Allergic dermatitis: causes, symptoms, treatment

Allergic dermatitis is a common skin disease of allergic origin in adults and children, which occurs under the action of irritants in the form of allergens and sensitizers. To prevent complications, it is necessary, at the first symptoms, to see a doctor who will conduct the examination, identify the allergen and prescribe adequate treatment.

  • reasons
  • Types
  • Symptoms
  • General
  • contact
  • toxic and allergic
  • toxic and allergic syndrome Lyell
  • Fitodermatit
  • How dangerous
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Folk treatment
  • Diet
  • have
  • children during pregnancy
  • Prevention

Causes of

It is almost impossible to pinpoint the cause of allergic dermatitis in adults and children, but the prerequisites for the appearance of this pathology may beallergens:

  • latex items: gloves, baby nipples, condoms and so on;
  • clothing containing allergenic materials( rubber, latex, synthetic, wool, etc.);
  • jewelry and accessories( most often from non-precious metals);
  • decorative cosmetics and hygiene products( creams, shampoos, soaps, gels and others);

  • some medications( corticosteroid ointments, antibiotics and so on);
  • household chemicals( detergents, adhesives, washing powders, rinses, conditioners);
  • plants( especially dangerous representatives of the genus of toxicodendrons: poison ivy, sumac, oak);
  • oral hygiene products( toothpastes, gels, rinses);
  • dental appliances for dentistry: hooks, forceps, mirrors, burs, probe.
  • food preservatives, dyes, fragrances;
  • other irritants( ink, house dust, pollen of plants, lowering of street temperature, solar radiation, animal hair and so on).

Also the causes of allergic dermatitis are:

  • professional activity: work with substances that provoke a reaction, for example, rubber, metal, paints, ink;
  • hereditary predisposition.
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Types of

Allergic dermatitis is divided into several species due to development:

  • Contact dermatitis. Formed at high sensitivity to the irritant. Develops when it comes into contact with the skin, rashes and redness are most often observed on the hands, eyelids, face, chest, head. Foci occur every time there is direct contact with the irritant. The most common allergens are aggressive chemicals such as alkalis and acids, poisonous plants, cosmetic products, accessories and jewelry made of metal.
  • Toxico-allergic dermatitis. Allergens are substances that penetrate the body through the skin, digestive, respiratory, or intravenous / intramuscular administration of medications. Toxidermia in most cases is caused by an overdose of the medicine or by their intolerance to the body. The most severe variant of toxic-allergic dermatitis is Lyell's syndrome, affecting up to 85% of the surface of the epithelium. Without medical care, the disease can be fatal.
  • Phytodermatitis. Clinical manifestations of this type of dermatitis are mostly acute inflammatory in the skin( more often on the hands, sometimes affects the skin of the face).Provocators are some types of plants, juice, milk, pollen which contains skin irritating chemicals. Often, plant pathogens become pathogens of phytodermatitis, for example, geranium or primula. Common species of plant-allergens are buttercup, citrus, spurge, lily, cow-bream.
  • Atopic dermatitis( neurodermatitis) occurs when harmful substances in the blood accumulate in the blood, which give a delayed immune reaction in the form of redness and rash on the skin of the face, hands, chest, legs, abdomen. Often this kind of dermatitis is inherited, although the allergen in each generation can be its own. To activate it, you need a combination of a disease of the nervous system, contact with the allergen and low( high) body temperature. Atopic dermatitis is characterized by frequent exacerbations, turning into a chronic form.

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Symptoms of

Different types of allergic skin dermatitis have their symptoms, but they are similar in some ways.

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  • Itching on a specific area of ​​the skin;
  • inflammation of the skin in the form of redness or rash;
  • appearance of microvesicles( small vesicles).
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  • Puffiness on the site of an allergic focus;
  • redness of the place of contact with the allergen;
  • small vesicles filled with serous fluid;
  • clear outlines of the borders of the affected area, coinciding with the zone of contact with the allergen;
  • erosion at the sites of rupture of the vesicle formations at the advanced stage of dermatitis.
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  • Peeling and itching of the skin;
  • spread of red spots;
  • formation of small-sized bubbles;
  • occurrence of large blisters( in rare cases);
  • localization of the affected area is sometimes found on the oral mucosa and external genitalia.
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Toxico-allergic with Lyell's syndrome

