Causes, symptoms and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome( IBS) is a violation of the digestive system, the symptoms of which resemble functional disorder, and the treatment is not only to improve the intestines, but also in psychotherapeutic measures.

Contents:
  • reasons
  • Classification
  • Symptoms
  • How dangerous
  • Diagnostics
  • First Aid
  • When
  • flatulence When
  • diarrhea When constipation
  • Treatment
  • Preparations
  • Diet
  • Exercises
  • Psychotherapeutic aid
  • Folk remedies
  • have
  • children during pregnancy
  • Prevention

Causes


Doctors do not name the exact reasons, but indicate the factors that can influence the onset of the syndrome:

  • imbalance of nerve connections between the headsth the brain and the intestines;
  • impaired intestinal motor function;
  • psychological disorders;
  • bacterial gastroenteritis;
  • hormonal failures;
  • hereditary factor;
  • improper power supply;
  • dysbacteriosis.

The syndrome can develop both with a combination of several, and with only 1 risk factor.

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Classification of

The clinical classification of IBS is based on the prevalence of some type of defecation disorder:


  • syndrome with constipation;
  • syndrome with diarrhea;
  • mixed syndrome.

The kind of syndrome in a particular person can not be considered something permanent, its main symptom - an abnormal chair - can change to the opposite.

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Symptoms of

The IBS shows the same symptoms as with a typical bowel disorder:

  • Pain and abdominal cramps that disappear after bowel devastation.
  • Sensation of the full intestine even after defecation.
  • Diarrhea( stool 3 or more times a day).
  • Constipation( stool every few days).
  • Flatulence( enhanced gas generation).
  • Bloating and feeling that the stomach is bursting.
  • Mucus is released together with feces.
  • Complex psychological state( depression, fear, anxiety).

In IBS, there is no:

  • blood in the stool;
  • weight loss;
  • abdominal pain at night;
  • elevated temperature;
  • anemia;
  • increase in the level of ESR and leukocytes in the blood;
  • increase in the liver.
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Than

is dangerous. Irritable bowel syndrome is not a disease in which structural, irreversible tissue changes appear, but a complex of symptoms.

Nevertheless, one can not treat the pathology without seriousness for the following reasons:

  • IBS reduces the quality of human life( pain, diarrhea, constipation, sudden desire to empty the intestine prevent to lead a habitual way of life).
  • Violation becomes a serious destabilizing psychological factor, against which development of depression or neurosis is possible.
  • May be a harbinger of serious diseases, including mental ones.

A confirmed IBS is not life-threatening, but requires treatment and elimination of an underlying cause.

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Diagnosis

Irritable bowel syndrome has no specific and characteristic symptoms, in addition, people often write off its manifestations on the error of nutrition and do not go to the doctors until serious deterioration.

Behind typical symptoms, other diseases can also be concealed:


  • ulcerative colitis;
  • Crohn's disease;
  • mild forms of intestinal infections;
  • dysbiosis;
  • adhesions in the small intestine;
  • colon cancer;
  • polyps;
  • diverticulosis;
  • helminthic invasion.

To exclude other diseases and confirm IBS, conduct a patient examination, which includes:

  • Stool analysis for dysbacteriosis, intestinal infections, the presence of parasites and worms.
  • General blood test. Important indicators: the number of erythrocytes( indicates the presence or absence of anemia), the number of leukocytes and ESR( elevated, these indicators indicate an infection in the body).
  • Immunological analysis of blood. Shows the immune response of the body to the protein gluten( often recurring diarrhea).
  • Colonoscopy with biopsy. The rectum and the large intestine are examined.
  • Recto-manoscopy. The rectum and sigmoid colon are examined.
  • Irrigoscopy( X-ray of the large intestine).Reveals a tumor, diverticulum, polyps, ulcers.
  • of the abdominal ultrasound. Identifies pathological changes in internal organs.
  • Fibrogastroduodenoscopy( with biopsy).Reveals the pathology of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, a biopsy will show the extent of damage to the tissues of the organ.
  • Blood test for thyroid hormones. Reveals thyrotoxicosis, diabetes, some forms of which are similar to IBS with diarrhea.
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First aid

Irritable bowel syndrome requires comprehensive treatment, but with exacerbation, to remove pain from violation of defecation and flatulence, you can take medication.

