Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels is a common chronic form of pathology, in which fatty plaques are deposited on the walls of the brain arteries. Growing up, they narrow the lumen of the vessels and lead to a breakdown in the supply of brain tissue. In most cases, the disease affects middle-aged and elderly people: men from 50 years, women from 60 years. The disease is life-threatening, so the first symptoms should be addressed to a doctor and undergo a course of treatment.
- How dangerous
- Folk remedies
- childrenIn pregnancy
- Life expectancy
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease in developedand of which there are many causes at the same time. The main risk factors for its development include:
- arterial hypertension - high blood pressure, which causes stratification of the epithelial tissue of the walls of blood vessels and instantaneous penetration of lipids into it;
- dyslipidemia is a violation of lipid metabolism;
- obesity - characterized by impaired metabolism and excessive concentration of fats in the blood serum;
- smoking - provokes a violation of the integrity of the vascular wall;
- diabetes mellitus;
- male sex - in men the pathology is observed more often than in women;
- genetic predisposition - plays a major role in family dyslipidemia;
- low-activity lifestyle;
- age from 55 years and older - the metabolism slows down with age;
- hormonal imbalance;
- improper diet - excessive consumption of fatty foods.
The disease can affect not only intracranial, but also extracranial vessels that feed the human brain. The intensity of manifestation of symptoms of the disease directly depends on the degree of vascular damage. There is a gradual decrease in the efficiency of the central nervous system, which subsequently leads to the development of mental disorders and stroke of the brain.
Frequent symptoms of atherosclerosis are:
- periodic loss of consciousness;
- frequent dizziness, especially when turning the neck;
- noise in the ears, head;
- persistent headaches;
- flies and fog before the eyes;
- chronic drowsiness;
- decreased attention, memory, concentration;
- emotional lability( propensity to depression, increased anxiety, instability and mood changes);
- decreased mental performance;
- navelopatiya( tingling in the face, the appearance of heat in the occipital region, numbness of the legs);
- ataxia( inconsistency of movements of different muscles, loss of balance during standing and walking, awkwardness and inaccuracy of movements) appears with arterial lesions that feed the vestibular apparatus or cerebellum;
- auditory, speech and visual impairment.
Types ofto contents ^
Characterized by the destruction of cerebral vessels, it is characterized by disruptions in biochemical processes, which adversely affects the state of the whole organism. When the cerebral form is formed sclerotic deposits in the arteries of the brain, which violates the blood circulation. If you do not start treatment, then the disease can lead to a stroke and often to death. In addition, one of the severe conditions that develops as a result of cerebral atherosclerosis, is discirculatory encephalopathy.
A pathological process that spreads to the main arteries of the body. Under the influence of negative factors, free fats( cholesterol) are deposited on the vessel walls and plaques are subsequently formed. The disease passes through several stages of development, the last stage is the narrowing of the artery to a minimum( stenosis).As a result, organs and tissues that are dependent on the area of the disturbed blood supply, are deficient in nutrients and oxygen. Lack of timely treatment often leads to irreversible consequences: stroke, myocardial infarction, thromboembolism with internal organs damage.to contents ^
This type of pathology is considered a complication of atherosclerotic disease. More often the diffuse form of the disease is called cardiosclerosis, since the heart muscle is affected. The insidiousness of the complication is that there are indicators similar to heart failure. The patient complains of shortness of breath, dry cough, swelling of the legs, muscle weakness, pain in the right upper quadrant.
The development of the disease is of a phasic nature: first the inner shell of the vessels is infiltrated with cholesterol, which accumulates in the form of spots, after the plaques form. In the next stage, plaques stop the blood flow, protrude into the lumen of the vessels, which leads to an ischemic lesion of a separate region of the brain. Later it can provoke necrosis of blood vessels, thrombosis and development of myocardial infarction.
Diffuse lesion in elderly patients often begins with senile-like dementia, which has similarities to the total form in senile dementia.to contents ^
Excrete anatomical-pathological and clinical stages of the disease.
