugs - suppressing the production of thyroid hormones.
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Classification of

There are several methods for the classification of anemia.

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By the mechanism of occurrence of

Separation occurs depending on the main causes of the development of pathology:

  • Posthemorrhagic acute and chronic, caused, respectively, by acute or chronic blood loss.
  • Diszheritropoietic , arising from a disorder of blood formation. May be deficient( iron, protein or vitamin deficiency) or associated with a disruption in the synthesis and utilization of porphyrins( hereditary, acquired, aplastic, metaplastic, disregulatory).
  • Hemolytic , caused by increased destruction of red blood cells. They can be hereditary( hemoglobinopathies, membranopathies, fermentopathies) and acquired.
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Based on blood color index

Represents the percentage of saturation of red blood cells with hemoglobin and is calculated from the results of a blood test:

  • 0,86-1,05( 86-105%) - normochromia or normochromic anemia. Reducing the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin occurs with the preservation of the normal color index of blood.
  • Below 0,86 - hypochromia or hypochromic anemia. Erythrocytes have a weak color.
  • Above 1.05 - hyperchromia or hyperchromic anemia. Erythrocytes are excessively colored.
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According to the morphological sign of

Classification is performed depending on the size of red blood cells:

  • The diameter of the cells is 7.2-8 micrometers - normocytosis or normocytic anemia. Pathology is diagnosed at normal sizes of red blood cells.
  • Less than 7 macrometers - microcytosis or microcytic anemia. The diameter of red blood cells is small.
  • More than 8 micrometers - macrocytosis or macrocytic anemia. The diameter of red blood cells is more than normal.
  • More than 11 micrometers - megalocytosis or megalocytic anemia.
  • Rare erythrocytes of different forms are detected - poikilocytosis.
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By type of erythropoiesis formation

Depending on the type of hematopoiesis anemia happens:

  • Normoblastic - the division and maturation of erythroid cells from erythroblasts to mature erythrocytes is normal, but there is insufficient hemoglobin content and low color saturation.
  • Megaloblastic( megaloblastic) - is associated with a violation of the synthesis of DNA or ILV.In this case, erythropoiesis passes in conditions of deficiency of vitamin B12 or folate. In the blood there is a large number of megaloblasts - cells-precursors of erythrocytes of irregular form, which is usually accompanied by hyperchromia.
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By the ability of the bone marrow to regenerate

Red blood cells produce red blood cells, therefore the main sign of regeneration of this organ is an increase in the level of reticulocytes - the precursors of erythrocytes.

Also the amount of reticulocytes indicates the activity of erythropoiesis:

  • The level of reticulocytes in the blood is 0.5-2% of the total number of erythrocytes - regenerative anemia. Characterized by the normal ability of the bone marrow to regenerate.
  • Below 0.5% - hyporegenerative anemia. The ability of the bone marrow to regenerate is reduced.
  • Below 0.2% or total absence of reticulocytes - aplastic anemia. Suppression of regeneration processes.
  • Above 2% - hyperregenerative anemia. It is accompanied by a pronounced ability to regenerate.
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By severity of

Normally, the hemoglobin concentration in the blood is:

  • in women - 120-160 grams in 1 liter, after 70 years - 117-161 grams;
  • for men - 135-170 grams, after 50 years - 117-130 grams.

The degree of severity of anemia is calculated depending on the level of hemoglobin reduction in the blood:

  • mild degree - the hemoglobin content is 90 and above gram per 1 liter of blood;
  • average - the hemoglobin values ​​are determined within the limits of 70-90 grams per 1 liter;
  • is heavy - hemoglobin falls below 70 grams per 1 liter.
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The most common types of

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Iron Deficiency( IDA)

Represents hypochromic anemia, in which the level of iron in the body decreases. There is also a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood, micro- or poikilocytosis. IDA can be normoblastic or hyporegenerative.

Iron is involved in many metabolic processes and is a vital element - the daily requirement for it is 20-25 milligrams. When you enter the body, most of the substance is spent for its needs, and the rest is stored in the depot in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin, whence it is spent, if necessary.

