Urine analysis is the most accessible way of studying the state of the kidneys, allowing to evaluate their filtration and excretory functions. Detailed analysis of urine according to Zimnitsky's method makes it possible to identify at an early stage pathological disorders of the urinary, endocrine and cardiovascular systems.
- analysis Indications for delivery
- collection analysis
- Decoding results
- Polyuria Oliguria
Urinalysis for Zimnitskiy allows you to set the density of urine. Reduced density indicators indicate a decrease in the concentration of organic substances in the urine, and increased, on the contrary, about the increase.
The chemical composition of urine is a reflection of the quality of metabolic processes, so any changes in the composition of secretions can signal the development of diseases. It is extremely important to do a test for Zimnitsky in children in order to timely diagnose pathologies.
Indications for delivery
- Chronic glomerulonephritis.
- Symptoms of acute renal failure.
- Appearance of any abnormalities of the urinary system.
- Hypertensive disease.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Appearance of edema during pregnancy.
In order for the analysis to be correctly collected, it is necessary to carry out some preparatory measures.
- One day before the test, it is important to stop taking any diuretics and carefully follow the diet - it is not recommended to overeat and drink a lot. The prohibition on excess fluid must be particularly stringent.
- It is not recommended the day before to eat beets and carrots, which contain natural dyes.
- On the eve of the analysis it is necessary to exclude from the diet salty and spicy dishes. Salt provokes a desire to drink more water, but this can not be done.
- Before taking the test, hygiene procedures must be carried out in order to avoid getting into the analysis of microbes.
Collecting the analysis
When collecting the analysis, the most important is to know exactly how much fluid you took during the day. The accuracy of the result directly depends on this information.
When carrying out a sample in Zimnitsky, a daily urinalysis is always submitted. It happens this way:
- On the day of the analysis, the patient should wake up early( about 6 am) and empty the bladder without collecting any tests at this time.
- Then all trips to the toilet should occur strictly every 3 hours, and urinate is necessary in a special jar intended for this time - there must be eight of them. The most important thing is not to confuse the clock and the corresponding capacity.
- Before each visit to the latrine, it is necessary to wash yourself with warm water to avoid getting any excreta in the analysis.
- You need to give up an average portion of urine. The first urine to drain, the middle to collect in a jar, and the last - also to lower. This will ensure a more accurate determination of the density of urine and other indicators.
- If at some point you do not have a desire to empty the bladder, then one of the jars you pass is empty and you designate on it the time in which you did not manage to urinate.
- If you have more than one urge to go to the toilet for 3 hours, you can ask the lab assistant for an additional collection container. Thus, you have a set of more than 8 complete jars with analysis within 24 hours.
Explanation of the results of
When deciphering the urinalysis according to Zimnitskiy, the amount of the allocated daily urine is important. Its volume should be two-thirds of the daily. If the indicator does not correspond to the norm, this may indicate a risk of developing a heart failure in this patient or a violation of the concentration function of the kidneys.
It is compulsory for doctors to assess the urine density, namely the amount of metabolic products contained in its composition. The density of urine directly depends on the volume of fluid that is drunk during the day, and on the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine.
Within a day, the density of urine is constantly changing, so when the excretory system is in a normal state, the density indicators also change. If they are on the same level, this eloquently indicates a violation of the kidneys.to table of contents ^
- The total volume of urine released during the day is 1500-2000 milliliters.
- The percentage of excreted urine and fluid that enters the body in a day ranges from 65 to 80%.
- Daily urine indicators are 2/3 of the daily volume, and nightly, respectively, 1/3.
- In one of the samples or in all at once the urine density has an index exceeding 1020 grams per liter.
- All collected samples give a density of 1035 grams per liter.
The following states can be determined from the results of a general urine test for Zimnitskiy.to contents ^
Condition in which daily urine volume is significantly increased. If the volume of urine released during the day exceeds 80% of the fluid consumed during the same time, this indicates the presence of kidney failure and diabetes.to table of contents ^
A condition in which the daily urine volume, on the contrary, is reduced to 65% of the volume of liquid consumed during the day. Oliguria indicates serious impairment of kidney function and heart disease.to contents ^
This deviation from the norm is fixed with a urine density in all samples of 1012 grams per liter. It determines the presence of severe renal and cardiac insufficiency, an acute stage of pyelonephritis or impaired thyroid function.
If the urine density indexes in at least one of the submitted samples exceed the mark of 1035 grams per liter, it is about hypersthenuria. With this deviation, the patient is usually diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, acute or chronic glomerulonephritis, and this may indicate the destruction of erythrocytes or toxicosis in pregnant women.to table of contents ^
It is a sign that the volumes collected during the daytime far exceed the normal ratio - more than 2/3 of the daily amount. The same applies to the inverse relationship, when the night volume is more than 1/3 of the daily volume.
With a broken ratio of these parameters, the doctor can draw a conclusion about the presence of heart failure or kidney pathology.