Clinical stages of describe the disease from the side of symptoms:
- The asymptomatic stage is accompanied by the absence of complaints from the patient and the narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels to 50-70%, it can last for many years, mainly its duration depends on the patient's risk factors. Identify an asymptomatic stage can only be through specialized surveys, for example, Doppler.
- The stage of clinical manifestations is accompanied by the appearance of complaints from the patient. This stage occurs when the lumen of the vessel narrows by 70% or more. Atherosclerotic process in this case becomes irreversible, and treatment courses are conducted to stop the development of complications.
The last stage proceeds in 3 stages:
- At the first stage, all violations are transitory. They arise against the background of an overload after heavy physical labor or severe stress. After rest all the symptoms disappear and the condition is normalized. The initial stage is manifested by severe weakness and fatigue, memory loss and the inability to long attention, sleepiness and sleeplessness at night, difficulty in learning new information, dizziness and noise in the ears.
- At the second stage the disease progresses, changes in character, emotional background, and depression appear. Accompanying the pathology of anxiety and suspiciousness. Often the patient begins to get confused in the memories and forgets the events of the current day. There are outbreaks of unmotivated aggression. Speech loses clarity and clarity, hearing and visual acuity decrease.
- The third stage is characterized by worsening of the state, the intellect is practically absent, speech incoherent and incomprehensible, the patient can not independently service himself.
Anatomically-pathological stages of assess pathology at the level of changes in the vascular wall:
- lumpy - damage to the epithelium of the vascular wall;
- lipoidosis - penetration of fats into the vascular wall and the formation of lipid spots;
- atheromatosis - the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that protrude into the lumen of the vessel;
- formation of a complicated plaque - rupture of the plaque and the release of its contents into the blood, which in most cases leads to clogging of the vessels;
- formation of a thrombus( consequence of rupture of a plaque) - can cause a full occlusion of a vessel and lead to disturbance of blood circulation on a site of an artery;
- sclerosing( if the plaque is not ruptured) - proliferation of connective tissue in the plaque due to which it becomes denser;
- calcification - deposition of calcium salts in a plaque.
- Transcranial dopplerography is a study by which the status of intracranial vessels can be assessed.
- Duplex scanning - allows you to determine the degree of narrowing of the vessel and the nature of the formed atherosclerotic plaque.
- Angiography - shows the state of cerebral vessels, involves the introduction of contrast medium intravenously. Because of the high traumatism is carried out only on strict indications.
- CT and MRI - are used mainly in patients who have suffered a stroke. They are carried out to clarify the area of the lesion and determine the tactics of further therapy of atherosclerosis.
- EEG - is performed for the analysis of the functional state of the brain.
- Immunological analysis of blood is necessary for the detection of cholesterol.
In addition, it is additionally necessary to consult an ophthalmologist with an ophthalmoscopy, with a hearing loss - an otolaryngologist with audiometry.to contents ^
It provokes the development of frequent and prolonged headaches, dizziness, visual impairment, memory, sometimes coordination of movements.
In addition, the disease can lead to such dangerous consequences:
- Alzheimer's disease - is accompanied by the loss of long-term memory and the gradual loss of other vital body functions, which as a result can lead to death.
- Hemorrhagic stroke - rupture of the cerebral vessel and hemorrhage in its tissues. It is characterized by a sudden development of focal and / or cerebral neurological symptoms, which can last for 24 hours.
- Ischemic stroke - acute circulatory disorders. Pathology is manifested by damage to the brain tissue, a violation of brain functions.
Due to the development of these complications, the patient can be assigned a disability group.to table of contents ^
Treatment ofto table of contents ^
- Statins - are used to treat and prevent the development of hyperlipidemia. Use Atorvastatin, simvastatin, rosuvastatin and so on.
- Fibrates - are prescribed in combination with statins, help reduce the concentration of triglycerides in the blood. It is necessary to take them for a long time with the control of laboratory indicators. Fibrates are often used - Bezafibrate and Clofibrate.