The main causes of IDA are:

  • infringement of receipt of an element in an organism - vegetarianism, defective food;
  • worsening of iron absorption through the gastric mucosa - ulcers, gastritis, operative intervention on the organ;
  • increase in the need for iron - pregnancy, lactation, adolescence( when there is rapid growth of the body), chronic diseases accompanied by hypoxia( heart disease, chronic bronchitis), purulent diseases( chronic abscess, sepsis);
  • loss of iron - pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, uterine bleeding.

The disease is characterized by the manifestation of anemic and sideropenic syndromes, neuralgic symptoms are possible.

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Folic deficiency

Refers to hyperchromic anemia and is caused by a lack of folic acid in the body. The disease is accompanied by hyperchromia, a decrease in erythrocytes and hemoglobin, macrocytosis.

Folic acid( or vitamin B9) is partially synthesized by the intestine, but most of it must enter the body from the outside. The daily requirement for adults is 400 micrograms.

The causes of the disease are:

  • insufficient intake of vitamin with food;
  • increased loss of a substance or a violation of its absorption in the small intestine - observed with ulcers, gastritis, liver cirrhosis, celiac disease, chronic alcoholism, taking certain medications;
  • decrease in the synthesis of nutrients in the intestines - dysbiosis, helminthiasis;
  • increased needs of the body in folic acid - pregnancy, lactation, psoriasis, oncological diseases.

The disease is manifested by anemic syndrome, possibly an enlarged spleen.

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B12-deficient( pernicious)

Characterized by a lack of vitamin B12 in the body, which is often combined with a deficiency of folic acid. It is hyperchromic anemia with a megaloblastic type of hematopoiesis.

Vitamin B12( cyanocobalamin) is not produced by the human body, its reserves depend on the food consumed( mainly animal origin).The need of an adult in this substance is 2.4-3 micrograms per day.

The causes of anemia are:

  • inadequate intake from food;
  • disruption of the production of the internal factor of Castle( a protein that is produced in the stomach and binds to vitamin B12, protecting it from the intestinal flora and promoting digestion) - atrophic gastritis, cancer or gastrectomy;
  • bowel disease - dysbacteriosis, parasitic or intestinal infections;
  • increase in the need for vitamin - active sports, rapid growth, multiple pregnancies;
  • violation of vitamin deposition - cirrhosis of the liver.

For pathology, manifestations are characteristic in the form of anemic, gastrointestinal, neuralgic syndromes.

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Hemolytic

Characterized by premature destruction of red blood cells and occurs when the bone marrow is unable to compensate for their loss. With gradual hemolysis can occur asymptomatically.

Among the causes of the pathology are the following:

  • genetic predisposition - inherited can be transmitted enzymes, thalassemia, hereditary spherocytosis, sickle-cell anemia;
  • damage and fragmentation of erythrocytes under the influence of traumatization in the cardiovascular system - so there is a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia;
  • poisoning with pesticides - pesticides, benzene;
  • effects of medications - antiviral or antibacterial drugs;
  • infections - for example, malaria;
  • injury.

The disease occurs with anemic, gastrointestinal, hemorrhagic manifestations.

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Posthemorrhagic

It develops against the background of blood loss, when the level of red blood cells in the blood decreases and the oxygen starvation of tissues develops - hypoxia.

Bleeding can be:

  • acute, with the simultaneous loss of large amounts of blood - injury, trauma, rupture of the fallopian tube in ectopic pregnancy;
  • chronic, when blood loss occurs for a long time - bleeding ulcer, uterine fibroids, malignant formation.

The clinical picture depends on the rate and size of blood loss - with chronic bleeding, anemic and sideropenic syndromes develop, with acute hemorrhagic shock and death possible.

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Aplastic( hypoplastic)

Characterized by bone marrow hypoplasia( insufficiency) and pancytopenia - a decrease in the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes and platelets.

Among the causes of the pathology are the following:

  • heredity - Diamond-Blackflower anemia, Fanconi anemia;
  • nutritional deficiencies - vitamins B9, B12;
  • autoimmune diseases - systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • viral infections;
  • poisoning by chemicals;
  • medication - anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, cytotoxic drugs.

This type of anemia manifests anemic, sideropenic, hemorrhagic syndromes, the severity of the symptoms depends on the level of pancytopenia.

