Causes, symptoms and treatment of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a violation of water and carbohydrate metabolism in the body, as a result of which a persistent increase in glucose level is observed in the blood with a simultaneous deficiency of this substance in the tissues. Depending on the type of disease, its symptoms can be pronounced or absolutely imperceptible, so it is important to periodically give blood to sugar. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment help to avoid complications and significantly improve the quality of life of patients.


Contents:
  • reasons
  • Classification
  • true
  • Secondary
  • Gestational
  • latent( hidden or prediabetes)
  • Symptoms
  • Stage
  • Complications
  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Disability
  • Diagnostics
  • Main
  • Additional
  • First Aid
  • When hypoglycemia
  • When hyperglycemia
  • Treatment
  • Preparations
  • Insulin pump
  • Diet
  • Recommended products and dishes
  • Prohibited to use
  • Conditionally authorized
  • products
  • Bread
  • massage
  • treatment For the treatment of
  • diabetes For the treatment of other diseases
  • Folk remedies
  • When pregnant
  • For children
  • Prevention

During the meal, complex carbohydrates enter the body, digestible into simple constituents such as sugars orglucose - and are secreted into the blood. From the blood, glucose enters the tissues, providing the body with the necessary energy, and its excess accumulates in the liver in the form of glycogen and is consumed during exercise. For the assimilation of sugar and the synthesis of glycogen, the hormone insulin, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, responds.


In diabetes mellitus, the production of insulin decreases or is completely absent or insulin resistance is observed - a deterioration in the sensitivity of tissues to the action of the hormone. In this case, an excessive accumulation of glucose in the blood and the excretion of it through the kidneys with urine. There is also a violation of water metabolism - tissues can not hold water, and a large amount of it is also excreted in the urine.

Causes of

The disease can be caused by the following factors:

  • Genetic predisposition - heredity is the main cause of the disease. In diabetes mellitus, in one parent, the probability of a child's illness is 10% for type 1 diabetes and 70% for the second type.
  • Autoimmune diseases - glomerulonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus can be complicated by diabetes mellitus.
  • Genetic syndromes - hyperlipidemia, muscular dystrophy, Huntington's chorea.
  • Endocrinopathies - acromegaly, glucagon, diffuse toxic goiter, primary aldosteronism, Itenko-Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma.
  • Pancreatic injuries and diseases leading to beta-cell damage - hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, organ surgery, severe or chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer.
  • Dysfunction of the liver, including alcohol intoxication, hepatitis, fatty hepatosis, cirrhosis.
  • Infectious lesions - chicken pox, viral parotitis( mumps), influenza, measles, rubella, epidemic hepatitis.
  • The use of certain medications - hypotensive or psychotropic drugs, glucocorticoids, catecholomines, thiazide-containing diuretics, estrogen-containing drugs. In this case the disease has a specific name, for example, with excess volume in the blood of corticosteroids, steroid diabetes is diagnosed.
  • Incorrect nutrition, abuse of sweet. The impetus for the development of type 2 diabetes may be overweight or obesity.
  • Nervous stresses, psychoemotional stresses.
  • Hard work, great physical activity.
  • Age - every 10 years the risk of diabetes increases by 2 times.

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Classification of

The main types of diabetes are:

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True

Is a disease caused by a primary insulin disorder:

  • Insulin-dependent( IDDM) or type 1 diabetes. Occurs as a result of infection or autoimmune aggression directed against beta-cells. In this case, the body can not independently produce insulin or produces it in insufficient quantities, and the substance must be injected artificially throughout life. The disease has a pronounced symptomatology and is called juvenile, since it is more typical for adolescents and people up to 30 years of age.
  • Non-insulin-dependent( NIDDM) or type 2 diabetes. When the disease occurs, normal secretion of the hormone occurs, but tissues lose the ability to perceive its signals. Because of the long asymptomatic period, the patient may not be aware of diabetes for several years. This form accounts for more than 85% of cases and is manifested primarily in people older than 40 years.
  • Type 3 diabetes. It is a disease that includes manifestations of types 1 and 2 of types of diabetes mellitus. The existence of this form is not recognized as official medicine.
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Secondary

In this case, hyperglycemia( increase in blood glucose) is due to other diseases - pancreas or liver damage, hormonal failures, steroid medication. The disease is considered reversible and passes when the root cause is eliminated. However, it is possible and the transition of diabetes into a true form.