- Antiaggregants - slow down the process of gluing together platelets and reduce the likelihood of formation of thrombi. The most popular drugs with antiplatelet effect are: Aspirin, Dipiridamol, Clopidogrel, Cardiomagnolo, Trombo ACC and others.
- Antioxidants - prevent oxidation of LDL, stimulate the process of metabolism and assimilation of substances. Effective drugs are Actovegin, Solcoseryl, Mexidol and others.
- Sequestants of bile acids - drugs act at the level of the intestine, not allowing fats to be absorbed through its wall into the blood. Are appointed to increase the effectiveness of diet for atherosclerosis. Apply Kolestipol, Kvantalan, Questran.
- Nicotinic acid - expands the lumen of the arteries, reduces the possibility of thrombus formation, reduces blood pressure. The drug promotes rapid recovery of the patient even after the development of a stroke.
- Vasodilator drugs - expand small capillaries, effectively reduce cholesterol concentration, strengthen arterial walls. Assign Diazem, Corinfar, Amlodipine, Cinnarizine, Nimodipine. Also used dietary supplements containing alkaloid plants of periwinkles( Vinpocetine, Cavinton, Bravinton) and ginkgo biloba( Tanakan, Gingium, Ginkor Fort).
- Vitamins C, A and Group B - have a general strengthening effect and are complementary therapy.
- Nootropics - activate the energy exchange process in brain cells, improve mental performance, memory, cerebral circulation and cell resistance to oxygen deficiency. To this group of drugs are: Cerebrolysin, Bemitil, Aminalon, Fezam, Meclofenoxate, Biotradin and others.
- Antihypertensive drugs - drugs for the treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis are used in conjunction with other drugs and should be taken daily. Their action is aimed at reducing blood pressure. Effective agents of this group include Nifedipine, Captopril.
- Lipid-lowering drugs - reduce the level of total cholesterol and increase HDL.Mostly, they use Ezetemib and others.
Surgical treatment of
The operation is indicated in cases where the symptoms of the disease significantly impair the patient's quality of life. Surgical treatment does not eliminate the cause of the disease, but only reduces its consequences.
There are several types of operations:to contents ^
Creating an additional trajectory for the movement of blood around the damaged area of the vessel. The principle of surgical treatment is the introduction of a transplant( shunt), which is attached to healthy areas of the vessels. By connecting healthy areas of blood vessels between them, the shunt paves a new path for blood circulation.
An artificial material or part of a patient's vein extracted from the hand, thigh or other part of the body is used as the graft.to contents ^
During the operation, an expanding catheter is inserted into the damaged vessel. In general, a variety is used, equipped with a canister on one side. Bloating, the balloon spreads atherosclerotic plaques, as a result of which the capacity of the vessel increases.
There are 3 types of angioplasty:
- Angioplasty with stenting is performed to prevent re-occlusion of the operated vessel. Inside the vessel is inserted a small metal tube( stent), which supports the vascular walls and prevents narrowing of the lumen.
- Laser angioplasty - destruction of lipid deposits by means of a laser beam. During the operation, a quartz thread is introduced into the vessel, through which thermal action is applied, and the atherosclerotic plaque is evaporated.
- With transluminal angioplasty , the catheter is injected through two millimeter punctures. This type of surgical treatment is performed under local anesthesia and does not require a long recovery period.
Surgical correction of arteries, depending on the nature of the deposits, it can be carried out in several ways, the most common of which is open endarterectomy, in which the surgeon makes a longitudinal incision on the vessel and takes out a plaque. After that, the connecting patch made of artificial materials fixes on the damage site.
Eversion endarterectomy is the removal of atherosclerotic deposits simultaneously with the endothelial membrane of the artery. Sometimes the plaque is removed along with the deformed fragment of the vessel.to the table of contents ^
Effective therapy for atherosclerosis is impossible without adherence to a special diet aimed at reducing the calorie content of foods, the number of animal fats, increasing the number of vegetables and fiber.
