Neuropathy of the facial nerve is a fairly common disease. This disease affects about 25% of people aged 15 years. Most often the disease affects older people - from 40 years. This disease is characterized by a lesion of the facial nerve, leading to unilateral paralysis or paresis of the face. The main symptom is the asymmetry of the face.
- Symptoms of
- Causes of
- Complications of
- Diagnosis of
- Treatment of
- In children
- During pregnancy
- Home treatment
The disease is characterized by signs of numbness in the affected part of the face when a person is unable to control facial movements. When you try to close your eyelids or smile, the patient's face changes, a grin appears, the eye does not close and a gap is formed. Corner of the mouth of the affected half of the face is lowered or pulled to the side of the healthy half.
In addition, with neuritis, the following symptoms are observed:
- Salivation disorders.
- Dry eyes or excessive tear.
- Excessive sensitivity to sounds, especially loud ones.
- Impaired taste.
- Painful sensations in the ear.
Depending on the severity of the disease, its symptoms are manifested:
- An easy degree is characterized by impaired motor activity of the facial muscles, a slight pull of the mouth on the healthy side. The patient is able to close his eyes or smile, but on the affected part of the face these movements are noticeably worse.
- The average degree is more pronounced, the eyelid does not completely close, leaving a small gap. With a smile, 2-3 teeth can be seen. Trying to raise or frown your eyebrows leads only to an easy movement of the muscles in the affected part of the face.
- Severe degree is manifested on the face in full. When the eye is closed, a patient gets a 3-5 mm-size crackle, a grin appears during a smile. In addition, the patient is unable to wrinkle his forehead or frown his eyebrows in the affected area.
To provoking factors it is possible to carry:
- Tumor diseases.
- Ischemic diseases.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Various facial injuries.
- Reducing the body's immune defenses.
- Various infectious diseases, in particular, the herpes virus.
Classification of types of diseases is carried out for the initial reason:
- Infectious - an inflammatory disease, the causes of which can be: syphilis, parotitis, poliomyelitis. However, most often the disease develops because of the defeat of the nerves with the herpes virus.
- Otorennaya - the primary cause of the disease is often an unsuccessful surgery, including treatment at the dentist, as well as inflammatory diseases such as otitis, mastoiditis, etc.
- Idiopathic or "Bell's palsy" is the most common form of neuropathy. Most often develops after severe hypothermia or severe colds. The disease can be seasonal in nature.
In the absence of treatment, facial nerve neuropathy leads to the development of persistent muscle contractions of facial muscles of the face. This can happen 1-2 months after the onset of the disease. Contractures tighten the affected area of the face, which causes a persistent cosmetic defect and involuntary muscle twitching. The person's face looks as if the muscles are damaged and in the healthy half.to contents ^
Electromyography and electroneuromyography are assigned to identify a focus of pathology, establish the degree of damage, as well as the dynamics of recovery of the facial nerve during treatment.
- Medication treatment .In the acute period of neuritis, drug therapy is prescribed:
- decongestants( Diakarb, Lasix);
- is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug( Indomethacin, Diclofenac);
- glucocorticoids( dexamethasone, prednisolone).
- If necessary, the doctor prescribes spasmolytic, vasodilator( Nicotinic acid, Pentoxifylline, Trental) and immunostimulating drugs, as well as B group vitamins( Milgamma).
Anticholinesterase medications( Galantamine, Proserin, Dibasol, Aksamon) are prescribed from day 10 to improve nerve conduction.
With prolonged recovery of the nerve, remedies are recommended that improve the metabolism in the nervous tissue( Nerobol, Dianabol).If the nerve is not completely restored within 2-3 months, the doctor prescribes Lidaz and biostimulators. To reduce the dryness of the eye, instilled an artificial tear.
- Surgical methods .The operation is indicated with a complete rupture of the facial nerve, for example, as a result of trauma, in case of mechanical compression by neurinoma, etc. For this, nerve decompression in the bone canal, neurolisis, corrective operations on facial muscles, plastic or nerve stitching can be prescribed.
- The massage of facial muscles helps to avoid the appearance of asymmetry of the face due to uneven muscle work. With the help of various techniques, muscle relaxation and pain relief is achieved. During the procedure, blood flows to the muscles, thereby improving their functioning.
- Acupuncture( acupuncture) provides rapid normalization of nerve function.
