Bradycardia of the heart - what is it, symptoms and treatment

Bradycardia is a symptom in which there is a reduction in the heart rate to less than 60 beats per minute. This condition can accompany various pathologies, including those not involving the cardiovascular system. In medicine, bradycardia is diagnosed less frequently than tachycardia( acceleration of the heart rhythm), so most patients do not even know what bradycardia is and how to treat it.


Contents:
  • reasons
  • disease symptoms
  • Forms of bradycardia
  • The dangerous
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Treatment folk remedies
  • Children
  • Fetus in pregnancy
  • Athletes
  • Prevention

reasons

disease emergence of heart bradycardia can trigger a variety of reasons:

  • Thyroidgland, in particular hypothyroidism( a decreased function of the organ).
  • Increased intracranial pressure( for tumors, meningitis, edema of the brain, stroke).
  • Various infectious diseases( viral hepatitis, influenza, sepsis).
  • Overdose of cardiac glycosides( drugs for the treatment of heart failure), lead poisoning, nicotine.


  • Hypothermia( lowering of body temperature).
  • Botkin's disease( jaundice).
  • Fasting.
  • Hypercalcemia( excess of calcium in the blood).
  • Hyperkalemia( excess of potassium in the blood).
  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Atherosclerosis of the heart vessels( deposition of harmful cholesterol and formation of plaques in the walls of blood vessels).
  • Postinfarction cardiosclerosis( a scar on the heart that interferes with the full functioning of the heart muscle).
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Symptoms of

The main symptoms of the bradycardia of the heart are:

  • Dizziness.
  • General weakness.
  • "Moss" before the eyes.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Cold sweat.
  • Increased fatigue.
In some cases, obvious symptoms of the disease may be absent.
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Kinds of bradycardia

Depending on the reasons that triggered a decrease in heart rate, the bradycardia is divided into 3 groups:

  1. Physiological - is mainly observed in healthy people, for example, in those whose work is associated with physical activity, athletes. In this case, physiological bradycardia can appear not only during active actions, but also in a state of rest, in a dream.
  2. Pathological - is a secondary symptom of various heart diseases, other systems and organs.
  3. Pharmacological or pharmacological bradycardia develops as a result of the administration of certain drugs, for example, cardiac glycosides( Digoxin, Corligon, Strofantin, etc.), beta-andreblokatorov( Timolo, Sotalol, Nadolol, etc.), sympatolytic( Bretilat, Rezeprin, Raunatin), antiarrhythmic drugs( Adenosine, Dronedarone, Trimekain, etc.), as well as Verapamil, Quinidine, Morphine.

Depending on the causative factor, the pathological bradycardia can be chronic or acute. Chronic appearance is present for a long time and is associated with severe, long-term illnesses of the heart muscle or other systems and organs. The acute phase manifests itself sharply under conditions that indirectly or directly injure the heart, for example, myocarditis, poisonings or a heart attack.


Also pathological bradycardia is divided into extracardiac and intracardial. The first form arises as a consequence of diseases of internal organs, myxedema, neurological pathology. The second develops with various pathologies of the myocardium.

Depending on the severity of the decrease in heart rate, the following types of bradycardia distinguish:

  • Easy( from 50 to 60 beats per minute) - often goes unnoticed and is not accompanied by any unpleasant sensations.
  • Moderate( from 40 to 50 strokes) - occurs in patients with respiratory arrhythmia, when the inhalation pulse becomes faster, and on the exhalation, on the contrary, the frequency decreases. Often, this type of arrhythmia occurs in adolescents and children, often in people suffering from an increased tone of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Expressed( less than 40 beats per minute) is accompanied by various circulatory disorders, requires careful medical examination to determine the cause of heart rate deceleration and prescribing medication.

