Causes, Symptoms and Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia - a violation of the rhythm of the heart, the symptoms and treatment of which depend on the specific type of pathology. With arrhythmia, the rhythm may slow down, the rate of contraction or contractions in the heart may be irregular. Slow heart beat is called bradycardia, tachycardia is tachycardia, and irregular heart beat is extrasystole.


Contents:
  • Causes
  • Types and Symptoms
  • Than
  • The first aid
  • Treatment
  • Medications
  • Operation
  • Nutrition
  • Respiratory gymnastics
  • LFK
  • Folk remedies
  • In children
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevention

Causes

There are many reasons for the onset of pathology independing on the nature of which the arrhythmia can be organic or functional.

Organic arrhythmia develops in various diseases and pathologies of the heart:

  • heart disease;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • angina;
  • myocarditis;
  • cardiomyopathy.

Functional arrhythmia develops in a healthy heart and is a secondary pathology due to a number of reasons:

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  • Neurogenic( stressful situations, excessive mental or physical stress, emotions, smoking and alcohol, strong tea and coffee, neuroses, thyroid disorders, intoxications, hormonalmalfunctions in the body with menopause).


  • Vaugependent( intestinal and gallbladder diseases, cholecystitis, kidney disease, stomach and duodenal ulcer).
  • Dis-electrolytes( in the heart muscle the content of potassium, magnesium or calcium varies).
  • Iatrogenic, that is, caused as a result of improper treatment or drug overdose.
  • Mechanical( chest injuries, electric shock).
  • Idiopathic( cause not clear).
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Species and symptoms

  • Sinus tachycardia. Heart rate is 90 beats per minute and higher. Provoke a similar condition can alcohol, energy drink, caffeine medication, exercise or psychoemotional breakdown. Symptoms: long lasting palpitation, shortness of breath, headaches.
  • Sinus bradycardia. The heart rate is reduced to 50-40 beats per minute. To provoke a pathology can the transferred infectious diseases, decrease of function of a thyroid gland or high intracranial pressure. Symptoms: shortness of breath, fainting, severe headache and a feeling of severe chest tightness. Atrial fibrillation. Very dangerous type of pathology. The heart rate rises from 120 to 400 beats per minute, cardiac contraction is erratic. Symptoms: palpitation, chest pain, a feeling of chest tightness, high blood pressure and dizziness, weakness, nervousness and shortness of breath. The patient is frightened and confused, which further aggravates his condition.
  • Extrasystoles. With this pathology, the heart rate reaches 250-300 beats per minute. Provoke strong seizure of coffee or alcohol, but it can occur with life-threatening severe diseases( cancer, pulmonary edema).Symptoms: strong palpitation, weakness, dizzy, clouded consciousness, heartache.
  • Paroxysmal tachycardia. Heart rate can reach 140-220 beats per minute. Provoke such an attack can over-exercise or nervous breakdown. Symptoms: sudden strong palpitations, shortness of breath, headache, fainting.
  • Atrioventricular block. Heart rate is only 20-40 beats per minute. Symptoms: weakness, shortness of breath, heart pain, giving back to the clavicle area.
  • Ventricular fibrillation. Very dangerous pathology, when the heart rate reaches 200-480 beats per minute. Symptoms: Critically strong palpitation, severe dyspnea, pain in the entire chest with a grip on the neck, nausea, nervousness, uncontrolled fear, loss of consciousness can go to a deep coma.
  • Ventricular tachycardia. Heart rate can be from 120 to 200 beats per minute. Unstable tachycardia can be asymptomatic, and its stable form produces pronounced symptoms: palpitations, a burning sensation in the chest, weakness, fear, pallor of the skin, dizziness, premarrow, vision impairment, cardiogenic shock, sudden cardiac death.

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Than

is dangerous Not all forms of arrhythmia are dangerous for life. Some of them do not require treatment, and when life circumstances change or correction of provoking factors disappear themselves, for example, sinus tachycardia, which is most often observed in children and young people. Atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation are very dangerous pathologies. The heart beats at a speed of up to 400 beats per minute, respiratory functions are violated, pressure drops sharply, this leads to loss of consciousness, and sometimes to death.

