Types of bronchitis, its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Bronchitis is an inflammatory disease of the bronchi with numerous symptoms and prolonged treatment in adults and children. The common opinion that bronchitis occurs as a result of a cold is not entirely true. On the epithelium of the bronchi enters a viral or bacterial pathogen, which begins to multiply rapidly, causing inflammation. Epithelium increases the production of bronchial secretions, the task of which is to remove bacteria and inhaled particles from the respiratory tract. It is the increase in the amount of secretion and the change in its viscosity that lead to blockage of the bronchi.


Contents:
  • reasons
  • Types bronchitis and symptoms
  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Obstructive
  • Bronchitis smoker
  • Allergic
  • Viral
  • Bacterial
  • Bronchoobstructive syndrome( BOS)
  • Complications
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Medicines
  • Inhalation
  • Physiotherapy
  • Physiotherapy
  • Folk remedies
  • In children
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevention

Reasons for

  • Infectious .The causative agents of the disease are parainfluenza viruses, influenza, measles, adenoviruses and respiratory infections or pneumococcus bacteria, staphylococcus, streptococcus.
  • Noninfectious .Chemicals, vapors, harmful emissions, allergens, cigarette smoke enter the bronchial mucosa.


  • Mixed .Most often, bronchitis develops as a result of a complex of causes and under the influence of provoking factors: hypothermia, overfatigue, exhaustion of the body or against other diseases.
  • Hereditary predisposition of , in which the bronchial epithelium has an increased sensitivity to pathogens or contaminants.
  • Idiopathic .The reason remains unclear.
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Types of bronchitis and their symptoms

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Acute

The disease affects the lower respiratory tract. By the level of damage this type of bronchitis is divided into:

  • tracheobronchitis( bronchial and tracheal lesions);
  • bronchitis with bronchus infection of medium caliber;
  • bronchiolitis( damage to bronchioles and small bronchi).

The nature of inflammation of acute bronchitis is divided into:

  • purulent( with a combination of streptococcal and viral infections);
  • catarrhal;
  • is mucous;
  • hemorrhagic( with a hemorrhage inside the bronchial mucosa);
  • is atrophic( the bronchial mucosa is thinning).Symptoms of acute bronchitis:
    • Cough. In the case of a viral pathogen, the onset of the disease is characterized by a dry cough, if the pathogen is bacterial, then the cough will be wet, and the phlegm will turn greenish.
    • Increased temperature( from 37.5 to 40 degrees).Runny nose and sore throat.
    • Weakness and general malaise.
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    Chronic

    This type of disease is characterized by a long and sluggish course( cough and spitting is observed for at least 3 months a year for 2 consecutive years) or progressive inflammation that causes structural changes in the bronchi: bronchial patency and outflow of secretionwith an increase in its quantity and viscosity, the mechanism of local immunity breaks down, against which the infection is activated. This makes the disease incurable.

    Chronic bronchitis in terms of lesion is divided into:

    • proximal( large bronchi are affected);
    • distal( small bronchi inflame).

    By the nature of the flow, the following are distinguished:

    • latent;
    • with frequent exacerbations;
    • with rare exacerbations;
    • is recurrent. Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis:
      • cough with sputum;
      • a large amount of sputum( 100-150 milliliters per day);
      • weakness, sweating;
      • respiratory failure( from dyspnea to suffocation).
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      Obstructive

      Bronchitis complicated by the obstruction of the bronchi, which is accompanied by their edema, and sometimes the deterioration of the ventilation function of the lungs, is called obstructive. This type of disease can be acute and chronic.

      In acute form, obstruction only begins to develop and can be cured.

      Symptoms of acute obstructive bronchitis:

      • upper respiratory catarrh;
      • dry cough;
      • noisy, shortness of breath;
      • temperature is not higher than 37.5 degrees.

      The chronic stage of obstructive bronchitis is characterized by progressive bronchial obstruction.

      Symptoms of chronic obstructive bronchitis:

      • cough with discharge of mucous sputum;
      • shortness of breath when exercised;
      • breathing is difficult, wheezing;
      • sputum may become purulent( if there is an additional infection).
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      Bronchitis of a smoker

      Chronic progressive disease with inflammatory-obstructive changes in the bronchi. The disease develops gradually: first, obstruction appears only in the inflammatory process, then it becomes permanent. Constriction of the bronchi blocks the airways, leading to hypoventilation of the lungs.

      Symptoms of this kind of disease appear after 10-20 years:

      • a strong cough with separation of thick sputum in the morning.
      • Shortness of breath when exercising or climbing a ladder.
      • Viral diseases are treated much longer than non-smokers.

      Over time, the cough intensifies and worries already in the morning and at night. The sputum becomes dark, dyspnea appears even at low loads. By this time, there are additional symptoms:

      • sweating;
      • hypoxia;
      • headache and dizziness;
      • memory reduction.