Depending on which area of ​​the transport system is affected and prevents the normal conduct of the pulse, the following are distinguished:

  • Sinus bradycardia( syndrome of weakness of the sinus node).The cause of development is a violation of the formation of a pulse in the sinus node.
  • Bradycardia with blockages of the cardiac muscle: sinoarterial, atrial, atrioventricular and blockade of the bundle.
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In addition, the bradycardia can be:

  • Absolute - it is determined in any conditions, no matter what state of health the patient has during the medical examination.
  • Relative( paradoxical) - is a characteristic symptom for meningitis, fever, hypothyroidism, infectious diseases, excessive physical exertion;
  • Toxic( viral) - occurs against a background of various infectious and viral diseases( influenza, typhoid fever, hepatitis, sepsis).
  • Cardiogenic organic - manifested in patients with myocarditis, cardiosclerosis, heart attack, ischemic heart disease.
  • Endocrine - develops in case of fasting, excess calcium, potassium and oxygen in the blood.
  • Reflexive - can occur suddenly when hypothermia, severe pain, falling BP.
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Than

is dangerous. A mild, physiological and moderate bradycardia does not lead to complications.

The main consequences of severe bradycardia are cardiac arrest( asystole) and clinical death as a result of cerebral ischemia. There is also a high probability of thromboembolic complications - ischemic stroke, thromboembolism of pulmonary arteries or myocardial infarction.

Due to impaired pulse transmission, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia or frequent ventricular extrasystole may occur, which is dangerous due to ventricular fibrillation and death.

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Diagnosis

To determine the causes of bradycardia and its type is carried out:

  • Initial examination of a specialist doctor.
  • Electrocardiogram( ECG).
  • Holter study( cardiogram is taken within 24 hours).
  • Laboratory tests( biochemical and general blood test, thyroid hormone assay).
  • heart ultrasound.
  • Coronary angiography.
  • EFI( electrophysiological study).
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The last three types of research are not carried out in each case, but only when the results of the basic studies are insufficient to compile a complete picture of the disease.

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Treatment of

Moderate sinus and functional cardiac bradycardia, which do not show clinical signs, do not require therapy. If extracardiac factors affected the decrease in heart rate, first of all the treatment of the underlying disease is performed, for example, elimination of brain edema, normalization of the level of thyroid hormones, etc.

Treatment of medical bradycardia is to adjust the dosage or complete withdrawal of medications that help slow the cardiacrhythm.

Severe bradycardia, a sign of pulmonary edema, a heart attack or other dangerous conditions, is an indication for the treatment of a patient in a cardiac hospital.

In addition to treatment of the underlying disease that triggered the bradycardia of the heart, a symptomatic increase in heart rate is performed with the help of medications:

  • Atropine - subcutaneously or intravenously at 0.6-2 mg 2-3 times a day.
  • Eufillin - intravenously for 240-480 mg or ingestion of 600 mg once a day.
  • Izadrin - intravenously at 4-20 mcg per minute in a 5% solution of glucose before the normalization of heart rate.

Also, as a first aid in case of a bradycardia attack accompanied by the manifestation of the disease( general weakness, dizziness, pre-fuming condition, etc.), the patient can put a medicine under the tongue: ½ Iadrin tablets 0.005 or ¼ Teofedrine tablets.

For the treatment of moderate bradycardia with clinical manifestations, Zelenin drops are effective. According to the instructions for use, they must be taken 3 times a day for 40 drops. Also according to the indications Panangin, Riboxin, Asparcum, Magnnerot, Currantil and other preparations are used.

If therapy with bradycardia with antiarrhythmic drugs is ineffective, the patient is shown surgical treatment - implantation of the pacemaker. Indications for implantation are weakness of the sinus-atrial node, atrioventricular blockade of the second-third degree.

Treatment of bradycardia should be medically supervised by a qualified cardiologist who will adequately assess the situation and be able to determine the degree of effectiveness of the prescribed treatment.

Read also http://woman-l.ru/chto-polezno-dlya-zdorovya-chelovecheskogo-serdca/ what is useful for the heart so that it remains strong and healthy for a long time
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Treatment with folk remedies

Various folk methodsare a useful addition to the complex treatment of bradycardia of the heart. However, folk remedies can not be used in lieu of basic medical treatment.

