The nutrition of a person professionally engaged in one or another sport can not differ from the diet of an ordinary person. This activity, as a rule, is associated with colossal neuropsychic and physical loads, especially in the period of responsible competitions.
Since it takes more than one week to prepare an athlete, careful selection of all components of proper nutrition is a pledge of good physical shape and the ultimate success of the efforts of both the athlete himself and his trainer.
The correct diet, adjusted every week, is able to:
- Provide the athlete with the necessary amount of calories, nutrients, vitamins and trace elements.
- Thanks to the use of a variety of biologically active additives and nutrients, to activate and normalize metabolic processes.
- Increase, reduce or maintain unchanged body weight.
- To change the body composition, building muscle mass and reducing the fatty layer.
- Create an optimal hormonal background, without which the maximum realization of the physical capabilities of the athlete and achieving the best result are impossible.
Approximate diet of correct sports nutrition, compiled for a week, should take into account the amount of energy consumption, which is determined not only by the sport, but also by the weight of the athlete.
That's why the diet of proper nutrition, taking into account energy costs, is compiled individually for each athlete and is adjusted every week.
Power consumption determines the division of the main sports into the following groups:
- Sports that do not require much physical exertion.
- Kinds of sport that require short but significant physical exertion.
- Kinds of sport, coupled with physical loads of a large volume and considerable intensity.
- Sports that require long loads.
Depending on the weight of the athlete, the amount of energy consumption can fluctuate significantly even within a single sport.
Approximate menu for proper nutrition for athletes
The diet of proper nutrition of athletes depends largely on the type of exercise and the regime of the training process. Here is an example diet of sports nutrition, calculated for one day under different loads and regimes.
1. Usual diet
- Breakfast: two steep eggs, 200 g cottage cheese( skim), a portion of milk porridge with a small amount of olive oil, three slices of bread from bran, 250 ml of black tea.
- Second breakfast: fruit( pear and apple), low-calorie bun, drinking non-fat yogurt( 250 ml).
- Lunch: milk buckwheat porridge, omelet from a pair of chicken eggs, fresh vegetable salad, whole grain bread( three slices), low-fat cheese( 50 g), green tea.
- Snack: ½ servings of porridge( any, not only manna) with fresh fruit pieces, skimmed curd( 150 g), 250 ml of fruit juice.
- Dinner: a large( 250 g) serving of any vegetables or fruits, two slices of bran bread, 200 ml of low-fat kefir.
- About 60 minutes before bedtime: a glass of warm milk, an apple.
2. Reinforced ration
- Breakfast: a serving of milk porridge from oatmeal, an omelette( cooked from 4 chicken eggs), a couple of toast or whole wheat loaves, a large orange.
- The second breakfast: a pair of bananas, 250 ml of low-fat drinking yogurt, a handful of any nuts( 50 g).
- Lunch: a small( 100 g) serving of vegetable salad, boiled beef( 200 g), potatoes boiled in a uniform( four pieces), vegetable juice or tea.
- Snack: medium( 150 g) serving of fruit salad, incomplete glass of folding rice, 250 ml of milk.
- Dinner: grated carrot salad dressed with olive oil( 120 grams), fried fish, potatoes in uniform( four pieces per serving).
- Second supper: ½ servings of Herculean porridge, hard-boiled eggs( 4 pieces), 250 ml warm milk.
3. Diet of one day of training
- Breakfast: a portion of milk porridge from oatmeal, three steep eggs, a couple of toast with fruit jam or peanut butter, a glass of pasteurized milk.
- Second breakfast: protein energy bar, a cup of custarded black coffee.
- Lunch: a large( 250 g) slice of fresh vegetables, 500 ml of chicken broth, a piece of boiled veal( 250 g), several crackers, a glass of vegetable juice.
- Snack: bun with a dough, compote of dried fruits.
- Dinner: a small( 150 g) piece of boiled fish with stewed vegetables, green tea.
- Second supper: 250 g of milk and banana cocktail, a slice of bread from bran.
4. Ration of the period of intensive preparation
- Breakfast: a portion of boiled rice with vegetables, a sports high-carb drink( 250 ml), two slices of whole-grain bread.
- Second breakfast: pancakes with gravy from honey or condensed milk( three pieces per serving), quarter of pineapple, 250 ml of fruit juice.
- Lunch: vegetable salad dressed with mayonnaise, a large portion( 250 g) of stew( preferably beef), potatoes baked with cheese.
- Snack: protein bar, 250 ml of sports drink.
