Brain trauma is one of the most serious injuries, because the nature of the human brain is currently not well understood. There are many types of head injuries. The least dangerous among them is a concussion. With such damage, the victim must be examined by a doctor who prescribes appropriate treatment and strict rest.
- Symptoms of
- Symptoms of
- Degrees of severity of shocks
- First aid
- Consequences of
From other craniocerebral injuries, concussion can be distinguished by the following signs that arise in the patient:
- asymmetric pupil sizes;
- appearance of seizures;
- weak response to light;
- nausea and vomiting;
- pallor of the skin;
- rapid breathing;
- impossibility to transfer loud sounds;
- double vision or spark in the eyes;
- movement coordination disorder;
- incoherent speech;
- memory impairment( retrograde or anterograde amnesia).
Concussion in adults is diagnosed by the following main symptoms:
- loss of consciousness at the time of injury( the main symptom of brain concussion);
- severe sweating;
- poor concentration and coordination of movements;
- delayed reactions;
- increased body temperature;
- complaints of blurred consciousness and tinnitus;
- bleeding from the nose;
- external head injuries;
- lack of appetite;
- disorders of emotional reactions;
- sleep disturbance;
- impossibility to restore events in memory prior to injury.
The manifestation of symptoms of concussion in the child may be somewhat different. In infants, such a trauma is often not accompanied by loss of consciousness.
To distinguish concussion in a child can be for such symptoms:
- increased heart rate;
- drowsy condition;
- crying is more than usual, hysterics;
- regurgitation in feeding;
- loss of balance;
- loss of acquired skills;
- diffuse attention;
- loss of interest in your favorite toys and regular activities.
Degrees of severity of shocks
Concussions are classified by severity:
- Light .Getting injured is not accompanied by loss of consciousness. Consciousness may occur, lasting no more than 15 minutes.
- of the average .Loss of consciousness is not observed, however, there is confusion and a partial or complete loss of memory. Symptoms persist for 15 minutes.
- Heavy .The main symptom is loss of consciousness. Symptoms can persist for a long time.
During the diagnosis, special attention should be paid to the study of the circumstances of the injury: was there a loss of consciousness during the injury, the victim's well-being, a psychological state. It is important to assess memory and ability to concentrate.
For accurate diagnosis of concussion, the following signs should be noted:
- there was a loss of consciousness at the time of injury;
- occurrence of nausea or vomiting;
- general malaise;
To clarify the diagnosis, a specialist( neurologist) consultation is necessary. During the examination, the following symptoms can be identified:
- nystagmus is a pathology that involves twitching eyeballs while looking away;
- increase in muscle tone of the occiput;
- difference in the size of pupils of the left and right eye.
Serious injuries and injuries can be hidden under the concussion, therefore it is necessary to conduct a medical examination. First of all, the coordination and reflexes of the affected person are checked, then the palpation of the skull and cervical spine is performed.
Radiography in this case allows you to identify damage to bones. The next stage of diagnosis is a computer or magnetic resonance imaging, which will show any organic changes.to the table of contents ^
First aid to
With the concussion, the main thing is not to harm the victim by providing first aid.
- The injured person is contraindicated in sudden movements, so it is better not to touch him before the ambulance arrives.
- If a person is unconscious, he should be carefully laid on his back, put a roller under his neck, fix his head, hide, unbutton the collar, so that oxygen can be accessed, it is important to feel the pulse.
- In case of concussion, in no case should you turn over the victim, try to touch his head, give the pill after regaining consciousness.
- If there is a risk of fluid entering the lungs, the injured person should be gently placed on the right side and bend the left leg in the knee, and the right arm in the elbow joint.
- If the patient has cramps, then a mouthpiece should be put in the mouth. This will prevent the victim from biting his tongue.
- To return the victim to consciousness, it is necessary to give him a vat, moistened with ammonium alcohol.
- After arrival of the victim in the consciousness before the arrival of an ambulance it is very important to obtain information about getting a head injury, about the presence of chronic diseases, allergies to medications.
- Delivery of the patient to the hospital is possible on his own. In this case, transportation is carried out on rigid stretchers in a lying, fixed position.
Any treatment for concussion is determined by the attending physician. He is likely to prescribe drugs not only to eliminate symptoms of concussion, but also to prevent serious consequences.
- For the removal of severe pain, analgesics are prescribed, for example, Pentalgin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - Ibuprofen.
- Mandatory include in the treatment of sedatives - valerian, Corvalol, Valocordin or tranquilizers - Phenazepam, Nosepam, Rudotel.
- When dizziness is often prescribed Tanakan, Platifillin with papaverine, Belloid, Micrometer.
- If there are abnormalities in brain function, vascular drugs are prescribed, for example, Cavinton, as well as nootropics - Piracetam, Pikamilon.
- Also prescribed medications fortification - Eleutherococcus, vitamins.
- Elderly people with similar injuries to the above drugs usually add anti-sclerotic drugs.
Drug treatment can last up to 60 days.
In combination with medical products, several other folk remedies can be used:
- Infusion of thyme. Take 0.5 glasses before meals for 6 months.
- Tincture of aralia for 30 drops 2 times a day.
- Infusion or decoction of arnica chemist's.
- Spirituous tincture of green peel of a walnut on 1 teaspoon 3 times a day, diluting with water.
- In equal proportions, mix periwinkle, chamomile, lively, gallee and lemon balm.3-4 tablespoons of the collection pour a liter of boiling water and insist for at least 2 hours. Take 100 grams of drink before eating.
The rehabilitation process after a concussion can take from 1 month to 1 year. The recovery time depends on the severity of the damage. With a mild concussion, the symptoms completely go away after a few days of rest at home. If you receive a moderate shock or severe, you can not do without a hospital.
For fast recovery after a concussion it is important to observe the following recommendations:
- is at rest and quiet;
- spend more time in bed;
- to avoid physical and mental stress, emotional shock;
- limit the time spent at the computer, laptop, TV or tablet;
- relatives need to provide care and care for the victim;
- isolate the patient from getting harmful particles by airborne droplets;
- daily wet cleaning in the victim's room;
- to process a room with the help of devices for air purification;
- exclude from the diet alcohol, coffee and foods that promote the excitation of the nervous system;
- add to the diet fish, cereals, legumes, sea kale, juice and jam from sea-buckthorn, hawthorn, dried fruits, nuts.
Concussion can cause serious consequences:
- change in the personality of the victim - after the concussion, the character of the person may change( he may become irritable or pessimistic, take offense, cry, and inadequately perceive criticism);
- cognitive disorders, manifested in the inability to memorize new material, quickly get tired after mental activity, lose the knowledge that a person owned before;
- may develop vegetovascular dystonia, manifested in the form of headache, pain in the heart, severe sweating, lack of air, and so on;
- alcohol intolerance;
- mental disorders of a different nature;
- increased intracranial pressure;
- hypotensive syndrome, manifested in the form of headache, dizziness, rapid fatigue;
- sleep disorders;
- hypersensitivity to the emergence of infectious diseases;
- convulsive syndrome;
- inability to concentrate their thoughts.
To avoid complications after getting injured, all the recommendations of the treating doctor should be strictly observed.