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Gestational

It occurs against the background of bearing a child, it proceeds mostly asymptomatically and independently passes after childbirth. However, in the absence of medical measures, the condition can lead to pathologies of fetal development. It has also been observed that about half of the women who have undergone this form of diabetes become ill with NIDDM within the next 15 years.

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Latent( latent or prediabetes)

A condition in which a person already has changes in the functioning of organs and systems, although well-being is observed, and the blood glucose level is within the norm( close to the maximum permissible value).It can manifest itself in healthy people and arises against unbalanced or inadequate nutrition, unhealthy lifestyle, obesity, heredity. In half the cases, latent diabetes develops into an insulin-independent form.

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Symptoms of

  • Polyuria - increased and frequent urination. Excess glucose is removed through the kidneys with urine, which entails drawing water from the body. In adults, there are often night trips to the toilet, children - involuntary urination during sleep.
  • Polydipsia is an unquenchable thirst. The condition is caused by a disturbance of the water balance due to frequent urination. Patients can wake up in the middle of the night to drink a glass of water. For a constant desire to drink answers the center of thirst in the brain, its activation occurs after the loss of more than 5% of moisture from the body.
  • Polyphagia - increased appetite and voracity, a constant need for food.
  • Intensive unmotivated weight loss. The symptom is more typical for type 1 diabetics and proceeds against a background of increased appetite and abundant nutrition. This weight loss often leads to exhaustion of the body.
  • Weight gain and obesity. Appear primarily in type 2 diabetics.
  • Dryness and itching of the skin, poor regeneration, a tendency to pustular processes, the appearance of wounds that do not heal for a long time. Caused by a disorder of blood circulation of the skin and destruction of the protective layer of the epidermis. Exposure to fungal infections.
  • Itching of the mucous membranes of the genital organs - manifests itself predominantly in women.
  • Inflammation of the foreskin in men - is caused by frequent urination, in which the bacteria intensively develop on the organ.
  • Decreased libido and problems with potency.
  • Excessive fatigue even with low physical exertion, muscle weakness.
  • Constant dryness of the mouth, often - the taste of iron in the mouth.
  • Increased sweating.
  • Frequent headaches, high blood pressure.
  • Excessive excitability of the nervous system, apathy, depression, sleep disturbance.
  • Numbness of the extremities, their tingling, problems with walking.
  • Reduced pain and tactile sensitivity, especially on the feet.
  • Appearance on the skin of the xanth - yellow growths, arising from the violation of fat metabolism.
  • Increased intensity of hair growth on the face and hair loss on the legs.
  • Visual impairment.
  • Problems with gums and teeth - gingivitis, periodontitis.
  • Causes nausea or vomiting.
  • The presence of acetone in the urine, the smell of acetone in the exhaled air.
  • Pain in the heart.
  • Problems with stool - constipation is replaced by diarrhea.
  • Impairment of general immunity.
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The severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of decrease in the secretion of insulin, the duration of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient.

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Stages of

The blood sugar level can have the following values:

  • The norm is 3.3-5.5 millimoles per 1 liter of blood on an empty stomach and up to 7.8 millimoles 2 hours after loading with glucose.
  • Impairment of glucose tolerance( prediabetes) - 5.5-6.7 millimole on an empty stomach and 7.8-11.1 millimole 2 hours after the carbohydrate load.
  • Diabetes mellitus - more than 6.7 millimoles on an empty stomach and above 11.1 millimoles after 2 hours after the load.