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With meteorism

  • Activated carbon absorbs all harmful substances.
  • Trimedate regulates the intensity of intestinal motility, arresting flatulence, bloating.
  • Smecta adsorbs intestinal gases.
  • Espumizan destroys the gas bubbles in the intestine.
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With diarrhea

  • Loperamide( Imodium) stops non-infectious diarrhea.
  • Normobakt, Lineks contain bifido- and lactobacilli for normalization of intestinal microflora.
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With constipation of

  • , Guttalax intensifies peristalsis, stimulates the mucosa of the large intestine.
  • Glycerol( candles) irritates the mucous, stimulating intestinal peristalsis.
  • Regulax acts on the receptors of the large intestine, strengthening the movement of stool.
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Treatment of

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Preparations

Drugs of various groups are used for medicinal treatment of irritable bowel syndrome:

  • Antidiuretic ( Enterol, Linex, Loperamide, Polysorb).The peristalsis of the intestine is inhibited.
  • Laxative ( Metamucil, Citrucel).Mild stools are made softer, helping quick defecation.
  • Spasmolytics ( Duspatalin, Niaspam, No-shpa).They relieve spasm of intestinal muscles.
  • Probiotics ( Bactisuptil, Enterol).They create conditions for the development of normal intestinal microflora.
  • Prebiotics ( Hylak-forte, Dufalac).Positively affect the growth of beneficial microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Antidepressants ( Phenibut, Afobazol, Tenoten, Phenazepam, Eglonil, Deprim).
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Diet

The patient's condition is largely dependent on nutrition, so the goal of the diet for irritable bowel syndrome is to reduce the intensity of symptoms.

Diet is made separately for each type of syndrome, but with any symptomatology, general rules should be observed:

  • Food should contain coarse fibers. They well stimulate intestinal peristalsis.
  • It is necessary to completely eliminate fried, spicy, smoked and fat food from food.
  • Food should be divided: small portions 5-6 times a day.
  • The last meal should be 2 hours before bedtime.

Allowed products:

  • lean meat( turkey, veal);
  • porridge on the water( oatmeal, rice, buckwheat);
  • white bread;
  • fish is lean( perch, hake, pikeperch);
  • boiled vegetables;
  • various jelly;
  • chicken eggs;
  • low-fat cottage cheese;
  • soups on the second broth;
  • diluted with water juices;
  • drink from rose hips.

Prohibited products:

  • ice cream;
  • coffee and chocolate;
  • refined sugar and sugar substitutes;
  • dairy products( if there is lactose deficiency);
  • fresh vegetables and fruits;
  • any alcohol;
  • seasonings and spices;
  • any canned food and marinades;
  • mushrooms;
  • cabbage in any form;
  • beans.

If there is constipation in irritable bowel syndrome, then the food should have a slight laxative effect:

  • vegetable salads with vegetable oil;
  • products with fiber;
  • is beet and prunes;
  • drink a lot( at least 2 liters a day);
  • to exclude from food mucous decoctions and porridges.

Nutrition for diarrhea should have a fixing effect:

  • mucosa rice porridge;
  • yesterday's white bread, unsweetened breadcrumbs;
  • black tea;
  • lean boiled meat and fish;The
  • was jammed.

If there are flatulence among the symptoms, then all foods that lead to gas formation should be excluded from the diet:

  • beans;
  • cabbage in any form;
  • fresh fruit.

If IBS occurs with abdominal pain, then the food should be the same as in diarrhea, that is, it should not increase intestinal motility.

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Exercises

Clinical studies have shown that physical exercises significantly improve the condition of people with IBS: the pains become less intense, flatulence, constipation and diarrhea occur less and less.

In irritable bowel syndrome, moderate loads are recommended: fast walking, cycling by the hour 4-5 times a week.