It is recommended to exclude from daily ration:
- broths fish, meat, mushroom, bean soup;
- salted, fatty, smoked fish, canned fish;
- fatty pork, offal( liver, kidney, brain), sausages, smoked meat, canned meat;
- rice, semolina, pasta;
- egg yolks;
- fatty cottage cheese, sour cream, cheese, cream;
- any sauces, mayonnaise, meat and culinary fats, mustard;
- radish, radish;
- mushrooms;Sorbitol sorrel, spinach;
- products from puff and dough;
- chocolate, ice cream;
- tea, strong coffee, cocoa.
List of recommended products:
- vegetable soups( borsch, beetroot, cabbage soup), vegetarian with cereals and potatoes, dairy;
- low-fat varieties of poultry and meat;
- bread from rye and wheat flour of II grade;
- baking without salt with the addition of ground wheat bran;
- low-fat fish, seafood( mussels, sea kale, scallop);
- low-fat milk, cottage cheese, cheese, sour-milk products;
- eggs soft-boiled, protein omelet;Friable cereal grains
- low-fat natural ham, low-salted cheese, dietary home-made sausage;
- salads with vegetable oil;
- vegetables( tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, zucchini, eggplants, carrots, cabbage, beets);
- raw berries and fruits, dried fruits, jellies, mousses, compotes;
- tea with milk, berry, fruit juices.
Useful for atherosclerosis of the brain and curative fasting, but it must be done only with permission and under the supervision of a doctor.to the table of contents ^
Physical exercises in the disease positively influence the metabolism, stimulate the endocrine and nervous system, help lower cholesterol and lipids in the blood, reduce weight, improve the work of the circulatory and respiratory organs.
Exercises exercise therapy are selected individually for each person, depending on the stage of pathology and well-being of the patient. Usually the complex includes respiratory, general developmental exercises and exercises for small muscle groups of legs and hands.
Gymnastics for atherosclerosis should be performed regularly and under medical supervision. When the manifestation of the disease is expressed in the exercises include exercises for all muscle groups. However, if the circulation of the brain is insufficient, movements associated with a sharp change in the position of the head, for example, rapid turns and inclinations of the head and trunk are prohibited.
In addition to exercise therapy, long walking, swimming, and sports are recommended.to contents ^
Physiotherapy methods for atherosclerosis are aimed at activating blood circulation in the brain and metabolic processes in nerve cells, improving adaptive capacity, increasing arterial tone, correcting lipid metabolism, lowering blood pressure.
The basic physiotherapy procedures are:
- Electrophoresis with medicinal substances on the collar area. The therapeutic effect in this case has both the drugs administered and the galvanic current itself. Apply electrophoresis with novocaine, euphyllin, nicotinic acid.
- Diadynamic therapy. The affected area is affected by pulsed low-frequency currents. The procedure has a pronounced analgesic effect, improves blood flow and movement of lymph, enriches tissues with oxygen.
- Magnetotherapy. Used to improve blood circulation in the affected area of the brain and microcirculation. The procedure strengthens the protective mechanisms and positively affects the condition of the autonomic nervous system. It removes the inflammatory process, swelling, improves the movement of lymph and blood, relaxes the musculature.
Also in case of atherosclerosis of the brain,
- electrosleep is used to restore and strengthen the nervous system;
- hydrotherapy with the use of carbonic, sodium, iodine-bromine, oxygen, radon baths;
- infrared laser therapy of the thymus gland.
When atherosclerosis of the brain vessels, homeopathic preparations are used. They can reduce dizziness, improve memory, blood circulation, strengthen vascular walls, lower blood cholesterol level. Homeopathy assumes a long reception and individual selection of funds for each patient. Medications such as Edas, Cerebralic, Aurum-plus, Anoplex, Aneminosan, Vestikor, Hypertensin, and others can be prescribed.to contents ^
Allow to save the elasticity of the walls of arteries and to stop the formation of plaques, increase the resistance of the body and remove cholesterol.
- Juice of hawthorn fruit. 500 grams of fruit to mash, add 100 milliliters of cold water, stir and warm up to 40 degrees. Then cool and squeeze the juice with a juicer. Take 1 tablespoon before meals three times a day.