The criteria for determining the degree of severity of the disease are glycemia - the blood glucose content, as well as process compensation - the ability to normalize and retain the sugar level:

  • 1 degree - compensatory stage, favorable course of the disease, to which all medical measures aspire. The concentration of glucose in the blood does not exceed 6-7 millimoles per liter, there is no glucosuria( sugar in the urine), normally the values ​​of proteinuria( protein in the urine) and glycated hemoglobin( hemoglobin compounds with glucose).The clinical picture is not aggravated by complications.
  • 2 degree - involves partial compensation( subcompensation) of the disease, with the increase of sugar to 7-10 millimoles per liter, glucose is not determined, the glycated hemoglobin values ​​are normal or slightly elevated. There are signs of damage to typical target organs: eyes, nerves, legs, kidneys, heart, vessels.
  • 3 degree of - manifested by the progression of diabetes and the inability of drug control. The sugar level varies between 13-14 millimoles per liter, persistent glucosuria, high proteinuria, increased glycated hemoglobin are observed. Notable lesions of target organs - deterioration of visual acuity, high blood pressure, decreased sensitivity, numbness and pain in the extremities.
  • 4 degree - the stage of decompensation. The level of glycemia is 15-25 and more millimoles in 1 liter of blood and practically can not be corrected. There is an increasing proteinuria with protein loss, development of renal failure. Possible diabetic ulcers on the legs, gangrene of the limbs, the onset of diabetic coma.
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Complications of

With insufficient control of blood glucose level and non-compliance with the regime, frequent and abrupt fluctuations in sugar lead to disruption of organs and systems. Such complications can cause disability or death of the patient.

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Acute

Is the greatest danger to the life of the patient:

  • Hypoglycemic coma .The drop in blood glucose below the norm is called hypoglycemia and occurs in people receiving insulin treatment or taking tablets to reduce sugar. It is easy when you can raise sugar by simply taking carbohydrates with food, and heavy, when the patient loses consciousness and requires intravenous glucose. The extreme degree of this disorder is a hypoglycemic coma, characterized by a rapid and pronounced drop in sugar, the development of energy starvation of cells, damage to the gray matter of the brain.
  • Ketoacidotic coma .Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute disturbance of metabolic processes due to insulin deficiency, as a result of which glucose and ketone bodies accumulate in the blood and urine. The patient has symptoms of intoxication - weakness, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, acetone smell from the mouth, deafness or confusion, then stupor or loss of consciousness. The development of this complication is more typical for Type 1 diabetics.
  • Hyper-mosmic coma .It is caused by lack of insulin, high content of sodium and glucose in the blood and insufficient intake of these compounds inside the cells. As a result, there is a difference in pressure between the extracellular and intracellular fluids, the loss of fluid by cells and the general dehydration of the body, in which the brain cells primarily suffer. In humans, there is increased thirst, weight loss, increased diuresis, convulsions, speech disorders, orientation in space worsens, hallucinations and loss of consciousness may occur. The most affected patients are elderly NIDDM.
  • Hyperlactacidemic coma .It was provoked by insulin insufficiency and accumulation of lactic acid in the blood, which causes the pH of the internal environment of the organism to shift to the acidic side. Among the main symptoms of lactic acidosis - increasing weakness, muscle pain, drowsiness, decreased pressure, nausea, breathing disorder, confusion, stupor, coma.
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Chronic

These complications are also called late, they develop with a prolonged increase in blood glucose levels and affect the most sensitive to sugar target organs.