  • A mixture of garlic, lemon and honey. For cooking, squeeze out the juice from 1 lemon and grind 10 heads of garlic to a pasty state. Finished ingredients are combined, then add 1 liter of honey and mix thoroughly. Ready the medical mixture in a closed container to put in the refrigerator and press for 10 days. Take 4 teaspoons daily before meals. Walnuts contribute to the normalization of heart rate. It is recommended to eat 2-3 nuts for breakfast.
  • Decoction of yarrow: 50 grams of dry herbs pour 0.5 liters of warm water and boil for 15 minutes. Finished medicine to filter and drink 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.
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Children

The rate of heart rate in children is higher than that of an adult. And at each age their norms are:

  • For babies under 1 year, the pulse rate is 100 or more beats per minute, therefore, for the newborns and infants the bradycardia will be diagnosed at a pulse less than 100.
  • In children from 1 to 6 years, the norm is the pulse 70-80beats, that is, a bradycardia occurs in the case of a heart rate less than 70.
  • In children over 6 years of age, the norm of heart rate is the same as in adults, that is, from 60 to 70 beats per minute.

Varieties and classifications of bradycardia of the heart in children are the same as in adults. The causes of a decrease in the pulse are also associated with various diseases of the heart muscle or other organs, heavy physical exertion, active training, medication or physiological features.

If the child feels well, does not complain of shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, copious cold sweat, pain in the heart or fainting, bradycardia is his physiological norm. If the child has at least one of these symptoms, then this may indicate a pathological bradycardia of the heart, which is a sign of another serious illness.

Heart bradycardia in children develops most often against the background of the following conditions and diseases:

  • Increased intracranial pressure.
  • Neuroses.
  • Infectious diseases.
  • Metabolic disorders.
  • High body temperature.
  • Subcooling.
  • Overdose of drugs.
  • Fast growth of the child.
  • Acquired and congenital heart muscle diseases.
  • Lead poisoning.
  • Disturbances of cerebral circulation.

The presence of bradycardia in children is more dangerous than that of an adult, since the adaptive mechanisms of a small organism are not yet able to redistribute the blood to fully meet the needs of all tissues and organs. This means that a decrease in heart rate can provoke fainting, exhaustion and even death. Therefore, at the first signs of bradycardia, children should consult a doctor for treatment.

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Fetus during pregnancy

Fetal bradycardia is diagnosed with a decrease in heart rate to 110 beats per minute or less. The cause of the condition can be hypoxia, heart defects, cerebral circulation disorders or other developmental pathologies. By the presence of bradycardia alone, it is impossible to find out which pathologies the embryo has. Additional tests should be performed using Doppler, ultrasound, in some cases genetic analysis, etc. Therefore, the detection of bradycardia in the fetus is the basis for further examinations to identify and eliminate the existing disorders.

Many pregnant women worry about fetal bradycardia in the early stages of pregnancy. However, check the heart rate with CTG( cardiotocography) can not be earlier than 20-22 weeks of pregnancy.
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Athletes

Bradycardia is diagnosed in almost every athlete, it is physiological and is considered the norm. During frequent training, the heart muscle pumps a significant amount of blood for a short period of time in order to satisfy the high body requirement for nutrients and oxygen. That is, the myocardium is contracted strongly and powerfully, pushing out for 1 stroke a large amount of blood necessary for the tissues and organs of the athlete. When a person does not train, his myocardium, having got used to work at full capacity, continues with vigorous tremors to pump blood through the vessels. As a result, the heart begins to beat less often and there is a sports bradycardia.

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Prevention of

A healthy way of life is a good prevention of bradycardia, as well as many other pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Minimize the risks will help:

  • Compliance with diet, a diet with a low content of fat and salt.
  • Control of blood pressure and cholesterol.
  • Regular physical exercises.
  • Discarding bad habits.
  • Taking medications with bradycardia of the heart as directed by a doctor.
  • Frequent walks in the fresh air.
  • May 14, 2018
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