Cataract is an eye disease caused by a clouding of the lens body for various reasons, after which the eye can perceive only a small part of the light rays. Most often, the disease is diagnosed in people over the age of fifty, but it can be detected in young people.
- Causes of the disease
- Symptoms of
- What is dangerous
- Stages of
- Types of
- Treatment of
- Rehabilitation after surgery
Causes of the disease
The main culprit of cataract is the natural process of aging of the body. In healthy people, age-related cataracts begin to develop after 50 years. However, in the presence of diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract, the disease may appear as early as 35 years of age. In the elderly, most often the development of the disease is not accompanied by a general pathology in severe form and is not associated with any one factor. The main reasons for the appearance of senile cataracts are impaired nutrition of the eye and decreased immunity.
Factors of appearance and progression of cataracts can be:
- Mechanical or chemical trauma to the eye.
- Eye diseases - glaucoma, myopia of high form.
- Other diseases and pathological conditions - diabetes, beriberi, long-term use of certain drugs, metabolic disorders.
- Bad ecology.
- Poisoning by toxins.
- Ultraviolet or radiation irradiation.
- Smoking and alcoholism.
Most often, cataracts are affected by women who are overweight, with a dark eye color.to table of contents ^
- Reinforcement or occurrence of myopia.
- Decreased visual acuity.
- The ability to write and read without glasses is returned incomprehensibly for a while, but the surrounding objects can be seen indistinctly, vaguely.
- Dividing images, objects.
- The black pupil changes color, can acquire a yellow or gray tint.
- If there is swelling cataract, the pupil becomes white.
- There is an intolerance of bright sunlight, eyesight improves in the evening or in cloudy weather. This symptom appears with opacity in the center of the lens.
- Sensations of highlights, flashes within the light source.
- Loss of color, all surrounding objects appear yellowed.
- Congenital cataract is manifested by strabismus, decreased vision, the presence of a white pupil.
is dangerous Cataract can lead to the following dangerous consequences:
- Complete lossview.
- Retinal detachment.
- Secondary glaucoma.
- Initial - on the lens are formed areas with opacities, while most of it remains transparent.
- Immature - turbidity appears on most of the lens;there are signs of its hydration - a decrease in the depth of the anterior chamber of the eye, an increase in the volume of the lens, in some cases an increase in intraocular pressure.
- Mature - opacifications appear on all layers of the lens, vision decreases to color sensation.
- Perezelaya - is characterized by dehydration of the clouded lens, degeneration and condensation of the capsule, a decrease in its volume.
All forms of eye cataracts are divided into 2 main types: acquired and congenital.
Depending on the cause, cataracts are divided into the following groups:
- Age( senile, senile) - is one of the signs of aging. The disease can begin as early as 45 years, the density of the lens increases and it begins to gradually grow dull. The pathology develops slowly, but as the turbidity grows in the layers of the lens, the disease leads to a significant decrease in vision and a deterioration in the quality of life.
- Complicated - develops in the presence of any eye pathology, for example, uveitis( inflammatory disease of the vascular tract of the eye), myopia, retinal pigmentary degeneration, glaucoma, etc.
- Radiation( nuclear, radiation) - is characterized by damage to the transparency of the lens with radiant energy, which includes X-rays, infrared rays. Most often it is a professional pathology.
- Traumatic - occurs as a result of serious eye damage or penetrating injury to the eyeball.
- Toxic( steroid) - is formed as a result of side effects of drugs with their long reception, for example, with systemic intake of corticosteroids, amiodarone, antiepileptic drugs, etc.
- Infectious - as a secondary complication of an infectious disease or the result of an infectious eye injury.
- Exchange( diabetic) - develops in the presence of diabetes, hypothyroidism, metabolic disorders.
Types of operations for treating cataracts:
- Ultrasonic phacoemulsification is the most effective and reliable type of surgery that is used at the initial stage of the disease. The doctor makes a microcut( about 3 mm) of the cornea, through which, and carries out further actions. With this method of operation, the seams are not superimposed, the incision is sealed by itself.
- Laser removal is performed by a beam that penetrates through a small incision into the site of the disease, where it has a therapeutic effect.
- Extracapsular extraction is a more traumatic technique. The surgeon makes a large incision( about 10 mm) of the cornea, the front capsule of the lens opens and removes. Further, the core of the lens is removed, the capsular bag is cleaned and the artificial lens is installed.
- Intracapsular extraction is a traumatic kind of surgical intervention, requiring long-term rehabilitation. During the operation of cataracts, the doctor removes the whole lens together with the capsule, and in its place installs the implant, and then puts the seams.
- Eye drops almost all contain antioxidants, vitamins, amino acids, cysteine. Such medicines include Vitayodurol, Quinax, Oftan-Katachrom, etc.
- Vitaminotherapy - drugs, which must necessarily contain substances that reduce the risk of developing cataracts, such as zeaxanthin and lutein. Such drugs are: Blueberry Fort, Lutein Complex, Okuvaite, etc.
Physiotherapy is also popular among patients - procedures that improve blood circulation and normalize intraocular pressure. Sidorenko points are considered the most effective. They have a mild vacuum effect on the eyes and surrounding tissues, stimulate blood microcirculation and metabolic processes.to table of contents ^
Rehabilitation after operation
The postoperative period is divided into 3 stages. During the 1 st stage( from 1 to 7 days), due to the puffiness of the eyelids, the patient must limit himself in receiving fluid and nutrition. Due to the fact that the second stage( from 8 to 30 days) is characterized by unstable visual acuity, the patient is prescribed anti-inflammatory and disinfectant eye drops. The third stage( from 31 to 180 days) takes the longest period of time. In the case of intracapsular or extracapsular cataract extraction, the maximum restoration of vision is possible only at the end of the third stage after removal of all the sutures.
- Do not sleep on the side of the operated eye.
- Do not carry weights( more than 5 kg).
- Do not tilt your head low.
- Do not touch the diseased eye, rub it, and use trowel on discolorations.
- Avoid contact with soap and water.
- Wear sunglasses.
- Eye protection against ultraviolet rays( wearing sunglasses).
- Proper nutrition.
- Taking medications to improve visual acuity.
- Use of special glasses with spraying while working with a computer.
In addition, an ophthalmic examination should be performed once a year, as the result of an operation will be better if you identify cataract at an early stage and start treatment in time.