      As a result, chronic respiratory failure develops on the background of the smoker's bronchitis.

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      Allergic

      Bronchitis, caused by ingestion of an allergen on the bronchial mucosa, is called allergic or atopic and is one of the types of chronic bronchitis. Upon contact with the allergen, the nerve endings become irritated, the blood vessels expand, and the muscles begin to contract.

      Symptoms:

      • attacks of dry cough( especially severe at night);
      • shortness of breath;
      • inflammation of the mucous sinuses( discharge from the nose, sneezing);
      • sometimes inflammation of the laryngeal mucosa;
      • weakness( condition worsens when exposed to an allergen);
      • appearance of phlegm.

      If the allergen is not detected and contact with it continues, then bronchitis becomes obstructive: bronchi narrow, respiration and outflow of bronchial secretion are difficult.

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      Symptoms:

      • persistent dry cough( especially at night);
      • wheezing;
      • chest pain when coughing;
      • headache;
      • general weakness;
      • shortness of breath.
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      Viral

      Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, which arose due to a virus infection on it, is called viral bronchitis. The danger of the disease is that its symptoms are virtually indistinguishable from the symptoms of a common cold:

      • sensation of perspiration and sore throat;
      • high temperature( up to 39 degrees);
      • weakness;
      • sweating;
      • wheezing when breathing;
      • dry cough( sputum initially does not depart);
      • chills.
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      Bacterial

      This type of bronchitis is rarely the primary, as a rule, it occurs because of the weakening of immunity in viral bronchitis or ARVI, due to hypothermia or stress. The cause of it is the activation of chlamydia, mycoplasmas, streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, constantly living in the human body.

      Symptoms:

      • high fever;
      • lethargy, drowsiness;
      • in the early days cough dry, worse at night;
      • after a few days the cough becomes wet, a purulent sputum appears greenish.
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      Broncho-obstructive syndrome( BF)

      This term refers to a combination of clinical manifestations and symptoms of organic origin, which is characterized by problems with bronchial patency. BF is not an independent disease, it is a secondary manifestation of some pathology in the body.

      There is no unified classification of the syndrome, therefore it is identified by various criteria.

      For the main pathology:

      • respiratory disease;
      • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
      • hereditary pathologies and genetic diseases;
      • infection with parasites;
      • disease of the central and peripheral nervous system;
      • negative environmental factors;
      • cardiovascular disease;
      • immunodeficiencies.

      In form:

      • is infectious( caused by pathogens);
      • allergic( body reaction to allergens);
      • obturation( caused by a narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi by bronchial secretion);
      • hemodynamic( caused by a decrease in pulmonary blood flow).

      For the duration of the course:

      • acute( no more than 10 days);
      • protracted( flowing for more than 10 days);
      • recurrent( symptoms appear and disappear for no apparent reason);
      • recurring persistently( undulating course with alternating exacerbations and apparent remission.)

      By severity of flow:

      • light;
      • of moderate severity;
      • severe;
      • latent obstructive.
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      Complications of

      In case of incorrect or untimely treatment, with interruption of antibiotic course orwith relapse during recovery, bronchitis can cause complications

      Some of them are so serious that they can significantly complicate a patient's life or lead to death:

      • Chronic bronchitis .If treatment of the acute form lasted more than 3 months, in the bronchi there are organic, irreversible changes, the disease becomes chronic.
      • Bronchiolitis .Inflammation passes to small bronchi - bronchioles. The disease is difficult to treat.
      • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD).According to statistics, the disease is on the fourth place in terms of the number of deaths.
      • Pneumonia .Occurs when inflammation passes from the bronchioles to the alveoli.
      • Bronhoectasis ( pathological dilatation of the bronchi).In new cavities sputum accumulates, if an infection joins, then a purulent process is possible.
      • Emphysema of the lungs .Prolonged inflammation in the alveoli leads to the release of enzymes that damage the lung tissue. The respiratory surface of the lungs decreases, respiratory failure occurs.
      • Abscess of the lung .Inflammation can pass from the bronchi to the lung tissue, resulting in a cavity containing pus.
      • Pleurisy .Occurs when the inflammation passes to the pleura.
      • Respiratory failure .It begins with a decrease in lung function, and a decrease in their surface involved in the gas exchange process leads to a reduction in the number of capillaries that carry blood to the alveoli. This increases the pressure inside the vessels, leading to pulmonary hypertension.
      • Pulmonary heart .Formed with pulmonary hypertension, when the muscle volume grows to pump more blood with less oxygen.
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      Diagnosis

      Diagnosis of bronchitis is differential, therefore the doctor is not limited to collecting anamnesis, but also performs laboratory and instrumental diagnostics:

      • Auscultation .Identifies the features of the patient's breathing, tracks noises, wheezing, wheezing.
      • Blood test .With its help, the causative agent of the disease.
      • Sputum analysis studies its composition, helps to establish the kind of disease.
      • Bronchoscopy allows you to visually examine the bronchial mucosa.
      • X-ray or Fluorography lung excludes pneumonia, confirms diagnosis, can reveal bronchial obstruction.
      • The spirography of the establishes the patency of the bronchi.
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      Treatment of

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      Medications

      Drug treatment is aimed at eliminating the symptoms of bronchitis and eliminating the causative agent of the disease.