  • Recurrent rashes that may be accompanied by pain;
  • spots are dark red in the underarm area, on the buttocks and in the groin;
  • flat blisters of large sizes;
  • the dermal surface of the dermis, its exposure with slight friction;
  • rapid erosion formation after blistering;
  • dehydration and strong intoxication of the body;
  • headaches and febrile condition;
  • indigestion, often accompanied by vomiting.
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  • Burning and itching of the affected area of ​​the skin;
  • appearance of pigmentation and redness;
  • small-point bladder rashes or blisters.
Read also about the causes, symptoms and treatment of allergies in the eyes
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is dangerous
  • Recurrent chronic disease. Its manifestations in adults significantly limit the social opportunities of people, often become the causes of psychological disorders and depression. Sometimes a person with skin rash problems has to change the scope of activity to exclude contact with unfavorable production factors.
  • Eczematous lesion of the skin.
  • Kidney and liver involvement in severe toxicodermia.
  • Streptodermia is an infectious inflammatory process against the backdrop of erosion. On sites that are prone to scratching or other skin damage, favorable conditions for the propagation of pathogenic microflora are created. Through small injuries in the deep layers of the skin penetrate fungal organisms, bacteria, viral agents of papilloma and herpes.
  • Anaphylactic shock caused by local reaction or general intoxication after insect bite or skin contact with poisonous substances.
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Based on visual inspection and laboratory data, with the help of which provoking allergic dermatitis substances are detected.

To detect the stimulus, special skin tests are performed, most often it's patch-test. They look like paper plates with a sticky base. On each plate there are substances-allergens. Upon contact with the skin under the cell with the active stimulus, a slight reddening will appear, and in case of a strong reaction - even a blister. These changes on the skin do not cause trouble and quickly disappear after the plate is removed.

Diagnosis is performed only during remission of the disease, during 3-5 days before the analysis, it is impossible to take antihistamines, especially corticosteroids.

In addition to skin tests, a patient with suspected allergic dermatitis is prescribed:

  • a general analysis of urine and blood;
  • blood test for sugar;
  • blood test for biochemistry.

GI and thyroid examinations can also be prescribed for indications, in order to exclude concomitant diseases, the symptoms of which can be inflammatory processes on the skin.

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Treatment of

It is possible to eliminate allergic dermatitis at home, except in cases of its development against the background of other more serious diseases and specific conditions.

Treatment of the disease without fail begins with the exclusion of contact with the allergen, it is also important to comply with dietary nutrition.
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Medical treatment

  • Glucocorticosteroids. To eliminate symptoms( even without the establishment of an allergen), glucocorticosteroid ointments, creams or aerosols are used. Hormonal drugs are prescribed in short courses to avoid addiction. Hydrocortisone, Dermovate, Elokom, Betamethasone, Acriderm, and others.
  • Antihistamines. To reduce the swelling and itching sensation. Antihistamines of the new generation do not cause drowsiness and do not lower the patient's quality of life. Cetrin, Zodak, Claritin, Suprastin, Fenkarol, Astemizol and others.
  • Detoxification medications are administered intravenously or intramuscularly to reduce sensitivity to the identified allergen. Calcium chloride is used( 5 ml of the substance intravenously with a dropper, slowly, for 4-6 minutes), sodium thiosulfate( 5-50 milliliters intravenously, depending on the severity of the allergic manifestation), calcium gluconate( 1-3 grams 2-3once a day intramuscularly or intravenously).
  • Enzymes are prescribed when the cause of the disease is a violation in the pancreas. Creon, Festal, Mezim, Penzinorm, Pancreatin and others.
  • Prebiotics and enterosorbents are assigned to restore intestinal microflora and remove toxins from the body. Linex, Lactiale, Enterosgel, Polysorb, Lactofiltrum and so on.
  • Homeopathic remedies are selected individually depending on the age and condition of the patient, the characteristics of the disease. Irikar cream( with strong reddening, itching), Antimonium crudum( black antimony sulfide with rashes with the formation of vesicles and pustules, itching, crusts), Arsenicum album( with various rashes and skin lesions) and others can be prescribed.
  • Antifungal preparations and products with softening and protective action destroy pathogenic microorganisms, moisturize, soften and protect the skin. The most effective are: Eplan, Zinc ointment, Exoderyl, Bepanten, Epidel, Desitin and others.
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Popular treatment

The use of folk remedies for the treatment of allergic dermatitis is effective at the stage when it is necessary to alleviate the symptoms.

For this, the following are used:

  • herbal decoctions for drinking from the turn, three-color violets, currant bark, chamomile, kalina or licorice root;
  • compresses with grass infusions of horsetail, roots of elecampane, calendula, lemon balm, burdock;
  • home ointments from chicken, pork or goose fat, sea buckthorn oil;
  • bath with the addition of decoction of nettle, chamomile flowers, common oregano, blue cornflower, swamp leaves of swamp, valerian officinalis;
  • aromatherapy with the use of geranium, lavender or sandalwood oil.
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A person prone to skin allergies should observe a special diet. Proper nutrition is the prevention and treatment of dermatitis simultaneously.

And the patient is not enough to exclude from the diet the main allergen, you need to try to completely abandon the products that contain aggressive substances.

Do not use:

  • juices, nectars in paper bags;
  • marinades and preserves, smoked products;
  • whole cow milk, condensed milk;
  • mustard, spices, ketchup, mayonnaise, ready-made sauces and so on;
  • chocolate, coffee;
  • berries and fruits of red and orange color( strawberries, strawberries, oranges, tangerines and so on);
  • confectionery products( rolls, cakes, cakes and so on);
  • seafood in any form;
  • vegetables( tomatoes, onions, garlic, bell peppers);
  • sauerkraut;
  • eggs;
  • nuts;
  • honey;
  • mushrooms.