- Dinner: ½ servings of buckwheat of buckwheat, stewed fish, tea on herbs.
- Second supper: a portion of oatmeal, fruit juice.
5. Ration of the competition period
- Breakfast: buckwheat porridge, a couple of buns, 250 ml of milk.
- Second breakfast: meat sandwich, banana, black chocolate( 50 g), a cup of black coffee.
- Lunch: 500 ml of broth from chicken, boiled fish, ragout of vegetables, two slices of bread made of oatmeal, compote of fresh fruit.
- Snack: a high-calorie bun with raisins, fruit juice.
- Dinner: chicken stew( 180 g), ½ cup of green tea.
- Second supper: pear, milk oatmeal, a couple of slices of bread with bran, black tea.
Approximate version of the correct sports nutrition for the week
- Breakfast: a small( 150 g) portion of oatmeal, a couple of apples, a glass of low-fat kefir.
- Second breakfast: boiled chicken breast( 200 g), tomato, two dried pieces of bread, ½ cup of green tea.
- Lunch: meat salad( 300 g), chicken soup( 500 ml), two baked potatoes, soy sauce, dried bread( two pieces), green tea( 1/2 cup).
- Snack: a glass of milk with a slice of rye flour.
- Dinner: vegetable salad( 300 g), ham( 60 g), dried bread slices, green tea.
- The second dinner: a pair of poppy buns, 250 ml kefir.
- Breakfast: slices of fresh pineapple( 100 g).
- The second breakfast: porridge buckwheat( 150 g), ham( 60 g), mushrooms stewed( 100 g), tomato, yogurt with cornflakes( 100 ml).
- Lunch: vegetable soup( 500 ml), pilaf( 250 g), protein bar, green tea with lemon( 1/2 cup).
- Snack: egg in a bag, vegetable juice( 200 ml), a piece of bread from bran.
- Dinner: a piece of hard cheese( 30 g), vegetable salad( 300 g), a dozen boiled shrimps, mineral water with lemon( 200 ml).The second dinner: a cocktail of protein.
- Breakfast: apple juice( 250 ml).
- The second breakfast: salad from fresh greens( 150 g), wheat porridge( 150 g), boiled turkey breast( 100 g), brewed black coffee( 100 ml).
- Lunch: vegetable salad( 150 g), chicken soup with vermicelli( 500 ml), meat stew( 200 g), banana, dried fruit compote( 100 ml).
- Snack: a glass of yogurt, a slice of rye dried bread, a handful of pine nuts.
- Dinner: a pair of pears, slices of one tomato, sprinkled with olive oil, boiled fish( 200 g), green tea( 100 ml).
- The second dinner: a glass of milk with a bun.
- Breakfast: banana, a glass of low-fat milk, two dried pieces of black bread.
- Second breakfast: boiled fish( 100 g) with a side dish of boiled beans( 100 g), unsweetened tea( 150 ml).
- Lunch: salad with pieces of salted herring( 150 g), borscht from sour cabbage( 500 ml), boiled potatoes( two pieces per serving), tea with lemon( 200 ml), black chocolate( 50 g).
- Snack: a protein cocktail.
- Dinner: energy bar, a glass of milk, two slices of bread with bran.
- Breakfast: soft-boiled eggs( 2 pieces), a glass of kefir.
- The second breakfast: salad and fresh fruit( 100 g), bun, brewed black coffee( 100 ml).
- Lunch: salad of sea kale( 150 g), ear( 500 ml), steak parsley, potato puree( 100 g), fruit juice( 100 ml).
- Snack: pudding rice( 150 g), a glass of skim milk.
- Dinner: a piece of cheese( 30 g), sliced fresh vegetables( 200 l), fish baked( 200 ml), green tea( 100 ml).
- The second dinner: a glass of yogurt, a slice of rye bread.
- Breakfast: bun from a bran meal, grape juice( 200 ml).
- The second breakfast: a pair of apples, kefir( 100 ml), three wheat loaves.
- Lunch: salad with seafood( 150 g), milk soup with pasta( 500 ml), boiled cold turkey( 150 g), black tea( 100 ml).
- Snack: black chocolate( 50 g), a glass of yogurt, a couple of buns.
- Dinner: salad of sweet pepper( 150 g), oatmeal porridge( 200 g), fruit juice( 250 ml).
- The second dinner: a couple of apples, mineral water with lemon juice( 200 ml).
- Breakfast: omelet cooked from two eggs, a glass of milk, two slices of bread from bran.
