Every day in the body, old cells die. They become acid waste. If the metabolism is not disturbed, they are quickly removed from the body. With increased body temperature, pregnancy, intestinal disorders, acid waste is delayed, which leads to the appearance of acid and acetone in the light cases, and to heavy coma in heavy cases. A disease in which an excess of acids is formed in the body is called acidosis. With the formation of an excess of alkalis, alkalosis occurs.
- Classification acidosis
- on hydrogen index( pH)
- By origin
- Possible consequences
Classification acidosisto contents ^
on hydrogen index( pH)
type of acidosis is determinedusing the usual blood test:
- Compensated : Physiological norm of blood pH 7.35 - in most cases is not a disease.
- Subcompensated : the blood pH level is within the range of 7.34-7.25.
- Decompensated : The pH of the blood is less than 7.24 - below the physiological norm.
- Respiratory or gas acidosis .Occurs when breathing in air with a high content of carbon dioxide and with superficial, slow breathing.
- Metabolic or metabolic .It arises from the accumulation of acid waste metabolism in the tissues of the body( diabetic acidosis, lactic acidosis).
- Gastroenteric or hyperchloremic .Occurs with increased loss of substances through the gastrointestinal tract. Renal acidosis or a negative .Occurs with difficult excretion of acids by the kidneys.
- Exogenous .It occurs when a large amount of substances that provoke the formation of acids in the metabolism process enters the body.
- Mixed .
- Metabolic disorders( diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, fever).Kidney Disease( kidney failure).
- Diarrhea, vomiting, stenosis( stomach pylorus spasm, surgical interventions).
- Lung diseases( severe respiratory failure).
- Circulatory failure( pulmonary edema, chronic heart failure).
- Increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the inspired air.
- Malignant neoplasms.
- Dehydration of the body.
- Infectious diseases accompanied by fever.
- Use of certain drugs( salicylates, calcium chloride and others).
- Poisoning by substances, the metabolism of which leads to the formation of excess acids in the body.
Causes of gas acidosis in children:
- Insufficiency of pulmonary ventilation( allergic reactions, edema and brain trauma and others);
- Blockade of neuromuscular impulse( poliomyelitis, Charcot's disease and others);
- Congenital malformations of the thorax or dystrophy of the lung tissue.
Metabolic acidosis in children occurs for the same reasons as in adults and leads to type 1 diabetes.to contents ^
In all forms of acidosis, the following clinical symptoms are observed:
- breathing disorder;
- urinary tract disorder;
- disruption of the cardiovascular system;
- short-term nausea, vomiting;
- increased pressure;
- drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, or loss of it, retardation.
Similar disorders can be the cause of other serious diseases, so for the timely diagnosis of acidosis you need to know which ones can lead to its occurrence.
Clinical picture of the disease in children:
- pallor of the skin, a symptom of a "white spot";
- shortness of breath, deep and rapid breathing;
- rise in temperature to 38-39 degrees;
- odor of acetone from the mouth( with gas acidosis);
- urinary tract disorder;
- lowering blood pressure and disturbing the heart rhythm;
- behavior change from active to static.
The main research methods used to diagnose acidosis:
- gas analysis of blood( blood sampling is done from the artery);
- electrolyte blood test;
- pH analysis in urine;
- quick test for acetone with a test strip.
Depending on the results obtained, diagnostic methods are prescribed that will indicate the underlying disease that caused acidosis.
If you experience any of the above symptoms, you should consult your doctor. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient immediately hospitalized. Methods of treatment of acidosis in children are the same as in adults.
It is necessary to promptly treat the underlying disease, and to remove symptoms of concomitant acidosis, for example,
- insulin administration in diabetic acidosis;
- intravenous injection of an alkaline preparation( sodium bicarbonate) in metabolic acidosis;
- with gas acidosis use of an oxygen mask to restore the functions of the respiratory system, as well as the use of bronchodilators, expectorants, bronchial drainage, sputum discharge from the respiratory tract.
With acidosis, an alkaline diet is indicated. The menu includes vegetable dishes, cereals, alkaline drink( mineral water), restrict the consumption of animal proteins and fats, sweet, canned foods. Exclude drinks containing caffeine, alcohol. Limit the amount of liquid to 2.5 liters per day.
In pharmacies are sold a variety of drugs to prevent the violation of the acid-base balance of the body. But, the most effective prevention of acidosis:
- is the right, balanced diet;
- consumes a sufficient amount of liquid;
- regular moderate exercise;
- breathing exercises;
- walking in the fresh air.
- With acidosis, the elasticity of the vessel walls decreases, this leads to increased blood pressure, increased blood clotting, varicose veins, stroke and heart attack.
- Bloody capillaries that feed the retina of the eye, with acidosis expand - this can result in blindness.
- In metabolic acidosis, the susceptibility of cell membranes to insulin is lost, this leads to the development of type II diabetes mellitus.
- The acids formed during the exchange break down the water molecules and form free radicals. These are chemically active compounds that can damage cells at the gene level, this can lead to the development of tumors.
- Increased acidity of the body leads to weakening of the blood vessels of the liver( hepatic acidosis), deterioration of metabolism in its cells and gradual degradation.
- Oxidized metabolic products are deposited in the connective tissue - this leads to the growth of fatty tissue and cellulite.
- In children, all types of acidosis are more complex than in adults. In especially severe cases, acidosis can in a short time lead to brain edema and death.