  • Diabetic angiopathy is a generalized lesion of blood vessels. When the disease of small vessels - arterioles, venules, capillaries - develops microangiopathy, leading to kidney and eye diseases. The defeat of medium and large caliber vessels causes macroangiopathy - a change in the structure and functions of large vessels of the lower extremities, heart, brain.
  • Diabetic retinopathy - retinal vascular injury. To some extent, 90% of diabetics are observed and more often than others, disability results from the development of blindness.
  • Diabetic nephropathy is a specific kidney damage that leads to chronic kidney failure. It is caused by the influence on the kidneys of the products of the disturbed metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It begins to appear after 5-10 years from the onset of the disease, affects up to 75% of patients and is the leading cause of death in diabetes.
  • Diabetic neuropathy - affection of peripheral nerves. It can be sensory( with impaired sensitivity), motor( with deterioration of motor function of muscles) and mixed. Patients feel pain, numbness and tingling in the lower and then upper limbs. There is a lack of knee reflexes, a sudden decrease in the vibrational, tactile, pain or temperature sensitivity of the hands and feet.
  • Diabetic skin lesions - structural changes in the epidermis, follicles, sweat glands due to the violation of carbohydrate metabolism and accumulation of toxic products. Symptoms are itching and flaky skin, the appearance of cracks and calluses, as well as rash, pigmentation spots, ulcers, purulent-septic skin lesions, hair loss, deformation of the nails.
  • Diabetic osteoarthropathy( arthropathy of Charcot) is a painless progressive disruption of predominantly small joints of the feet and ankle. It is caused by the defeat of the peripheral nerves, as a result of which the sensitivity in the extremities decreases. For a patient, injuries and fractures can go unnoticed, and he will continue to load the aching joints. Against this background, the diabetic foot syndrome develops - a pathological condition that manifests itself in the deformation of the foot, dryness and cracking of the skin, acute and chronic ulcers, purulent necrotic processes, edema. In severe forms, gangrene occurs, requiring amputation of the extremities.
  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy - pathological changes in the heart muscle, leading to systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and then - to heart failure. Patients have pain in the heart, dyspnea, swelling.
  • Diabetic encephalopathy is a progressive brain injury due to metabolic and vascular disorders. It manifests a general weakness and increased fatigue, reduced efficiency, memory impairment and concentration, anxiety, headaches, dizziness.
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Disability

Diabetes mellitus can lead to disability. In this case, the patient has the right to make a disability and receive a material allowance.

To do this, you need to contact the ITU Bureau( medical and social expertise) and undergo a survey. The direction is given by the attending physician.

Depending on the severity of the disease and the presence of complications, it is possible to assign the first, second or third disability groups. Children with type 1 diabetes before their age of majority are given a disability without a group definition.

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Diagnosis

For the correct diagnosis, type and severity of diabetes mellitus, the following methods are used:

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Basic

  • Determination of blood sugar level. It includes an examination on an empty stomach, glucose tolerance test( additional measurements 2 hours after taking 75 grams of glucose), analysis for glycated hemoglobin.
  • General analysis of urine. It is performed on an empty stomach for the detection of sugar( glucosuria), protein( proteinuria), and leukocytes.
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Additional

  • Determining the level of insulin in the blood. It is recommended for questionable results of the analysis for sugar, when there are borderline violations of glucose tolerance.
  • Definition of diabetes markers. It is assigned to differentiate types of disease and can include analyzes for C-peptide( insulin synthesis index), leptin hormone, antibodies to beta cells, insulin or GAD( glutamic acid decarboxylase).
  • Biochemical blood test. It presupposes the study of hepatic-renal samples for the evaluation of the work of these organs against the background of diabetes.
  • Reberg-Tareeva test - shows the excretory capacity of the kidneys in order to detect organ diseases.
  • Investigation of electrolyte blood composition is necessary for severe diabetes.
  • Urine analysis for acetone. It is necessary for suspected ketoacedosis and reveals the amount of ketone bodies.
  • Investigation of the fundus.
  • Electrocardiogram( ECG) - helps to determine the level of diabetic myocardial damage.
  • Ultrasound examination( ultrasound) of the abdominal cavity, kidney, heart.
  • Excretory urography is the study of the ability of the kidneys to isolate radiopaque substances.
  • Vessel examination - ultrasound dopplerography( UZDG), capillaroscopy, rheovasography of lower extremity vessels are used to assess the blood flow condition.

When diagnosing diabetes, a visit to the endocrinologist, cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist, surgeon is mandatory.

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First aid

Rules for care depend on the causes that caused the pathological condition. First of all, it is necessary to measure the level of sugar in the blood.

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For hypoglycemia

The main symptoms of a drop in glucose are irritability, inadequate behavior( grimacing), dizziness, headache, weakness, pale skin, impaired coordination of movement, double vision, inability to concentrate.

If the patient is conscious, it is necessary to give him a drink or eat foods containing glucose-sugar, sweet tea or juice, jam, candies, glucose in tablets. After 10 minutes, the blood sugar level should be checked again, if it did not rise above 5 millimoles, the carbohydrate intake should be repeated.