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Consequences of

Improper treatment or ignoring the symptoms of anemia can lead to serious health problems:

  • Decreased immunity .Pathology causes not only a decrease in the number of erythrocytes in the blood - the level of leukocytes and platelets also falls. As a result, the ability of the body to resist various infections decreases, a person begins to often and continuously ill.
  • Disturbance of the nervous system .Manifestations of anemia are usually rapid fatigue, drowsiness, increased irritability, impaired attention and memory, neurological disorders.
  • Appearance deterioration .Primarily, epithelial tissue affects anemia, which affects the digestive and cardiovascular systems, as well as the skin. The color of the face deteriorates, wrinkles appear more clearly, the skin is peeling, fragility of the nails, hair loss occurs.
  • The latent disease of .Anemia does not occur on its own, but is a manifestation of another pathology, so it is very important to conduct a survey and identify the main cause of anemia.
  • Tissue hypoxia .Deterioration of gas exchange leads to oxygen starvation of tissues, which affects the work of all organs and systems. Severe forms of anemia can lead to hypotension, coronary or pulmonary insufficiency, shock conditions, death of the patient.
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Diagnosis The diagnosis involves several steps:

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Survey and the collection of

history Among the questions asked by the patient, the following:

  • place of birth and residence;
  • is a kind of activity and hobby - for example, working with chemicals, intensified sports;
  • Does the patient have weakness and fatigue in daily life or only at work?
  • diet - food preferences and foods that the patient avoids;
  • taking medications now or a long time in the past;
  • history of acute or chronic blood loss due to injuries or illnesses - ulcers, uterine myomas, surgical operations;
  • for women - the nature of the monthly( abundant or not), the number of pregnancies, abortions, complicated births;
  • presence of diseases of the digestive system;
  • , did recent body weight changes occur - weight loss may indicate malabsorption syndrome or infectious diseases, and weight gain often indicates hormonal disorders;
  • did the skin, nails and hair deteriorate?
  • the presence of numbness in the limbs;
  • the presence of anemia, heart disease or digestive system in nearby relatives, whether anyone had splenectomy - removal of the spleen.
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Inspection

medical examination subject:

  • skin and mucous membranes - for pallor, jaundice or excessive pigmentation, presence of ulcers and Zayed;
  • lymph nodes - an increase in their size or soreness may indicate inflammatory or cancerous processes;
  • digestive system - the method of palpation determines the pain in the epigastric region, the increase in the size of the liver or spleen;
  • nervous system - peripheral sensitivity is checked;
  • respiratory system - presence of rapid breathing;
  • cardiovascular system - allows you to identify hypotension and tachycardia.
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Assays Complete blood analysis defines the following values ​​are important for anemia:

  • number of erythrocytes, their average size and width of distribution by volume;
  • hemoglobin;
  • mean hemoglobin in erythrocyte;
  • hematocrit( volume of erythrocytes in blood plasma);
  • the number of leukocytes;
  • platelet count.

Biochemical blood test reflects such indicators:

  • the amount of ferritin - shows the reserves of iron in the body;
  • transferrin saturation( iron-bearing protein);
  • serum iron - indicates the level of iron in the blood serum;
  • iron binding ability of blood serum;
  • content of vitamin B12;
  • amount of folic acid;
  • is the level of bilirubin, which is a product of the breakdown of hemoglobin.

Additional clinical analysis of is performed using blood smear microscopy and shows the percentage of reticulocytes in the number of red blood cells.

Study of feces for latent blood allows to detect bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

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Seizure of bone marrow sample

To visualize the cells of the body and their percentage:

  • The primary puncture - involves taking about 2 milliliters of material from the anterior wall of the sternum. Then the samples are applied to the glass and examined under a microscope, the results are called a myelogram. Trepanobiopsy - a sample is taken from the wing of the ilium. In this case, you can make a larger selection of tissues than with sternal puncture, which allows you to carry out not only cytological examination( myelogram), but also histological.
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Instrumental diagnostics

The following research methods can be used to identify the diseases leading to anemia:

  • X-ray of the lung - helps identify tuberculosis or lung cancer.
  • Fibrogastroduodenoscopy - recognizes ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, atrophic gastritis;polyps or stomach cancer.
  • Ultrasound examination of the abdominal and pelvic organs reveals an increase in the size of the liver or spleen, the presence of kidney stones, myoma of the uterus, ectopic pregnancy, infectious inflammatory and cancer.
  • Colonoscopy( endoscopic examination of the internal surface of the large intestine) - can indicate ulcers and bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyps, diverticula, malignant tumor.
  • Computed tomography( CT) is a more detailed study of organs and tissues using X-rays. It allows to reveal the defeat of the lungs, abdominal organs, kidneys.
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Treatment of

Anemia therapy is aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. Also for additional recovery, additional methods can be used.