- LFK is extremely necessary for complex treatment of neuropathy. Gymnastics can be performed from the 2nd week, at least 2 times a day. It is necessary to raise and reduce eyebrows;inflate cheeks;blink;curl the lips and exhale slowly;to put out the tongue and make a movement in them;push the jaw forward and toward the affected nerve;to pronounce the letters w, a, u, c, p, n, u, f.
- Apitherapy - treatment of bee products. With neuropathy, the most effective bee venom is recognized. It has anti-edematous, immunostimulating and anti-inflammatory action.
- Botox is an injection of botulinum toxin type A, which blocks neuromuscular transmission and disrupts muscle function. In medicine, it is used to treat conditions associated with spasm of muscles, including facial muscles. However, in the process of working with the drug, many complications can arise( skin rash of the upper eyelids, ptosis of the eyebrows, extensive hematoma at the injection site, etc.).The severity and frequency of the consequences depends on the experience with the substance and the professional skills of the doctor.
- Darsonval is a device that exerts a tonic and vasodilating effect. Through the expanded vessels to the nervous tissues blood flows, delivering the necessary substances and oxygen. As a result, nourishment of the facial nerve is improved and its recovery process is accelerated.
- Ozonation of blood - the general effect on the body of medical ozone. The use of ozone therapy for medicinal purposes is due to its ability to destroy viruses, bacteria, improve the recovery processes in the body, stimulate the depressed cells of the immune system and normalize its function.
Neuritis of the facial nerve is one of the most common forms of nervous system damage in school-age children. This is due to the peculiarities of the location of the nerve and its relationship with neighboring formations.
Distinguish primary neuropathy of the nerve, which is infectious-allergic, and secondary - otogennogo and other origin. Primary neuritis of infectious genesis is caused by various viruses( herpes, enteroviruses, etc.).In the appearance of catarrhal neuropathies, a certain role is played by allergic influences, as well as local or general hypothermia of the face.
Secondary neuritis in childhood most often occurs with otitis, eustachiitis( auditory tube disease), mastoiditis( inflammation of the mastoid process of the temporal bone).The defeat of the nerve can occur with acute leukemia, tuberculous meningitis, toxoplasmosis, mononucleosis and other infectious diseases.
In addition, the onset of the disease is affected by hereditary and congenital anomalies. So in a child of preschool age, Melkenson-Rosenthal syndrome can be diagnosed, manifested by one- or two-sided neuropathy of the facial nerve. Glazolitsevoy paralysis or Mobius syndrome is characterized by congenital maldevelopment of the facial, oculomotor and accessory nerves.
A sick child can not completely close his eyes on the side of the lesion, wrinkle his forehead, inflate his cheeks, pull his lips into a tube, etc. The face on the affected part becomes asymmetric when crying, smiling.
Depending on the location of the damaged nerve, the child may complain of pain in the area of the mastoid process, face, ear. With neuritis, hyperacia( impaired perception of sounds), dry eye, taste disorders, lacrimation, paralysis of facial muscles, etc. may occur. Neuritis of the facial nerve in children, as in adults, consists in prescribing medications, in severe cases, operativeintervention. Also, a doctor can prescribe a massage or exercise therapy. to the table of contents ^
In the body, a woman undergoing a period of waiting for the child, there are many changes that in rare cases can cause neuritis of the facial nerve. Also, the disease can develop at the time of delivery, when the expectant mother experiences severe pain shock.
For the treatment of neuropathy in pregnancy prescribed medication, as well as fizioprotsedury, helping to restore the function of the affected nerve.to contents ^
- Observe precautionary measures, namely: try to avoid any kind of injuries, hypothermia, drafts.
- Increased immunity.
- To develop skills to withstand stress.
- To conduct health procedures, for example, massage, therapeutic gymnastics of facial muscles.
- Timely treatment of diseases that can trigger the development of facial nerve neuropathy.
Treatment at home
- With facial nerve neuritis, it is useful to carry out an easy point massage of the affected area with fir oil. A small amount of funds rubbed into the muscles of the face in circular motions. The recommended course is 15 procedures.
- You can remove the spasm of facial muscles at home using a mixture of tinctures of hawthorn, motherwort and calendula. Take the drug before going to bed for 15 drops.
- Mumiye has a good anti-inflammatory effect - 10% solution must be rubbed into the parotid region.