In case of unconsciousness, urgently need to call an ambulance, turn the patient on his side or stomach - you may vomit or become tongue-tense. You can not pour drinks into the mouth of a diabetic - it can choke. With the ability to make injections, you must inject 40-80 milliliters of glucose solution intravenously.

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With hyperglycemia

The clinical picture with elevated blood glucose levels suggests persistent dry mouth, frequent urination, hunger, blurred vision, irritability, weakness, weight loss, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, acetone smell from the mouth.

If the patient is conscious, to reduce sugar, you can make him an injection of short-acting insulin no more than 2 units. If after 2-3 hours the glucose level did not go down, you need to enter 2 more units. In case urine is determined by acetone( this can be checked with the help of test strips), in addition, the patient should be given alkaline mineral water to the patient.

If the patient has lost consciousness, urgent medical attention is needed. In this case, you can not prick insulin - the condition can be caused by a ketoacidosis coma, when you need a dropper to replenish the fluid.

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Treatment of

According to official medicine, the first type of diabetes mellitus and persistent forms of the second type can not be completely cured. However, with the help of drug therapy, diet and exercise can prevent or slow the progression of dangerous complications of the disease. Very important is the regular monitoring of blood sugar, showing the effectiveness of treatment:

  • With IDDM, therapy includes constant injections of insulin, diet and exercise therapy.
  • The treatment program for NIDDM depends on the severity of the disease: at the initial stage, a balanced diet is the key to recovery, then sports activities are activated, if necessary, sugar-reducing tablets. In severe cases, these measures are not enough and there is a need for insulin injections.
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Preparations

  • Insulin - in the form of injections used for type 1 diabetes or late stage 2 types.
  • Activators of insulin production in the pancreas - Amaril, Butamid, Glikvidon, Diabeton, Maninil, Novonorm, Starlix.
  • Means that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin - Actos, Biguanide, Gliiformin, Glucophage, Metformin, Siofor.
  • Drugs that slow the absorption of glucose from the intestine into the bloodstream - Acarbose, Glucobay, Rezulin.
  • incretiny - digestive hormones that increase the synthesis of insulin depending on the level of glucose: Baeta, Victoria, Ongli, Yanuvia.

When complications of diabetes mellitus are used to treat affected organs.

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Insulin pump

Is an innovative direction in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is an apparatus that is attached to the patient's body and independently introduces into his organism a certain dose of insulin. Dosage and periodicity of hormone administration is established by the doctor, programming the device.

The device consists of the following parts:

  • directly pump( pump), supplying insulin, and a computer where the necessary data is entered;
  • cartridge with a hormone;
  • infusion set - a thin needle( cannula) for subcutaneous injection and a tube connecting the needle to the cartridge;
  • batteries.

A catheter with a cannula is attached with a plaster in place of the usual injections of insulin - the abdomen, hips or shoulders. The device itself is fixed on the belt of the patient's clothing with a special clip. The supply of the hormone can be continuous or single.

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Diet

The main principles of diabetic nutrition are the minimization or complete rejection of digestible carbohydrates and reduced fat intake. For the disease of mild and moderate severity( 1 and 2 degrees), special recommendations are developed - table number 9. The regime should be 5-6 meals a day with a uniform distribution of carbohydrates. The daily norm of the diet is 2200-2400 kilocalories. The chemical composition of the menu should include:

  • proteins - 80-90 grams, 55% of which are of animal origin;
  • fats - 70-80 grams, 30% of which are vegetable;
  • carbohydrates - 300-350 grams;
  • salt - 12 grams;
  • fluid is 1.5-2 liters.
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Recommended products and dishes