- Decoction of leaves of wild strawberry. 20 grams of leaves to grind and boil for 5-10 minutes. Let the broth brew for 2 hours, then strain and take 3-4 times daily for 1 tablespoon. Strawberry leaves are an effective diuretic that helps to remove cholesterol from the body with urine.
- Plantain tincture. 1 tablespoon chopped dry leaves to brew in 250 milliliters of boiling water.10 minutes and use for 1 hour. The course of treatment is long.
- Broth root horseradish. 1 root( weighing about 250 grams) rinse and dry, grate, pour 3 liters of boiled water and simmer for 20 minutes. Decoction to strain and drink 1/3 of a portion of the three times a day.
- Thyme( thyme) helps to relieve vasospasm.1 tablespoon dried herb with flowers pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, cover and insist 50-60 minutes. Strain and in 1 glass of infusion, add 5 drops of golden mustache juice. Drink up to 3 times a week for 4 months.
- Garlic cleans well the blood vessels from fat deposits and plaques.250 grams of garlic and peeled into a slurry, put in a glass container and pour 1 liter of vodka, put in a dark place for 21 days. Then strain and squeeze. Take the tincture according to the scheme: 1 day - 1 drop, 2 days - 2 drops and so on, for 25 days and the next 5 days take 25 drops. Then, every day, reduce 1 drop. Drip garlic tincture in milk and water.
- The roots of the dandelion contribute to the removal of cholesterol and harmful substances. Dry roots of the plant must be ground into powder and taken 5 grams before eating. Treatment is long - up to 6 months.
In addition to the above recipes, there are many others, for example, using parsley, onion juice with honey, pine needles, lemon balm and so on.to table of contents ^
Atherosclerosis in childhood is very rare, as for the development of the disease requires considerable time. Atherosclerosis is preceded by a prolonged accumulation of cholesterol, which circulates in the blood.
However, there are cases of atherosclerosis in newborns and preschool children due to birth defects of blood vessels. They arise because of the influence on the mother's body during pregnancy of some negative factors.
In children, the most common disease is the following:
- sleep disorder;
- convulsive seizures;
- the child's constant concern;
- mental retardation( rarely in the physical);
- specific neurological symptoms( lack of reflexes, which should be at this age).
Methods of diagnosis and treatment of pathology in children do not differ from adults. In case of serious disorders, surgical treatment is recommended.to table of contents ^
Atherosclerosis in future mothers is rare, as in most cases the disease develops in people 50-55 years and above. However, if the pathology takes place in the anamnesis, then its current status should be taken under the control of cardiologists and only under favorable circumstances pregnancy is allowed.
The disease affects the well-being of a woman and the course of pregnancy itself. It refers to the risk factors for pregnancy pathologies. The decision regarding the management and preservation of pregnancy is taken by doctors individually. Medications are prescribed in certain periods of pregnancy, preference is given as safely as possible.to contents ^
To prevent the disease, it is necessary:
- to monitor the blood pressure, if necessary, its normalization is required;
- regularly and moderately exercise;
- is correct and healthy to eat;
- regularly visit a neurologist and cardiologist;
- try to protect yourself from anxiety and stress;
- monitor the level of cholesterol;
- to give up alcohol and smoking.
Atherosclerosis is a disease characterized by a fairly long course. Active therapy at the initial stage of the disease leads to an improvement in the patient's condition and stop the development of the pathological process. With progressive atherosclerosis, acute disorders of cerebral circulation and extensive damage to brain tissue, the prognosis is unfavorable.
- In 50-60% of patients from 45 to 55 years of age, symptoms of the disease result in ischemic stroke due to a sharp narrowing of a large vessel. The consequences for 45-55% of them - disability or death.
- About 80% of patients older than 65 years suffer from transient or chronic impaired cerebral circulation.30% of them develop a stroke.
- In 5-7% of patients, the disease is asymptomatic and has no consequences.