      The main groups of drugs:

      • Bronchodilators extend the bronchi, improve the sputum discharge in case of bronchitis with a wet cough: Salbutamol, Berodual, Euphyllin and aerosols - Astalin, Salbutamol, Salamol-Eco, Berotek-N, Berodual.
      • Mucolytic make sputum less viscous, improve its separation from the walls of the bronchi: Ambrobe, ACC, Bromhexine, Gedelix.
      • Expectorants increase the motor smooth muscles of the bronchi, helping to remove secretions from the bronchi: tablets Mukaltin, Bronchipret and syrups Bronchicum, Herbion.
      • antiseptics are used to cough and sanitize throat: tablets for absorption. Travessil, solutions for nebulizer - Rivanol, Dioxydin.
      • Antitussives is prescribed with non-productive cough: Libexin, Gerbion, Codeine, Glaucin.
      • Antibiotics for bronchitis are prescribed only if the patient has a cough with purulent sputum and increased the rate of ESR: Amoxiclav, Trifamox, Clindamycin and broad-spectrum antibiotics - Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin.
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      Inhalations

      For bronchitis, inhalation with nebulizer is used to dilute sputum, facilitate its separation and excretion. Therapeutic solutions for the device are sold ready-made, they must first be diluted in saline according to the instructions:

      • Atrovent helps to withdraw phlegm.
      • Gensalbutamol dilutes and removes mucus.
      • Chlorophyllipt inhibits staphylococci.
      • Lazolvan dilutes sputum, has an expectorant effect.
      • Fluimucil is used for very viscous sputum for its dilution.

      If the inhaler is not available, then steam inhalation can be done without it. As a medicinal solution used medicinal herbs, essential oils, soda, garlic and balsam Asterisk.

      • For 30 grams of kidney pine and chamomile pour 0.5 liters of boiling water and 2 hours to insist in a thermos. In a small container, pour a glass of boiling water, pour the medicinal solution there, cover the head and capacity with a towel and inhale the steam. Inhalation has an expectorant effect.
      • In boiling water, add a few drops of essential oils of lavender, eucalyptus, juniper, pine or fir. This inhalation has an antiseptic effect.
      • Pour a teaspoon of garlic juice into 0.5 liters of boiling water. Inhalation removes the inflammatory process.
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      Therapeutic gymnastics

      LFK recommend to all patients with bronchitis. In acute form of the disease, classes start on day 3-4, with chronic bronchitis - when the condition becomes satisfactory. The therapeutic gymnastics will strengthen the respiratory muscles, help restore the patency of the bronchi, and increase the blood flow.

      Excellent results in restoring the function of the lungs and bronchi give author's breathing techniques Strelnikova and Buteyko.

      The essence of the Strelnikova method in maximally involving the respiratory process of the musculature of the diaphragm is due to a strong sharp inhalation. Gymnastics helps with obstructive bronchitis during recovery.

      Dr. Buteyko considers deep breathing( hyperventilation) as the cause of respiratory organs diseases. Exercises of his breathing exercises will help reduce the depth of breathing. Systematic classes on this method help to get phlegm and cough, and also are an excellent prevention of respiratory diseases.

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      Physiotherapy

      Physiotherapeutic procedures are able to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, improve blood supply to organs, strengthen body's defenses:

      • Massage improves blood circulation, expands bronchi, stimulates sputum evacuation.
      • UHF acts on the body with a high-frequency magnetic field, resulting in a biologically altered cell structure. Improves blood circulation, increases capillary permeability, strengthens immune defense.
      • Magnetotherapy facilitates pain, stimulates tissue renewal, improves metabolic processes.
      • Electrophoresis acts on the body with electric current with simultaneous administration of drugs. The procedure reduces inflammation and swelling, removes pain and calms cough, activates the defenses of the body, helps liquefy and withdraw phlegm.
      • Aspidas warms the tissues, strengthens the trophic, reduces pain in the back and chest, facilitates the dilution of phlegm. Do not use at elevated temperature.
      • Medical banks relieve pain, inflammation.
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      Folk remedies

      Traditional medicine for the treatment of bronchitis uses medicinal herbs( teas, infusions, tinctures), honey, radish, onions and garlic, animal fat, achieving rapid relief of the patient's condition and complete cure:

      • Bearish fat strengthens the immune system, increases hemoglobin, cures cough. It is applied externally and inward.1 teaspoon of bear fat to dissolve in a glass of hot milk, drink before eating small sips. Melted fat rub your chest and back for the night, warmly wrapped.
      • Badger fat ( take no more than 1 tablespoon at a time) perfectly cures cough for tracheitis, viral and obstructive bronchitis, with pneumonia.1 tablespoon melted butter on a water bath stir in a glass of hot milk, a day can be consumed up to 4 glasses of this drink. With melted fat, grind first back and chest, warmly dress, drink hot milk.
      • The onion is known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties. Used for diseases of the respiratory tract, in the treatment of streptococcus. Onion juice take 1 tablespoon three times a day to facilitate the outflow of phlegm.1 medium bulb in a peel pour water, add 100 grams of sugar and soak on a very low heat 40 minutes, a decoction to drink during the day.
      • Black radish strengthens immunity, fights against viral infections, treats upper respiratory tract diseases and bronchitis. To get the medicine, cut off part of the fruit, remove the core from the rest and fill the radish with honey, extract the juice from the table spoon several times a day. Mix 100 grams of grated radish and grated horseradish, add 0.5 teaspoon salt and a tablespoon of honey. The patient can take a hot bath, then rub this mixture on his back, warmly wrap himself and drink tea with raspberries. By morning, the cough becomes milder, the pain in the chest will go away.
      • Medicinal herbs are valued as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, expectorant, sweatshops, antiviral agents. Horse mint brew like tea, add boiled honey and drink hot. In a glass of milk, throw a tablespoon of sage, bring it to a boil on a small fire, remove from heat and allow to cool, then boil again and drink hot before going to bed. Mix in equal parts dry raspberry leaves and oregano, 2 tablespoons of this mixture, pour 2 cups of boiling water and cook over a low heat for 10 minutes, strain and drink hot as an expectorant.
      • Soda improves sputum discharge, so it is used in drinking and inhalation. In a glass of hot milk add soda at the tip of the knife, a teaspoon of honey, a piece of butter.
      • Propolis is used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. In a glass of hot milk, add 3 drops of propolis tincture, a tablespoon of honey and 1/3 teaspoon of soda, and drink hot.
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      In children

      Most often, bronchitis in children develops after a viral illness or accompanies childhood illnesses. Often, the disease is caused by a bacterial pathogen. But the scourge of our time was allergic bronchitis, caused both by food allergens and household chemicals, and by the bad ecology of big cities.

      Symptoms of the disease in children are the same as in adults, but are more pronounced due to weak immunity.

      Treatment of children involves the use of antiviral and antifungal drugs, mucolytics and expectorants, antitussive, antihistamines and antibiotics.

      A special place in the therapy of children's bronchitis is occupied by folk remedies, they are effective for children with allergies to pharmaceutical products. And, of course, it is very important to harden and properly eat: the products must be natural( without GMOs and colorants), and with weakened immunity the child should receive vitamins.

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      During pregnancy

      The period of childbirth is a time of weakened immunity and increased loads, so any viral or bacterial infection easily penetrates the woman's body.

      Symptoms of bronchitis in pregnant women are the same as in other adults, but the possibilities for treatment are severely limited:

      • Do not take X-rays of the lungs.
      • Many medications that can adversely affect fetal development are banned.
      • You can not use herbs that can cause the uterus to tone up and provoke a miscarriage.
      • In some cases it is undesirable to use warming up, it can lead to miscarriage.
      • You can not even vigorously cough up phlegm, this can also lead to miscarriage.

      Even worse is the fact that during the late pregnancy, the permeability of the placenta increases, which means that a child can become infected in the womb.

      To treat bronchitis in pregnant women used mucolytics, expectorants, bronchodilators and antibiotics, which can not harm the future child.

      Allowed:

      • for inhalations: soda, saline solution, Sinupret, Berotek;
      • with bronchospasm: Euphyllinum, Ephedrine;
      • herbs: licorice;
      • antibiotics: Rovamycin, Cefuroxime( only as directed by a physician).

      Do not use:

      • herbs: St. John's wort, Ledum, oregano, sage, aloe;
      • tablets: Biseptol, Trimethoprim( may cause jaundice in the fetus).

      If bronchitis is not cured for the third trimester, then interferon and immunoglobulins are added to the treatment. If by the time of birth the pregnant woman has a respiratory insufficiency, the delivery is performed with the help of caesarean section.

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      Prevention

      To avoid exacerbation of respiratory diseases, it is enough to follow simple rules:

      • Strengthen the immune system: hardening, taking vitamins, herbal and immunity medications.
      • Healthy, proper nutrition with enough vitamins.
      • Full cessation of smoking.
      • Refusal to work with hazardous working conditions.
      • Timely visit to the doctor and treatment of colds and infections.
  • Mar 28, 2018
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