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Preparations

The choice of medicines is carried out according to the type of anemia:

  • In iron deficiency, iron preparations are prescribed - Iron lactate in powder, Aciferrin tablets, Sorbifer durules, Fenyuls, Ferrogradumet, Ferrocal, Ferroplex. The intake of these drugs should be combined with the use of vitamin C. At a severe stage of the pathology, intravenous or intramuscular injections of the drug Ferrum Lek are possible.
  • Folic acid in tablets is prescribed for folic acid deficiency.
  • With В12-deficiency, injections of vitamin are carried out.
  • With hemolytic, folic acid, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants can be taken. In the presence of hemoglobinuria, iron preparations are prescribed.
  • For posthemorrhagic, iron preparations are prescribed.
  • In aplastic anemia, maintenance treatment is carried out with immunosuppressants, glucocorticosteroids, immunoglobulins, antimetabolites, erythropoietin.
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Surgical treatment of

May include the following methods:

  • Operation - is prescribed in the presence of acute or chronic bleeding to stop it, for example, removal of bleeding polyp, coagulation of the ulcer, laparoscopy for uterine myomas. In severe cases of aplastic or hemolytic anemia, it is possible to remove the spleen( splenectomy).
  • Transfusion of erythrocyte( as well as platelet) mass - is performed to replenish the volume of circulating blood.
  • Plasmaphoresis - mechanical purification of blood.
  • Bone marrow transplantation from a compatible donor - performed with organ hypoplasia.
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Folk remedies

To increase the level of hemoglobin, people's methods of treatment are used. However, their application requires agreement with the doctor:

  • Mix in equal proportions carrot, beetroot and black radish juice, take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.
  • Pomegranate juice, apple and carrot mix in equal quantities and drink 50 milliliters 3 times a day.
  • Tea from a dogrose.1 tablespoon of fruit and a few fresh leaves of the plant to put in a thermos, pour 1 liter of boiling water, to insist 6-8 hours and drink 3 times a day instead of tea.
  • Decoction or infusion of nettle and yarrow.1 teaspoon of a mixture of dry herbs pour 1 cup of boiling water and drink in several approaches throughout the day.
  • Bee products - honey, perga, royal jelly enrich the body with vitamins and trace elements.
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Nutrition

Is an important condition for recovery in some types of anemia.

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For iron deficiency and posthemorrhagic

It is recommended to increase the intake of foods rich in iron:

  • Hemo iron - is part of food of animal origin and is better absorbed: liver, rabbit, beef, turkey, goose meat, fish.
  • Non-heme - enters the body with products of vegetable origin: mushrooms, peas, buckwheat, oats, apricots, apples, pears, plums, cherries, beets.
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For folic acid deficiency

Foods containing folate:

  • Vegetable origin - asparagus, beans( lentils, beans, peas), peanuts, walnuts, parsley, spinach, spring onions, cereals( wheat, buckwheat, barley), sweet peppers, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots.
  • Animal origin - by-products( liver, heart, kidneys), fatty cottage cheese, sour cream, butter, cod, meat( beef, rabbit, lamb, chicken), eggs.
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For B12-deficient

Among products with a high content of vitamin B12 are the following:

  • liver - beef, pork, chicken;
  • meat - rabbit meat, beef, lamb, pork;
  • fish - mackerel, sardine, carp, cod;
  • cheese, sour cream;
  • eggs.
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Disability

Patients with moderate severity and with severe anemia may receive disability. For this, it is necessary to undergo a survey at the ITU Bureau( Medical Examination):

  • III group - is prescribed for moderate-grade anemia with rare exacerbations and prolonged remissions. In this case, there are moderate violations of the functions of the cardiovascular, nervous and other systems.
  • Group II - is established with severe anemia, accompanied by frequent relapses and incomplete remissions. The clinical-haematological picture is unstable - thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, severe heart failure, damage to the nervous system are observed.
  • Group I - is established with stably severe anemia with pronounced neurological disorders and impaired functioning of internal organs and systems, which leads to a limitation of ability to self-service, movement, labor activity.
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During pregnancy

During pregnancy, a small decrease in the level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin is observed in a woman. This state is caused by hydremia, an increase in the water content of the blood, in which the absolute amount of red blood cells remains normal, and the specific quantity( in a unit of blood volume) decreases. Hydremia does not require treatment and passes by itself.