  • Soups - vegetable, cabbage soup, borsch, beetroot, okroshka. Should be cooked on low-fat second broths - meat, fish, mushrooms.
  • Porridge of cereals - buckwheat, corn groats, oatmeal, pearl barley, millet, yak. You can cook beans.
  • Vegetables, greens - aubergines, zucchini, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkin, lettuce leaves. With careful control of sugar - peas, carrots, beets, potatoes.
  • Meat - chicken, turkey, veal, beef, lamb, boiled tongue, dietary or diabetic sausage.
  • Fish of low-fat varieties - bream, tench, pollock, perch, pike perch, cod, hake, pike, canned fish in its own juice or tomato.
  • Eggs - 1.5 units per day, the use of yolks is limited.
  • Fruits and berries - apricots, oranges, lemons, grapefruits, pomegranates, peaches, pears, apples, gooseberries, cherries, blackberries, currants, blueberries.
  • Dried fruits - dried apricots, prunes, dried apples and pears.
  • Nuts - peanuts, walnuts, pine nuts, almonds.
  • Low-fat dairy products - yoghurt, kefir, milk, cottage cheese, sour cream( with restrictions).
  • Dietary confectionery products are rare and in limited quantities.
  • Flour products( up to 300 grams per day) - wheat, rye or bran bread, unfermented products of 2 kinds of flour.
  • Fats - cream or vegetable oils, not more than 40 grams per day.
  • Honey - in limited quantities.
  • Drinks - tea, fresh juices from vegetables and fruits without sugar or with sugar substitute( for example, based on stevia), broth of wild rose.
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Prohibited to use

  • Buns and sweets - cakes, pastries, ice cream, sweets, jam;
  • cream, melted milk, sweet curd cheese, ryazhenka, sweet yogurt;
  • milk soups;
  • fatty broth;
  • pasta, rice, semolina;
  • sausages and smoked products;
  • pickles, marinades, spices, spicy food;
  • some fruits - grapes, raisins, figs, bananas;
  • coffee, lemonades, purchased juices;
  • alcohol;
  • duck meat, goose, canned meat;
  • fish caviar, salted and fatty fish;
  • sauces, ketchup, fat mayonnaise.
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Conditionally authorized products

At the 1 degree( light form) of diabetes in limited quantities, the following products are possible:

  • fruits and berries - watermelon, melon, dates;
  • vegetables - potatoes;
  • beef liver;
  • drinks - coffee with milk, coffee drinks with minimal or no caffeine, for example, with chicory;
  • spices - mustard, pepper, horseradish.
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Bakery units

Many diabetics prefer to take into account the amount of carbohydrates consumed in grain units. It is believed that 1 such unit increases the blood glucose level by 2.8 millimoles per liter, and for the assimilation of it, 2 units of insulin are needed.

On average, patients with diabetes are allowed to eat 15 bread units per day. With a mild form of the disease, this value can be increased to 20-25, with obesity and severe disease - to reduce to 10 units or less.

There are special tables that indicate the number of products in terms of grams, equal to 1 bread unit. For example, 1 small apple( 90 grams), 1 tablespoon of sugar( 10 grams).

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Massage

With diabetes, massage allows you to normalize the metabolism, restore blood circulation in the limbs, improve the overall condition of the patient. Therapy is indicated for obesity, angiopathy, peripheral polyneuropathy, as well as arthropathy caused by diabetic joint changes.

Several types of massage are suitable for diabetics:

  • Local. It is carried out with an emphasis on areas with palpable pain - joints, soft tissues of the hands and feet, sacrum and lumbar spine. It is held daily for 15 minutes.
  • Common. Recommended for excess weight, often combined with a local massage. It is performed once in 3 days for 40 minutes.
  • Spot. Indicated for daily exercise for 2 weeks. It requires control of the sugar level in the urine.
  • Impulsive self-massage. It consists in independent stroking and rubbing to get nutrients into a certain part of the body as soon as possible.
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LFK

Under the stimulating effect of exercise therapy, the distribution of glucose in tissues and its deposition in muscles, increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin, increases immunity. Also there is normalization of the psychoemotional state of patients, improvement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Especially recommended are such activities for people who are obese or are overweight.

The complex of exercises means under itself loads on all groups of muscles. In this case, the movements are performed with a certain amplitude, in a slowed and averaged tempo. Classes are conducted in a hospital, under the supervision of a specialist, and depending on the patient's condition, they take 15-35 minutes a day.

In addition to specially developed techniques, amateur sports are also welcome - walking( on foot or skiing), swimming, skating or roller skating, big and table tennis, badminton.