Recommended products:

  • vegetables and fruits of green flowers;
  • rice, buckwheat, semolina, oats;
  • compotes of dried fruits, decoction of rose hips;
  • weak meat and vegetable broths, soups from them;
  • low-fat dairy products;
  • jelly and homemade jelly;
  • macaroni( hard varieties);
  • protein omelets;
  • boiled( stew) chicken, rabbit, beef;
  • bread with bran or rye flour.

It is also necessary to reduce the intake of salt and sugar. All dishes should be cooked steamed or stewed, fried and fatty foods should be completely ruled out.

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In children

Allergic dermatitis has 3 consecutive age stages:

  • infant - up to 2 years;
  • for children - from 2 to 13 years;
  • teenage - from 13 to 18 years.

The manifestations at each of these phases are different.

The most common pathology occurs in children under 1 year. Symptoms in the form of rashes appear on the face, on the inside of the knee and elbow joint. In this case, a small rash can spread throughout the body.

Symptoms of common dermatitis are: redness of the skin, mocculation, formation of crusts and dry skin. In most cases, the pathology occurs after the introduction of complementary foods, with teething, in infants on artificial feeding.

In children from 2 to 12 years, the skin rash manifests itself mainly in the elbow and knee folds, on the back of the hand, on the neck. In places where the skin is affected, edema appears, hyperemia may occur, plaques, papules, cracks, erosion, scratching and crusting are often formed. Cracks are very painful on the soles and hands.

In adolescence, in most cases, pathology occurs in boys. The disease occurs with periods of remission and exacerbation, the area of ​​damage can increase. For this stage, rashes on the face, in the neck, on the chest, sometimes the hands and elbows are amazed. Then gradually, all skin folds, feet, fingers, back of the hands are captured.

If a child of any age has rashes that do not go away for a long time, you should seek help from a doctor. Without proper treatment and detection of an allergen, the disease can progress and lead to the development of bronchial asthma. Treatment of children with allergic dermatitis should be under the supervision of a doctor.

If an allergy occurs in infants, mothers need to carefully monitor their diet. This reaction is called food allergy and it occurs most often for milk, citrus, seafood, tomatoes, chocolate. In this case, allergenic products are completely excluded from the mother's diet, and then gradually introduced into the child's menu according to the recommendations of pediatricians on lure.

A big problem with pathology is severe itching of the skin. Children become whiny, restless and sleep badly. To eliminate these unpleasant symptoms, doctors prescribe antihistamines and glucocorticosteroid ointments, moisturizing body creams( Bepanten and Fiziogel cream and others), a suspension with a softening effect of Tsindol. Before applying ointments, the affected area should be treated with an antiseptic( Chlorhexidine, Fukortzin and others).

If after the course of treatment the symptoms remain, you will have to hand over allergic tests. With frequent exacerbations of the disease, it is recommended to undergo an immunotherapy course with Polyoxidonium, Ismyzhen and so on.

When dermatitis is complicated by a purulent process, antibacterial drugs are added to the treatment.

To facilitate the condition of the child will help calcium preparations and vitamin complexes.

To avoid amplification of symptoms, the parents of a sick child are recommended:

  • not to take the child out into the street at very low air temperature;
  • ensure a high level of humidity in the child's room;
  • exclude the patient from contact with pets;
  • does not wear woolen clothes on the naked body;
  • to protect the baby from exposure to cigarette smoke, dust, smells of chemical origin;
  • if possible, remove down pillows and soft toys;
  • use hypoallergenic detergents for children's hygiene;
  • carefully monitor the sterility of the baby's damaged skin to avoid infection.
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In pregnancy

Allergic dermatitis in pregnant women occurs more often and makes a newborn predisposed to this pathology in the future. An increase in the number of allergies among expectant mothers is associated with poor ecology, food products with nutritional supplements, the need to take medications.

Treatment of dermatitis in pregnancy is carried out according to the standard scheme. Its goal is to quickly stop the response of immunity to an allergen, that is, the definition of an irritant and the exclusion of contact with it, the appointment of antihistamines.

Pregnant are most often prescribed:

  • external agents - they reduce itching, alleviate symptoms, eliminate discomfort, disinfect and soothe the affected area;
  • enterosorbents for rapid elimination of allergen;
  • probiotics for improving bowel function.
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  • Application of hypoallergenic cosmetics and household chemicals;
  • maximum elimination of contact with irritants;
  • replacement of down pillows and featherbeds with their analogues with artificial fillers;
  • diet food;
  • regular moisturizing of the skin with special emulsions and creams;
  • wearing free cut from natural fabrics;
  • treatment of foci of chronic infection;
  • thorough body hygiene to reduce sweating;
  • strengthening of immunity;
  • reduction of stress load;
  • exclusion of bad habits;
  • regular walks in the fresh air.
  • May 13, 2018
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