The main causes and symptoms of sudden loss of consciousness

Sudden loss of consciousness( from the Greek word "syncope", which means chopping off) is an alarming symptom that should not be ignored, because it can indicate serious illnesses or a general decline in strength. Sharp deterioration of state of health, darkening in the eyes, vomiting - this is the clear signals of the body that requires help.

  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • First aid


The main cause of dizziness and loss of consciousness is an acute shortage of oxygen in the cerebral cortex caused by a decreased blood flow. The following factors can lead to this phenomenon:

  • Neurogenic causes .Vaso-depressor syncope - the most common, it is the cause of loss of consciousness during training or when standing in a stuffy room for a long time. This group also includes a short-term orthostatic fainting, an ailment familiar to most people, arising when the body is raised or changed.

  • Stress or pain in trauma can lead to a decrease in the number of heartbeats, which causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the heart. This is another common cause of loss of consciousness in men and women.
  • Cardiovascular system problems .This includes the so-called cardiogenic syncope, arising from a violation of heart rhythm or myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis also leads to fainting due to pathological changes in the body of large vessels that feed the brain. The passage of arteries and veins worsens, lumens decrease, and normal blood circulation is disturbed.
  • Thrombus , partially overlapping the vessels. They affect the blood flow in the body and arise against the background of a surgical procedure or are the result of a malfunction of the heart.
  • Anaphylactic shock , which develops in response to the administration of a drug, as well as an infectious shock is a condition in which the vessels expand, provoking the outflow of blood from the heart.
  • Uncontrollable increase and deepening of the respiratory during a panic attack or a fit of fear.
  • Poisoning .The most common causes of unconsciousness are excessive drinking, drug overdoses and so on.
  • Pathologies of the brain , causing a sudden increase in intracranial pressure( trauma, tumor, hemorrhage).
  • All possible disorders of the autonomic nervous system and epilepsy .They are easy to distinguish by loss of consciousness with seizures, the cause of which is an epileptic seizure.
  • Prolonged fasting , causing anemia. Especially often it causes a loss of consciousness in adolescents who do not follow the diet. Syncope occurs when the hemoglobin is reduced to 70 grams per liter.
  • Lung diseases , especially bronchial asthma.
  • Causes of bipolar personality disorder

  • Hypotonia .Hypotonics often complain of drowsiness, loss of concentration, difficulty with memory. And there is a direct connection between low blood pressure and dizziness. Violations of the regulation of the cardiovascular system cause headaches and loss of consciousness.
  • Hypertension .Increased pressure can also provoke acute malaise until the development of hypertensive crisis. A number of neurovascular disorders leads to an increase in pressure - the cause of loss of consciousness in hypertensive patients.
  • Diabetes mellitus .As with deficiency, and with an excess of insulin in the blood, people suffering from diabetes mellitus can lose consciousness.
  • Lactic Acid .

The age-related features of the body also affect:

  • In children, emotional overexcitation is the most common symptom and cause of loss of consciousness. The baby's nervous system is not yet able to cope with stress, so any shock - from going to the doctor before the festive line in honor of the first of September may faint. It should be borne in mind that the causes of loss of consciousness in infants are sometimes found in dangerous pathologies of the nervous system. Therefore, such a malaise in young children should at least alert.
  • Adolescents, in particular young girls, are often the cause of loss of consciousness - monthly and associated anemia. Fat guys often suffer from such minor heart defects as mitral valve prolapse, which is also accompanied by a symptom - a darkening in the eyes when you get up.
  • Dizziness and hot flashes of nausea often appear during menopause. In some cases, it is the condition of menopause that causes loss of consciousness in women after 45 years. These symptoms do not give a full life and work, because a woman is afraid to leave the house so as not to fall directly on the street.
  • The older age category is also at risk. Venerable age is a fairly common cause of loss of consciousness in a dream.
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Symptoms of

The loss of consciousness is almost always preceded by a period of so-called precursors. People who periodically experience such a malaise, can accurately recognize the signs of faintness:

  • Nausea , which arises abruptly or gradually and occurs "rolls".
  • Obsessive yawning of , as a symptom of oxygen starvation of the brain.
  • Trembling of hands and feet .Flashing flies before the eyes .Each describes them in its own way - sometimes they appear in the form of a ripple of yellow color, in other cases, a visual disturbance is expressed in turbidity or a veil before the eyes.
  • The delayed reactions .If a person is not alone and communicates with someone at the moment of indisposition, his interlocutor may notice a certain inhibition of speech and a look that rests on one point. The patient does not respond to questions, or responds with a long delay.
  • Ringing in the ears .This symptom is manifested by increasing, starting with a little noise and completely drowning ambient sounds before switching off consciousness.
  • Headache , increasing with every minute and concentrated in the nape. In this part of the head there is also a feeling of heaviness.
  • Increased sweating .
  • Paleness of skin .The facial skin becomes ashy-gray.
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During fainting, the body is motionless, all muscles are relaxed. It can even become a reason for urinating when you lose consciousness. The pulse is superficial, rare and poorly palpable. This condition can last from 3 to 5 minutes.

After a person gradually comes to, but feels completely shattered. The faint itself and the last seconds preceding it are usually not remembered in memory.

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First aid

If the person's behavior indicates the approach of an attack, the following actions should be performed:

  • Seat or lay the person so that his head is lowered down. For example, to lower the head between the knees, or lay the injured on the back, and lift the legs up. This will help restore blood circulation;
  • Unfasten the button on the neck, release the neck from the scarf, remove all tight clothes;
  • Provide fresh air. If a person becomes ill in public transport - open the window, ask the driver to stop, take the victim to the street.
  • Sprinkle your face with cool water and give a sniff the cotton wool soaked in ammonia.
  • If, at the time of loss of consciousness, the victim's eyes are open, they should be covered to avoid drying out the cornea.

With these measures, a person will feel better and will come to consciousness for a few minutes. But if they do not bring results, we need to move on to more serious actions.

  • Provide the victim with a safe and comfortable position.
  • Check the tongue by gently opening the jaw. If it is fired at the time of an attack, it can cause suffocation of the victim. If necessary, return the language to its normal location.
  • Check if the person is injured during the fall.
  • Flip the victim to the side.
  • Check the pupil's response to light, when exposed to light, they should narrow.
  • Count the pulse and check the periodicity of breathing.
  • If pulse and breathing are not present, it is necessary to begin resuscitation measures - heart massage and artificial respiration.
  • If a person does not recover more than 5 minutes, you need to call an ambulance.

Temporary malaise does not always pose a threat to life, but frequent loss of consciousness necessarily causes and sometimes quite serious. They can be caused by pathological processes taking place in the body and require obligatory consultation, and, possibly, further treatment with a cardiologist, neurologist and therapist.

  • May 13, 2018
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