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For the treatment of diabetes

Among the surgical procedures for diabetes mellitus are the following:

  • Transplantation( transplantation) of the pancreas or its islet cells( producing hormones).Effective with IDDM.
  • Bariatric surgery - elimination of obesity by gastroplasty, bypass or gastric banding. Such techniques greatly improve the situation with NIDDM.
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For the treatment of other diseases

In case of necessity of surgical intervention of diabetics it is necessary to provide with certain conditions:

  • Compensation of disease - planned operation should be carried out under conditions of good compensation. Absolute contraindication for surgery is a diabetic coma.
  • Conditions for the surgical department - should be provided even with the simplest manipulations that are done on an outpatient basis( for example, removal of an ingrown nail).
  • Continuous monitoring of blood sugar - performed before the procedure, during and during the postoperative period, up to the hourly measurement.
  • If after the operation you can not eat, the patient is given a half-dose of insulin, and then put the droppers with glucose.
  • If it became necessary to operate with insufficient compensation for diabetes, measures should be taken to eliminate ketoacidosis.
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Folk remedies

To normalize the blood sugar level, you can use plants and herbs that have sugar-reducing and fat burning properties, improve metabolism. However, their use requires agreement with the doctor:

  • Goat( gazleg).From a dry herb or a plant seed to prepare a decoction or infusion - 1 tablespoon of raw materials per 1 cup of boiling water. Drink 2 tablespoons before each meal.
  • Jerusalem artichoke( ground pear).The fruits of this plant can be eaten raw, adding it to salads or squeezing juice, and also cook pancakes, casseroles, soups with it. It is recommended to eat 2-3 tubers a day.
  • Broth of bay leaf.10 dried leaves pour 1 liter of boiling water, insist for at least 4 hours. With sugar 6-10 millimol drink 0.5 cup of the drug before meals. If the glucose level is above 10 millimoles, take 1 glass.
  • The root of ginger. Drink 5-7 drops of plant juice 2 times a day or brew it in the form of tea.
  • Cinnamon. For consumption, the most suitable powder is spices, you can add it to cereals, compotes, teas.
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In pregnancy

Diabetes mellitus can significantly complicate the course of pregnancy and affect the health of the mother and fetus:

  • Compared with healthy women, pregnancy, diabetes,.
  • Even with intrauterine hypoxia and placental insufficiency, the fetuses are overweight, which increases the birth trauma of mothers and newborns.
  • In 80% of cases, newborns have complications in the postpartum period, more than 10% of them require resuscitation.
  • Children born to diabetic mothers are 2-3 times more likely to develop developmental defects, and fetal and newborn mortality is 4-5 times more frequent.

To maintain the health of the mother and the child, it is very important to compensate for diabetes - it must be stable 3 months before conception and persist during pregnancy, during childbirth and in the postpartum period. Women should be trained in diabetes schools.

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In children

In an overwhelming number of cases, children are diagnosed with an insulin-dependent type of diabetes mellitus. The disease can occur at different ages, and the younger the child, the harder it goes:

  • In newborns and infants, the cases of diagnosing diabetes are rare, with the disease being congenital in nature.
  • 6-12 years - the main age of detection of the disease. The metabolism of children, including carbohydrate, proceeds faster than in adults, the nervous system is immature, and the development of insulin is established only by 5 years. All these factors contribute to the concentration of sugar in the blood.
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Prevention of

The following measures will help prevent the onset of diabetes mellitus or its complications:

  • Water balance - when dehydrating the body, the pancreas forces are directed at eliminating this disorder, and the synthesis of insulin is reduced. Also, the fluid is necessary for the penetration of glucose into the cells. Daily water consumption should be 1.5-2 liters. Coffee, strong tea, lemonades and alcohol are harmful to the cells.
  • Proper nutrition - promotes normal metabolism and prevents obesity.
  • Regular physical activity - improves the performance of all organs and systems, increases immunity.
  • Minimizing stress - nervous exhaustion leads to increased blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in the blood.
  • Timely and adequate treatment of any disease - some diseases, especially chronic ones, can trigger the development of diabetes.
  • Regular examination - early detection of diabetes improves the treatment prognosis and minimizes the possibility of complications.
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