All diseases and pathological conditions occurring in the body, change the biochemical properties of blood and its composition. One of the indicators of a general clinical blood test, capable of determining a number of diseases - the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation( ESR), or ROE.Appoint such an analysis can therapist, hematologist, oncologist, infectious disease specialist.
- analysis Indications for putting
- analysis Delivery Methods decryption
- Panchenkova method
- Westergren method
analysis Blood plasma contains the following elements: erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes. The deviation of one of them from the norm "speak" about the presence of any disease.
The most numerous plasma elements are red blood cells. If the tube with blood is put on a vertical surface, then eventually it will be divided into two layers: on top there will be a translucent plasma, and a brown sediment - at the bottom. Erythrocytes can combine to form clots of cells. They are heavier than individual red blood cells and therefore their sedimentation rate at the bottom of the tube will be higher.
Note that ESR changes with pathological conditions of the body.to the table of contents ^
Indications for delivery
The reason for taking the blood test for ESR can be:
- inflammatory processes;
- feeling unwell;
- oncological diseases: myeloma, Hodgkin's disease, cancer of different locations;
- noncommunicable diseases;
- autoimmune disorders;
- monitoring the patient's condition during long-term treatment;
- scheduled physical examination.
This analysis does not require special preparation, but for a reliable ESR result, before passing the test, it is necessary to observe certain conditions:
- For a day, discard any alcoholic beverages and stop taking medication.
- For 2-3 hours do not eat anything but water;
- Before taking the test, it is recommended to sit quietly for 10-15 minutes;
- Try to avoid emotional and physical exertion;
- Do not smoke for half an hour.
Passing the analysis
Capillary or venous blood is taken for an ESR study, this depends on the further research method.
Capillary blood sampling :
- The finger of the hand is wiped with a disinfectant.
- Make a shallow incision.
- The biological material is sampled.
- Treat the puncture site with a disinfectant.
- Apply a tampon to stop bleeding.
Blood sampling from the vein :
- Area above the elbow is pulled by a tourniquet.
- The puncture site is treated with an alcoholic compound.
- A medical needle is inserted into the vein.
- Biomaterial sampling is carried out.
- Get the needle out of the vein.
- Apply a tampon with a disinfectant.
Methods of decoding
Blood on the ESR is investigated by one of two methods: the Panchenkov method and the Westergren method. Before carrying out any of these studies, the resulting biomaterial is mixed with a chemical or a drug that slows down the coagulability( anticoagulant).to the table of contents ^
For this method, the patient is taken capillary blood. The analysis is carried out with a glass tube of small diameter - the Panchenkov capillary( test tube), with 100 divisions deposited on it.
Blood is mixed with a chemical substance, where ¾ of the total volume is biological material. The biomaterial is then placed in a capillary. After 1 hour, the height of the plasma column is measured, which is separated from the red blood cells.
This method is considered the most accurate and it is recognized in worldwide practice. To do this, use a scale of 200 bars. Blood is taken from the vein. Carrying out the research is analogous to the method of Panchenkov.
The figure on the tube scale is considered to be an ESR, it is this figure that is entered in the analysis form.to table of contents ^
In a typical clinic, the results of the analysis will be ready within 24 hours, not counting the day of blood donation. In clinics where there is a laboratory, the results of the analysis will be ready in a couple of hours after visiting the medical institution.to table of contents ^
ESR rates depending on sex and age.
|Gender||Age||ESR rate( mm / h)|
|0 to 6 months||12-17|
|1 year to 2 years||5-7|
|2 to 8 years||7-8|
|8 to 16 years old||8-12|
|18 to 30 years||4-15|
|30 to 60 years||8-25|
|over 60 years old||12-52|
In pregnant women, the level of ESR can vary even from the constitution of the body. And also give different values in different trimesters of pregnancy.
Infectious diseases are the most common cause of a high rate of ESR in the blood. The increase in ESR can indicate the presence of hidden, non-symptomatic infections, while the level of leukocytes can be normal. The increase in the indicator may occur for the following reasons:
- autoimmune diseases( vasculitis, lupus, scleroderma, arthritis);
- oncological diseases;
- processes that are associated with the destruction of body tissues( eg, pre-infarction);
- amyloidosis - a disease that is associated with the accumulation of pathological protein in the body tissues;
- pustular processes in the body;
- presence of chronic infections;
- trauma and fractures;
- kidney disease.
A high level of ESR in a small percentage of cases is typical for absolutely healthy people. For example, in women, this can affect the bearing of the child or menstruation. The level of erythrocyte sedimentation can be influenced by both vitamin A intake and birth control pills.
The reasons for the reduction in ESR readings can be:
- hepatitis complicated by outflow of bile;
- nerve disorders, persistent epileptic seizures;
- circulatory disturbance;
- infringement of process of receipt of salts and water in an organism;
- hemoglobinopathy - a breakdown in the structure of hemoglobin cells;
- heart failure;
- muscle dystrophy;
- taking certain medications.
It should be taken into account that a small decrease in the level of ESR does not indicate pathologies. For example, in women this phenomenon is considered normal( ESR may be less than the norm during menstruation).Reduced ESR can be observed in vegetarians, or those who do not use products of animal origin. However, the ESR index less than 2 mm / h is a serious basis for further medical examination.