Breast cancer in recent years ranks 3rd among all causes of death of women. These indicators could be significantly lower if each representative of the weak half of humanity treated herself more closely, did not neglect preventive examinations at the gynecologist and mammologist. This is the only way to detect the first symptoms of breast cancer in time.
- Causes of
- Symptoms of
- Varieties of
- Stages of
- Diagnosis of
- Treatment of
- Treatment of folk remedies
- In men
- In children
- Prevention of
The causes that lead to breast cancer have not been thoroughly studied. However, there are factors in which women are considered to be at increased risk of developing this type of cancer:
- Age after age 50.
- Breast cancer in the anamnesis.
- Cases of cancer, including breasts, in close relatives, especially on the maternal line.
- No children until later.
- The onset of menstrual flow up to 11 years.
- Menopause after 55 years.
- Contact with radiation sources.
- Prolonged consumption of fatty foods.
Almost all subspecies of breast cancer are characterized by pain and discomfort. Sometimes there may be other common for all kinds of changes, for example:
- Erythema skin.
- Nodular formations in the chest.
- Changing the color of the nipples.
- Enlarged lymph nodes above and below the clavicle.
- Erosion of the nipple.
- Abundant or rare discharge from the nipple.
For any type of breast cancer, a woman may experience a number of skin symptoms. For example, if the skin is infringed over the tumor, one can see a violation of the habitual orientation of the skin folds, the appearance of grooves of different depths between them. Visually, this symptom is similar to senile wrinkles, but appears only in a limited area of the breast.
This pathological wrinkling usually manifests itself in the early stages of the disease. Also in this phase of breast cancer, another more characteristic symptom is often found - skin retraction. It can also appear in the second stage of the disease, but it is found when the skin is squeezed by the fingers when the patient lies.to the table of contents ^
There are several types of breast cancer. They are similar, but each has its own characteristic features.
Already in the first stage this subtype of cancer is manifested by such an external sign as wrinkling of the skin, and as the growth of the node increases, skin retraction is observed. The late symptom of this ailment is the skin, visually resembling the lemon peel. The nodular form of breast cancer can also affect the nipple, which appears to be a noticeable deformity.
The edematous form affects mainly young women. Most often, it develops during the period of childbearing or lactation. The course of this type of breast cancer is acute, but there is almost no pain. Symptoms include swelling of the skin and breast tissue. At the first stage, a densified patch of chest with a reddened skin appears, which eventually spreads throughout the breast.
Rozhistopodobny cancer is accompanied by reddening of the skin. This symptom is easy to distinguish from other rashes or irritations, as the edges of redness are uneven, linguiform. The disease proceeds acutely, the body temperature can rise to 40 ° C, but the tumor upon palpation is almost impossible to detect.
Mastitis-like form of cancer is common in young women and manifests itself in such symptoms:
- Increased body temperature.
- Swelling and redness of the skin of the chest.
- Increased individual area of the breast.
- The appearance of a small density in the chest.
Paget's cancer is considered a form of the disease with the most favorable prognosis of cure. It is a localized species that affects the nipple and / or areola. Clinically, it manifests itself in the form of symptoms such as ulceration and maceration of the nipple. In the absence of treatment, the disease progresses, the nipple collapses, leaving an ulcer in its place.
When carcinoma cancer( diffuse-infiltrating form), there is a decrease in the mammary gland, skin tightening. The affected breast is limitedly mobile. The disease, as a rule, affects the gland on one side of the body, but in the absence of treatment it spreads to the other.
Occult breast cancer is also called hidden, since it is almost impossible to determine it. The first clinical sign is the enlargement of the lymph nodes by the armpits, but the tumor itself is not probed in the gland itself. Often a woman with this type of cancer is treated for inflammation of the lymph nodes, and it can be detected only when peripheral metastases appear.
