Amylase is a digestive enzyme responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates. In the human body, it is formed mainly in the pancreas and salivary glands. Indicators of the level of this substance in the blood in adults and children differ, deviation from the norm often indicates metabolic disturbances or inflammatory diseases.
- What is
- Pancreatic amylase
- reasons disorders
- As reduce
- How to improve
main function amylase is the processing of complex carbohydrates( in particular, starch andglycogen) to simple and easily assimilable components - oligosaccharides. The enzyme is produced by cells of the pancreas and enters the duodenum through the pancreatic ducts. However, the process of digestion is triggered in the mouth, when the amylase in the saliva initiates the cleavage of the starch.
The pancreas has a mixed secretion, that is, it releases enzymes and hormones both into the intestinal lumen and into the blood. However, in a healthy person, the content of amylase in the blood is low enough, this is due to the renewal of the cells of the salivary and pancreatic glands. Also a small amount of this substance is contained in the intestines, liver, ovaries, large muscles of the skeleton.
Amylase, produced in the pancreas, is called pancreatic. It is distinguished from alpha-amylase, the total amount of amylase present in the body. Increase or decrease in the level of these indicators in the blood indicates pathological processes, especially in the digestive organs.
The enzyme is excreted from the body with urine through the kidneys and is called diastase. In addition to investigating the level of amylase in the blood, doctors often need a urine test for diastase to diagnose health.to table of contents ^
The levels of amylase in the blood are the same for men and women, but differ according to age.to table of contents ^
Represents the total amount of the enzyme in the body:
- in children under 2 years - 5-65 units per 1 liter of blood;
- at the age of 2 to 70 years - 25-125 units in 1 liter of blood;
- in people older than 70 years - 20-160 units per 1 liter of blood.
Is part of the alpha-amylase. Normal indicators are:
- in children under 6 months - not more than 8 units per 1 liter of blood;
- in children from 6 to 12 months - up to 23 units in 1 liter of blood;
- in adults and children older than 1 year - not more than 50 units per 1 liter of blood.
Causes of violations
Exceeding the norm by several units with normal state of health does not necessarily indicate a disease and can be temporary. However, a significant deviation of the indices is often accompanied by unpleasant symptoms:
- pain on the right side of the abdomen, especially after eating;
- indigestion - nausea, diarrhea, vomiting;
- general malaise, lethargy and weakness, sleep disturbance, decreased appetite.
The level of amylase may deviate more or less from the norm.
A high level of enzyme most often indicates the following diseases:
- Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process in the tissues of the pancreas due to the destruction of its own enzymes. The condition requires urgent hospitalization - ignoring the attack can lead to pancreatic necrosis, when the entire body or a part of it dies, and infections or peritonitis develop. The content of amylase in the blood can be exceeded 8 times.
- Chronic pancreatitis. It is characterized by a gradual disruption of the secretory activity of the pancreas and leads to a small( 3-5 times) increase in the level of the enzyme content.
- Tumors in the pancreas.
- Gallstone disease - the formation of stones in the gallbladder, liver or bile ducts.
- Pancreolithiasis - stones in the pancreas.
- Diabetes mellitus is an exchange disease in which amylase consumption is impaired.
- Epidemic parotitis( in the public - mumps) is an acute infectious disease in which the virus affects the glandular organs and the central nervous system.
- Pancreatic injury.
- Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder.
- Perforation( perforation) of a stomach or duodenal ulcer.
- Peritonitis is an inflammation of the leaflets of the peritoneum. A very serious condition, in which the pancreas is irritated, the activity of its cells is increased, increasing the secretion of amylase.
- Acute appendicitis.
- Intestinal obstruction.
- Chronic renal failure is the process by which urine retention in the body and the accumulation of amylase in the blood.
- Aneurysm rupture of the abdominal aorta.
- Alcohol intoxication.
- Incorrect power.
- Ectopic pregnancy or premature termination of pregnancy.
- Epstein-Barr virus - herpes of the fourth type.
- Complications after a cavitary operation.
- Macroamylasemia is a disease in which large molecules are present in the blood, which are amylase compounds with other blood proteins.
- Admission of certain medications - narcotic analgesics, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, diuretics and some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Hereditary factors in which the inhibition of amylase withdrawal through urine and accumulation in the blood occurs.
- Stresses - affect the metabolic processes in the body and can promote the growth of the secretion of the enzyme.
This condition occurs against the background of the following pathologies:
- Decreased pancreatic function - often caused by necrosis of part of the organ.
- Hepatitis - involves the violation of carbohydrate metabolism, which increases the load on the enzymatic systems of the body. Because of this, the production of amylase gradually decreases.
- Oncological lesions of the pancreas - neoplasms cause regeneration of the tissues of the organ, which makes the secretion of amylase impossible.
- Cystic fibrosis( cystic fibrosis) is a hereditary disease in which the glands of external secretion( including salivary glands) are affected and the respiratory function is impaired.
- Surgical interventions with the removal of part of the pancreas or the entire organ.
To determine the level of amylase, it is necessary to deliver blood from the vein. A referral to the analysis is given by a therapist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist or surgeon. To obtain the most reliable data, you must follow certain rules:
- To hand over the analysis preferably in the morning, on an empty stomach, 8-12 hours after the last meal. In acute pain or in other cases, when the result is urgently needed, the procedure is carried out at any time.
- 1-2 days before the test, stresses, excessive physical and emotional stresses must be avoided.
- On the eve of the study should adhere to proper nutrition, exclude sharp, fatty foods, alcohol.
- Immediately before taking blood, you should refrain from smoking, at least for half an hour.
- Some medications may interfere with the results of the analysis, so you must exclude the use of medication several days before the procedure. If you can not do this, be sure to tell your doctor or laboratory assistant the names of the drugs you are taking.
- X-ray, ultrasound( ultrasound), physiotherapy, performed shortly before a blood test, may distort its results.
Regardless of whether amylase is elevated or lowered in the blood, treatment shouldbe aimed at eliminating the cause of the violation. Deviation of the enzyme level from the norm can have unpleasant consequences for the organism, therefore, the doctor must exclusively deal with deciphering the results of the analysis and choosing the therapeutic measures.to table of contents ^
How to reduce
To bring increased levels of amylase in the blood to the norm, the following measures should be taken:
- Identify the source of the disease and conduct adequate therapy. For diagnostics, additional tests and studies may be required. Treatment usually involves taking medications, less often - surgery.
- In the infectious nature of the disease( eg, parotitis), it is necessary to limit communication with people. If the disease occurs in acute form or is accompanied by attacks, treatment should be performed in a hospital under the supervision of doctors.
- Maximally reduce the level of physical activity, it is desirable to comply with bed rest.
- To adhere to the rest regime - a night sleep should last at least 8 hours.
- Diet. From the diet should be excluded from sharp, smoked, fatty, sour dishes, alcohol, coffee, chocolate, baked goods. Cooking should be in the oven, steamed or boiled.
- Fractional power. Take food in small portions, 4-6 times a day - this strategy will allow to reduce the load on the digestive system. It is also desirable to adhere to a separate diet, that is, separately consume proteins and carbohydrates.
How to increase
If the level of amylase is lower than normal, it is necessary:
- To identify the disease that caused the disturbance, to conduct its treatment.
- Compliance with diet. To reduce the consumption of enzyme for digesting food helps food without starch. It is recommended to significantly reduce the consumption of sugar, cereals, flour, dairy products, potatoes, cauliflower, corn.