Violation of the rhythm of the heartbeat disturbs blood circulation and leads to the formation of blood clots. Blood clots are carried by blood on the arteries and can lead to their blockage. If it occurs in the vessels of the heart, then a heart attack is imminent, in the vessels of the brain - a stroke or thromboembolism of the brain, in the vessels of the extremities - thrombosis.

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First aid

The arrhythmia attack, as a rule, occurs suddenly. Symptoms are difficult to tolerate, the patient may panic than exacerbate his condition, so before the arrival of a doctor, he must provide first aid:

  • Find for the patient a rest position in which he will be easier to breathe( lying or sitting).If the pulse is slow, then the legs should be above the head.
  • Provide fresh air access.
  • Unbutton tight clothing, loosen tight collar or tie, belt.
  • Attempt to remove a panic attack, explaining that all unpleasant symptoms are temporary, and after taking the medicine they will stop.
  • From tachycardia you need to drink something from sedatives( Corvalol, Valocordin), with bradycardia - Nitroglycerin pill under the tongue.
  • With tachycardia, breathing exercises can be done to restore breathing a little: take a deep breath, hold the air for 2 seconds, slowly exhale. Repeat several times.
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Treatment

The cardiologist chooses therapy, depending on the diagnosis, it can be medications or surgical treatment.

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Medications

The basis of treatment for violations of heart rate are antiarrhythmic drugs. Their action is different: they can both shorten, and lengthen the rhythm, how to increase the heart rate, and reduce them:

  • Atenolol;
  • Amiodarone;
  • Verapamil;
  • Dysopyramide;
  • Lidocaine;
  • Cordarone.

However, each kind of arrhythmia requires additional specific remedies:

  • Sedation, cardiac glycosides, vitamins, beta-blockers( in severe cases) are prescribed for sinus tachycardia.
  • With sinus bradycardia, drugs that dilate the vessels are appropriate( Trental, Eufillin).
  • With extrasystole, sedatives are used.
  • In cases of paroxysmal tachycardia, intravenous administration of antiarrhythmic drugs is sometimes required.
  • From ciliary tachycardia additionally prescribed Digoxin, Propranolol.
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Operation

Severe arrhythmia forms sometimes require surgical treatment:

  • Install a pacemaker that sets the normal contraction frequency.
  • Radiofrequency ablation is the cauterization of an arrhythmia source, after which the heart rhythm becomes normal.
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Nutrition

One of the causes of heart disease may be a deficiency in the body of potassium, calcium and magnesium. Therefore, a diet with arrhythmia should include many products with these trace elements. The consumption of liquid should not be less than 1.5 liters per day. Energy drinks, caffeinated drinks, alcohol and smoking are excluded.

Recommended products:

  • Fruits( raisins, cranberries, pears, grapes, apples, currants, raspberries) increase immunity.
  • Vegetables( cabbage, beets, parsley, pumpkin, potatoes, turnips, tomatoes, avocados, beans, garlic, celery, onions) contain potassium and magnesium.
  • Honey( strengthens the vessels).
  • Seafood and fish.
  • Low-fat meat and dairy products.

Prohibited products:

  • fatty meat;
  • fat;
  • by-products;
  • eggs;
  • spices;
  • is salty and sharp;
  • chocolate;
  • cocoa;
  • products with preservatives and GMOs.
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Respiratory gymnastics

For the treatment of arrhythmia, respiratory gymnastics is used according to the Strelnikova method. Exercises restore the heart rate and blood circulation.

The strength of any gymnastics in systematic occupations without missing. You need to practice every day for 25 minutes before breakfast and sleep.

  1. To be straight. Several times quickly inhale, exhale and start walking on the spot( during the breath-taking step).
  2. Stand straight. Hands are lowered. Sharply and noisily to inhale, at this moment to clench fists. Exhale, unclenching your fists. Repeat 6 times, pause between the breaths of 25 seconds.
  3. Stand flat. Compressed fists to keep on the belt. Take a sharp breath, lower your hands, unclasping your palms. On exhalation return to the original position. Repeat 12 times, break between repeats 5 seconds.
  4. Feet should be placed shoulder width apart, arms lowered. During inspiration, lean forward and put forward your hands. On exhalation, stand upright, hands down. Repeat 13 times with a short break.