Protokovy breast cancer begins to develop from the internal walls of the milk ducts, while not affecting the proportion and other glandular tissue. Invasive protocol( infiltrative) breast cancer manifests itself by such symptoms as discharge from the nipples, painful sensations, dense or pineal areas in the mammary gland.to contents ^
Formally, five stages of breast cancer are identified:
- The zero stage is non-invasive cancer, that is, the tumor formation remains within its primary appearance in the lobe of the breast or duct and does not spread to other areas of the breast. Clinical symptoms of the disease at stage 0 are absent, axillary lymph nodes are not affected.
- Stage 1 - invasive breast cancer. The tumor appears in the surrounding tissues, but there are no metastases. The size of the neoplasm is about 2 cm.
- Stage 2 is characterized by an increase in axillary lymph nodes from the affected breast in the absence of metastases. The tumor size exceeds 2 cm.
- Stage 3 is a locally advanced cancer. Its main symptom is the axillary lymph nodes welded together( or with adjacent fatty tissue), which form conglomerates( packets).
- Stage 4 - metastatic cancer, in which the appearance of metastases in any organ and part of the body, are most susceptible to damage to the bone of the skeleton. The disease can spread to the lungs and the liver, sometimes to the brain, skin and adrenal glands.
To determine breast cancer, apply:
- Clinical blood test( including oncomarkers, biochemical).
- Mammography( chest X-ray).
- Doktografija( a roentgen of mammary glands with use of a contrast substance, necessary at destruction of milk ducts).
- ultrasound of the chest, thorax and abdomen, small pelvis. Biopsy of the tissues of mammary glands and lymph nodes.
- Magnetic resonance imaging( MRI).
- Immunohistochemical and histological examination of the biopsy specimen.
- Computed tomography( CT).
- Radiography of the lungs.
- Osteoscintigraphy( radioisotope examination of bones).
- Chemotherapy. For the treatment of cancer, cytostatic( cytotoxic) drugs are prescribed that disrupt the mechanism of dividing pathological cells and, as a result, stop their proliferation. These include:
- platinum preparations - Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Cytoplatin, Triplatin, etc.;
- funds of the group of alkaloids - Vinblastine, Vincristine, Vinorelbine, Mawerex;
- derivatives of oxazaphosphorines - Mafosfamide, Trophosphamide, Endoxane, etc.;
- derivatives of fluoropyrimidine carbamate - Xeloda, Capecitabine, etc.
Breast cancer chemotherapy can be carried out as the main and only treatment, in order to reduce the size of the tumor formation before surgery or stop the formation of metastases after surgical treatment.
- Radiotherapy( radiotherapy) for breast cancer causes mutation and death of cancer cells under the influence of radioactive irradiation. Radiation therapy can complement surgical removal and chemotherapy.
- Surgical intervention - removal of the neoplasm and parts of surrounding tissues( lumpectomy) or removal of the entire breast( mastectomy).This method is used in oncology in most cases with breast cancer, if the disease is diagnosed at an early stage.
- Hormone therapy. According to experts, this method of treatment is advisable to be performed after surgery only for women with hormone-dependent formations, that is, if cancer cells have a sensitivity to progesterone and estrogens. As a hormone, the drugs of the aromatase inhibitor group - Letrozole, Anastrozole or Exemestane - are used.
- Target( targeted) therapy is a method aimed at a cancer tumor and its metastases. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies of class lgG1( similar to human ones that produce immune cells) selectively bind to the molecular HER2 / neu receptors on the outer shell of cancerous cells and stop their reproduction and growth. The most popular targeted drugs are Epratuzumab and Trastuzumab.
- Combination therapy involves individual selection and sequential or simultaneous application of the above methods.
In the treatment of stage 0 breast cancer, the removal of the cancer-affected area of the breast( sectoral resection) or lumpectomy is mainly used. Operations may be accompanied by lymphodissection - removal of the adjacent lymph nodes. Also, in the treatment of stage 0 cancer, radiotherapy is always prescribed, and in some cases targeted therapy.
For the treatment of stage 1, a lumpectomy with the removal of the axillary lymph node is used. To get rid of the remaining cancer cells and to avoid their repeated reproduction, hormonal, radiation or chemotherapy is prescribed after the operation.