- The second breakfast: salad of cucumbers and tomatoes( 150 g), a sandwich with slices of ham and cheese, black coffee( 200 ml).
- Lunch: okroshka( 500 ml), stewed beef( 200 g), three slices of bread from bran, vegetable juice( 200 ml).
- Snack: orange, green tea( 100 ml).
- Dinner: beef stew( 100 g), kefir( 200 ml).
- Second supper: pineapple juice( 200 ml), a piece of bread from bran.
Features of proper nutrition for girls-athletes
Female athletes master all new sports, previously considered to be purely masculine( for example, weightlifting and hockey), and every year the list of these species is steadily expanding.
However, in this section of the article we will talk about the traditional-female sport: rhythmic gymnastics. What are the tasks of nutrition for athletes? Their diet should:
- Provide the body with the necessary amount of vital nutrients, while not exposing it to the risk of gaining excess weight.
- Maintain a consistently low body weight.
- To stimulate the high plasticity and functionality of the musculoskeletal system, as well as the musculature set of relatively small volume.
What is the diet of sports girls?
- products with high protein content are the basic basis for the correct nutrition of athletes from week to week: poultry meat, lean meats and fish, eggs, milk and sour milk products, legumes.
- Vegetables and fruits are absolutely irreplaceable in the system of proper nutrition of sports girls, as they are a source of vitamins and essential minerals. The diet of athletes contains them either in raw form, or after minimal heat treatment. Vegetables and fruits are indispensable as snacks, because they cause a feeling of satiety, not reflecting in any way on the figure.
- The correct diet of sports girls several times a week should contain porridge as a nutritious breakfast, as well as a side dish to the main dishes of lean protein products. The most useful are oatmeal, buckwheat and pearl barley. Rice can only be turned on occasionally.
- High-calorie confectionery products in the form of cakes, cakes and soufflés are severely restricted. Admissible sweets are all kinds of dried fruits( especially prunes, dried apricots and raisins) and bitter chocolate.
- In the diet of female athletes , there should be no fried food of , which helps to weight gain. It is allowed to use vegetable oil only as a dressing for salads and cereals. In addition to the threat of fat loss, fried foods can provoke abnormal work of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, to feed sports girls can only dishes cooked by cooking and quenching.
- Berry fruit drinks, compotes, table water and fruit juices are extremely useful and are welcomed in the diet of proper sports nutrition. To sweeten drinks it is recommended to use not sugar, but natural honey.
What should be the diet of athletes?
- Nutrition athletes should obey a strict regime: you must eat only in the hours allocated for this.
- The most optimal can be considered 4-5 meals a day, that is, take food athletes should every 3.5 hours.
- To ensure that the overloaded stomach does not interfere with the training process, portions should be small.
Features of the correct diet for male athletes
And in this section of the article we will discuss the approximate diet of athletes engaged in playing sports. The energy intensity of their daily diet should fit within the framework of 5,500 calories, although this figure is very approximate.
When planning the diet of sports nutrition for a week, it is necessary to take into account the individual weight of the athlete, his sports specialization and the specific physical activity associated with it. In case the player starts gaining weight( the standard is his own ideal physical form), some of the usual dishes of his diet are replaced with dietary ones.
- The basis of proper nutrition in this case are protein-carbohydrate products.
- The amount of proteins and carbohydrates, which are the main nutrients of the diet, should be clearly balanced. Sources of proteins are cottage cheese, lean meats, fish( river and sea), poultry, legumes. In the sports diet, a combination of proteins, both vegetable and animal, is welcomed, as their digestibility only improves from this.
- The main suppliers of carbohydrates in the body of sportsmen-players are vegetables and all kinds of porridges, the fibrous structure of which facilitates the process of assimilation of food. Another source of carbohydrates are confectionery and bakery products, but they should be introduced into the sports diet very carefully - not more than three times a week.
- A moderate amount of fat is necessary in the sports diet of the players-players, as it provides the necessary caloric intake. The sources of fats in this case are vegetable oils and animal products of low fat content.
- The diet of sports nutrition of athletes-players must necessarily maintain a salt balance in their bodies, because athletes lose a huge amount of salts together with sweat. Replenish this balance can be by adding mineral salts directly to food, and replacing the usual water with mineral water. During intensive training, as well as during the competition, this task is solved with the help of the following additives: plant extracts, multivitamins, mineral salts, coffee and cocoa.
- Drinking regime in the ration of players consists of two liters of drinking mineral water.
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