However, it is not uncommon for a pregnant woman to diagnose a true anemia, most often an iron deficiency anemia. Among the causes of its occurrence:

  • severe vomiting due to toxicosis;
  • impaired iron absorption in the intestine;
  • bleeding of the digestive system - for example, with hemorrhoids;
  • multiple births or frequent pregnancies;
  • chronic liver or kidney disease;
  • genetic predisposition.

Pathology is important in time to diagnose and eliminate, otherwise it can lead to negative consequences:

  • miscarriage;
  • complication of the course of pregnancy, including, toxicosis and gestosis;
  • premature or difficult delivery;
  • the ability to transfer an addiction to anemia from mother to child.

The mild form of anemia may not be manifested, so pregnant women should visit the doctor regularly and take the necessary tests.

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In children

Anemia is often diagnosed in children, in most cases iron deficiency is detected. The reasons may be:

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Infants and young children

  • Diseases and pathological processes in the body of a pregnant mother, resulting in a violation of the process of transferring iron to the fetus, because of which the child does not accumulate sufficient reserves of this element. Pathologies include anemia, severe toxicosis or gestosis, bleeding, placental insufficiency, premature birth, hepatitis.
  • Blood loss during labor - due to premature detachment of the placenta, the use of traumatic obstetric instruments, improper bandaging of the umbilical cord.
  • Hemolytic disease of newborns - incompatibility of blood of the mother and fetus by the Rh factor or group.
  • Hereditary blood diseases, including hemophilia - a violation of blood clotting.
  • Loss of iron due to skin lesions - neurodermatitis, exudative diathesis.
  • Disturbance of absorption and exchange of iron - lactase deficiency, rickets.
  • Absence of breastfeeding, neglect of the rules of complementary feeding.
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In school-age children and adolescents

  • Insufficient and meager nutrition, causing a lack of necessary elements in the body.
  • Frequent infectious diseases.
  • Lesion of the gastrointestinal tract, including helminthic invasion.
  • Blood loss - frequent nasal bleeding, menorrhagia( prolonged profuse menstruation), surgery.
  • Severe diseases - tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, pyelonephritis, leukemia.

The child's organism is faster exhausted, and anemia leads to pathological disruption of all systems:

  • from the immune system - increased susceptibility to the infectious disease and their complicated course;
  • cardiovascular - manifestations of vegetative dystonia, dysfunction of the heart muscle;
  • digestive - bloating, problems with stool, changes in the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • nervous - vestibular disorders( dizziness, fainting), delayed neuropsychiatric development, deterioration of motor skills.
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Prophylaxis

  • Full nutrition - promotes the intake of vitamins and minerals necessary for hemopoiesis.
  • Timely treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - they have a negative effect on the processes of digestion and assimilation of food, as well as on the absorption of vitamins and trace elements. Diseases such as ulcers and polyps can lead to chronic bleeding.
  • Prevention and treatment of helminthiases - parasites consume nutrients, which can cause deficiency of vitamins or minerals;some of them are fed by blood cells, which also leads to anemia. Therefore it is necessary to wash hands thoroughly after staying on the street, vegetables and fruits before consumption, it is good to process meat.
  • Regular exercise of moderate physical activity - exercise improves blood circulation, improves microcirculation in organs and tissues and increases the number of red blood cells.
  • Elimination of contact with pesticides - getting into the blood, pesticides adversely affect its elements.
  • Refusal to smoke, including passive - tobacco smoke narrows blood vessels, thickens blood, reduces the ability of hemoglobin to transport oxygen.
  • Proper nutrition during pregnancy, timely delivery of tests.
  • Adherence to the rules of supplementary feeding for children - in most cases the development of anemia in infants is associated with nutritional errors
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