The first stage of treatment of stage 2 cancer is partial removal of breast tissue( lumpectomy) or complete removal( mastectomy) of the breast tissue. In this case, the elimination is subject to increased regional lymph nodes. After the operation, a course of chemotherapy is prescribed. In those patients who have a tumor of 5 cm or more, the course of chemotherapy is prescribed 2 times: before and after surgery. In addition, according to the indications, courses of hormonal and radiotherapy are conducted.
In the treatment of stage 3 of breast cancer, a complex attack is first applied to cancer-affected cells using cytotoxic agents( chemotherapy) and oncological hormonal therapy. If the first stage has yielded positive results, the treating doctor makes a decision to conduct an operation, the result of which is fixed by a repeated course of chemotherapy or ionized irradiation. With hormone-dependent cancer tumors, long-term administration of aromatase inhibitors( hormone therapy) is shown, and for cancerous overexpression of receptors, the use of monoclonal antibodies is indicated.
Treatment of the 4th degree of breast cancer is mainly aimed at alleviating the condition of the patients. Correctly selected complex therapy at this stage of the disease can significantly prolong life. Mastectomy is used to reduce the level of intoxication of the body, and all anticancer methods are used to combat metastases: hormonal, radiation and chemotherapy. Supportive treatment of concomitant diseases is also prescribed.to contents ^
Treatment with folk remedies
- At the first sign of breast cancer it is useful to take infusion, for which to mix in equal proportions the flowers of calendula and immortelle, valerian roots, blood suckers, angelica, dandelion, St. John's Wort, string, oregano, celandine, marshmallow, plantain, yarrow, motherwort, thyme, nettle, eucalyptus, mother-and-stepmother, sage, birch, linden, pine, fennel, chamomile.1 tablespoon mixture pour 250 ml of boiling water and leave for 30 minutes, then drain. Take a folk remedy 5 times a day.
- The leaves of belladonna have an analgesic effect and are used in the form of applications to the affected mammary gland.
- Propolis is one of the most powerful natural immunostimulants, which has a universal effect on all links of the human immune system. In its pure form, propolis is recommended to be taken 5 times a day for 5-6 grams daily for 1 hour before meals. To prepare medicinal propolis oil you need 1 kilogram unsalted butter and 160 grams of purified and chopped propolis. Butter, melt, bring to a boil, add to it prepared propolis, then immediately remove from heat and stir constantly for 30 minutes. For the treatment of breast cancer to 1 tablespoon of the drug should be added 0.5 tablespoon of milk and drink 3 times daily before meals.
Breast cancer in men can appear with gynecomastia( proliferation of glandular tissue) and in previously healthy gland. The reason for such a rare pathology is the lack of men and an excess of female hormones. Cancer in the breast in men is several times more aggressive than in women, and is less treatable. The symptoms of breast cancer in men include discharge from the nipples and the appearance of neoplasms.to the table of contents ^
Breast cancer in children is very rare. It can occur in adolescence in girls as a result of hormonal changes in the body. Predisposing factors include:
- previously started smoking;
- alcohol abuse;
- strong emotional stress and stress.
Breast cancer in children is not as aggressive as in adults. It can manifest itself in the form of common symptoms: weakness, fatigue, weight loss, a slight increase in body temperature. The cause of breast cancer is the violation of cellular metabolism in the child's body. After some time in the baby's chest, a small nodule can appear which is easily palpable. In rare cases, the skin of the breast may appear sores, erosion, which are accompanied by wetting, scales and crusts.
It is impossible to insure yourself against breast cancer, but if you observe some simple rules, you can significantly reduce the risk of its appearance:
- monitor your diet and consume exceptionally healthy food, adhere to a diet with sufficient vegetable contentth and fruit;
- to quit smoking, minimize alcohol consumption;
- avoid hormone replacement therapy for menopause.
The main preventive measure, allowing early diagnosis of the disease - systematic breast examinations, both independent at home and professional at a gynecologist or mammologist.