There is in Strelnikova's technique and an exercise to relieve an arrhythmia attack, it is called a "pump".You need to sit on the edge of the chair, palm off your knees, and lower your head down. Without changing the position of the body, one has to lean slightly forward, each inclination combining with inhalation through the mouth. Slowly exhale through the mouth at the moment of returning to the starting position. It is not possible to lean back. Do this exercise in the morning and evening for half an hour.

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LFK

Sport for achievements and records in arrhythmia is strictly contraindicated, however, physical exercises in accordance with the strengths and prescriptions of the attending physician are not only permitted, but are also shown. Regular exercises normalize blood circulation and restore the right heart rate.

Physiotherapy is prescribed already in the hospital, and on leaving the patient recommend swimming, walking, cycling and walking. The main rule is to do nothing by force.

Recommendations for walking: in the first 2 weeks per minute, you have to go 100 steps, in the third week the number of steps can be increased to 150 per minute. Continue for 3 months. After walking you can go to the run. The first week can be easily run over 300 meters, after a week add another 100 meters. Continue training for 4 months.

In the fifth month of running, the distance can be increased to 2 kilometers. In this case, the pulse in accordance with the age should be as follows:

  • to 35 years - 120-150 beats per minute:
  • from 35 to 45 years - 140-160 beats per minute;
  • from 45 to 55 years - 130-145 beats per minute;
  • from 55 to 65 years - 115-125 beats per minute.
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Folk remedies

The most common herbal teas, decoctions and infusions:

  • Chopped leaves of dry mint( 1 teaspoon) pour boiling water( 1 cup), let it brew for 1 hour. Strain and slowly drink half an hour before breakfast. Drink the remedy daily.
  • In 0.5 glass of beet juice add 1 tablespoon of honey. Take the drug three times a day for an hour before meals.
  • Prepare the juice of black radish, mix it with honey in a ratio of 1: 1.Take a tablespoon in the morning and evening.
  • Fig fruits in any form.
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In children

Arrhythmia in children has all the same species as in adults. The peak of the development of the disease occurs in the birth of a child and at the age of 5, 7-8, 12-14 years.

Causes of pediatric arrhythmia:

  • congenital heart disease;
  • consequences of a severe infection;
  • prematurity;
  • hormonal imbalance;
  • emotional or physical overexertion.

Treatment of organic children's arrhythmia is the same as in adults, respiratory type arrhythmias pass by themselves, and functional disorders disappear as soon as their cause is eliminated.

Severe cases of organic arrhythmia can result in heart failure, and the most terrible complications can be fibrillation( trembling) and asystole( cessation of contractions), which can lead to death.

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During pregnancy

The period of gestation is a time of increased stress on the female body. The heart rhythm is disturbed in almost every pregnant woman, but this is not always a pathology. According to statistics, only in 1/5 of pregnant women arrhythmia occurs against the background of heart diseases, only 4% on the background of severe pathologies, and the rest are experiencing a natural restructuring of the body.

When pregnancy is most often diagnosed as sinus arrhythmia and extrasystole. Treat these conditions with proper nutrition, good sleep and a healthy lifestyle in general.

Only atrial fibrillation is really dangerous, especially if it develops against a background of heart disease or thyrotoxicosis. The rapid rhythm of the heart causes a violation of the circulation of both the mother and fetus, and this can cause oxygen starvation in the future baby and even miscarriage.

If the pathology is discovered late and the treatment is not carried out, then for a woman this may result in heart failure or thromboembolism, and eventually - death. Births in the case of diagnosing atrial fibrillation are performed only by caesarean section.
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Prevention

Prevention of arrhythmia is based on a healthy lifestyle, and this is:

  • Proper nutrition: fresh fruits, vegetables and grains, lean meat and fish;refusal of fatty, smoked, salty, spicy and fast food;limitation of sweets.
  • Refusal from smoking, drinking alcohol and energy drinks.
  • Discarding a lot of strong coffee and tea.
  • Exercise, walking, swimming.
  • Maintaining your psycho-emotional state is normal.
  • Refer to your doctor for the first signs of a heartbeat.
  • May 07, 2018
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