Very often, IBS is a psychosomatic disorder, so the technique of deep relaxation, including deep breathing, muscle relaxation and meditation, has become an effective treatment for the syndrome.

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Psychotherapeutic assistance

A survey of patients showed that very often the first symptoms and subsequent exacerbations appear as a result of prolonged stress. The longer a person does not seek medical help, the greater the chances of making the situation uncontrollable and bringing the matter to a phobia or depression with psychosomatics.

Medications will only help for a while, because the cause of the condition is not in the body. Such patients should consult a therapist. Depending on the severity of the condition, the doctor will prescribe sedative medications or antidepressants. But its main task is to find a stimulus that provokes the syndrome, to remove from the patient a state of anxiety and fear, to help solve psychological problems.

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Folk remedies

Traditional medicine for relieving symptoms IBS uses medicinal herbs and fruits.

  • Mint. Therapeutic infusion will relieve the flatulence, soothe the aching pain in the abdomen.1 teaspoon of dried leaves pour boiling water( 250 milliliters), let it brew for 15 minutes. Take twice a day after meals.
  • Grass or seeds of dill. Infusion will relieve spasm of the intestine.1 tablespoon of herbs or seeds pour boiling water( 500 milliliters), let it brew for 2 hours. Take half the glass before eating.
  • Pellet cakes. Infusion will stop diarrhea.1 tablespoon of pomegranate crust pour boiling water( 250 milliliters), insist until the water turns pink. To drink at one time.
  • Leaves of plantain, sage, walnut. Infusion is used for diarrhea.2 tablespoons of dry raw material pour boiling water( 250 milliliters), let it brew for 2 hours. Take 2 tablespoons several times a day.
  • Linen, nettle, cumin, anise, chamomile, yarrow. Infusion of any of the herbs will help with constipation.2 tablespoons of herbs pour boiling water( 250 milliliters), let it brew for 2 hours. Take 2 tablespoons 3-5 times a day.
  • Essential oils of juniper, geranium, mint. A bath with oils will help relieve stress.
  • Juice of onion. Helps with constipation. Take 1 teaspoonful 4 times daily before meals. The course is designed for 3 weeks.
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In children

In infants, IBS is less common than in adults. The symptoms are the same, but they are more intense. Treatment of diarrhea should be medicated to avoid anemia and dehydration of the body. Diets should be adhered to not only during an exacerbation, but also in calm periods. The family should have a normal psychological situation, conditions for physical activity must be created.

Doctors consider IBS in children to be a temporary phenomenon, because with age, the neural connections between the brain and intestine resolve themselves, the hormonal background stabilizes.

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In pregnancy,

If a woman had an irritable bowel syndrome before pregnancy, it is very likely that during pregnancy it will worsen. The reasons for this are sufficient:

  • a change in the hormonal background;
  • is weakened by immunity;
  • emotional stress;
  • pressure of a growing fetus on the intestines.
It is strictly necessary to consult a doctor for a pregnant woman. It is necessary to exclude serious diseases that can affect the fetus.

In addition, only the doctor can prescribe the treatment aimed at alleviating the symptoms, as uncontrolled use of drugs can also affect the health of the baby's future, because even harmless in other cases, medical herb can provoke miscarriage.

In general, irritable bowel syndrome does not threaten neither the life, nor the health of the mother and child.

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Prevention of

According to medical observations, most often IBS occurs in people with psychological problems. Unable to cope with them, a person forces the stress inside, washing it down with soothing, which does not solve the problem, but creates a new one in the form of symptoms of IBS.

You have to learn how to react to the stimulus correctly, to cope with it. This can help soothing baths, exercise, relaxing massage. In extreme cases, you can always seek help from a psychotherapist.

Incorrect nutrition also plays its negative role. You can not eat on the run and in the dry, do not drink carbonated drinks and street food, they do not do any good, but only irritate the intestines.

It is necessary to be physically active, to give up bad habits, to spend more time outdoors.

  • May 07, 2018
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