Why dandruff appears on the head and how to get rid of it

Dandruff is one of the most common scalp pathologies that leaves unpleasant traces on the hair and clothing. However, dandruff is not just an aesthetic problem, it is primarily a disease caused by various factors. To cure, first you need to determine the cause of its appearance, and then choose the right care for the scalp. So why does dandruff appear?

  • Symptoms
  • reasons
  • Dry skin
  • Fungus
  • hormonal changes
  • Seborrhea
  • Other reasons
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Hygiene scalp
  • diet and drink
  • Stress and Immunity
  • Folk remedies


  • visible white flakes exfoliated skin on clothes, hair, shoulders, hairbrush, headdress.
  • Itching and irritation of the scalp. Skininess and dullness of hair.
  • Red spots, large scales and yellowish crusts on the skin( such signs of dandruff appear during prolonged course or progression).
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Reasons for

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Dry skin

The most common cause of dandruff, especially in winter. It is at this time of year that people drink less liquid, use warming techniques, often dry their hair with a hairdryer, which causes the scalp to dry, provoking the appearance of dandruff.

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Yeast-like fungus Pityrosparum Ovale lives on the scalp in almost all people and does not cause any diseases. However, sometimes it starts to multiply rapidly, thereby provoking irritation of the scalp and acceleration of cell growth.

As a result, excess skin cells die and, glued together with fat, form large visible flakes of dandruff. The causes of rapid reproduction of the fungus are: oily scalp, prolonged diseases of internal organs, immunodeficiency, stress, Parkinson's disease.

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Hormonal changes

Age changes strongly affect the secretory function of the sebaceous glands. Therefore, adolescents during puberty, along with acne, often have dandruff, as well as in pregnant women and women experiencing menopause.

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The formation of dandruff can be associated with a violation of the function of fat release on the face and scalp. With the strengthened function of the sebaceous glands, skin oil begins to be actively developed, provoking the appearance of fatty dandruff. Their weak work leads to insufficient allocation of sebum, and the surface of the head dries up, which contributes to the occurrence of dry dandruff.

For dense oily seborrhea is characterized by a deterioration of skin elasticity and an increase in the size of the ducts of the sebaceous glands. The canal of the sebaceous gland is blocked by dead particles of fat epithelium - dandruff, which causes comedones on the surface of the scalp. Hair becomes stiff and dull, and there are always fatty scales of dandruff.

Oily liquid seborrhea provokes the formation of a porous crust on the head. The pores expand, become noticeable, and the sebum is particularly abundant. The type of hair deteriorates significantly, the strands stick together, and the surface of the head looks very greasy, sloppy, there is an unnatural greasy sheen and scales of dandruff yellowish hue.

Seborrhea can also cause hair loss, because the sebaceous secret changes its composition and loses its protective properties. On the skin of the head there are abscesses, bacteria multiplying, affecting the hair follicles.

In dry seborrhea, the sebum output to the surface is significantly reduced. Dry flakes of dandruff cover the surface of the head. Most often dry seborrhea suffer from people with low immunity.

Disturbance in the work of the sebaceous glands and the appearance of dandruff on the head can occur for the following reasons:
  • hard water;
  • shampoo, balm and conditioner, not by hair type;
  • frequent staining or perm hair;
  • permanent drying of hair-prone dry hair;
  • frequent use of styler, thermal hair, which expose the scalp to high temperatures;
  • lack of minerals, vitamins A, E, D, B, malnutrition, abuse of fatty and spicy food;
  • excessive nervousness, susceptibility to stress and depression;
  • is a hereditary immune disease.
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Other causes of

In addition to the problems described above with the sebum secretion function, there are a number of other factors that make dandruff appear.

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Seborrheic eczema - is rarely a direct cause of dandruff, but if this disease affects the scalp, then it is possible that the dead skin scales on this site will soon be formed. The difference between seborrheic dermatitis and seborrhea is that the latter is a pathological condition of the skin, and eczema is a chronic disease.

Psoriasis is a skin disease in which thin scaly particles of dried skin, including dandruff, form. Psoriasis rarely appears on the head, but it can become an additional factor in the formation of dandruff.

Contact dermatitis, provoked by hypersensitivity of the scalp to shampoos, gels, masks, lotions and other hair cosmetics, promotes the appearance of dandruff. Contact dermatitis and dandruff often appear from the abuse of styling products and staining agents.

For more information on the causes, symptoms and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis or seborrheic eczema, see the article http://woman-l.ru/kak-lechit-seborejnuyu-ekzemu-ili-seborejnyj-dermatit/
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Depending on the causes, symptoms and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis or seborrheic eczemafrom the condition of the patient's scalp, therapeutic therapy will include:

  • Medications .If dandruff is accompanied by a fungal lesion of the skin, antifungal medicines are prescribed, which include ketoconazole. If the cause of dandruff was seborrheic dermatitis, then prescribed antihistamines, they have an anti-inflammatory effect, and also reduce irritation and itching.
  • External means - ointments, creams, shampoos, sprays. Depending on the active substance, dandruff shampoos improve the exfoliation process, destroy the fungal infection, remove dead skin scales, and also have an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect. They may include antifungal components( zinc pyrithione, ketoconazole), keratolytic( lactic or salicylic acid), sulfur, tar, ihtiol. Medicinal shampoos are Sebozol, Dermazol, Nizoral, Keto plus, tar tar, Algopix, Phytoval, Friederm zinc, Friederm tar, Vichy for dandruff.
    Ointments and creams relieve irritation, itching, reduce the production of sebum and eliminate skin peeling. To therapeutic ointments against dandruff are paste Sulsen 2%, Serno-salicylic, Hydrocortisone, Dermazol, Nizoral.
    If dandruff occurs as a medical spray, Panthenol is recommended. This drug reduces irritation of the skin of the head, and also promotes the rapid restoration of tissues.
  • Physiotherapy .Depending on the condition of the scalp, the doctor can prescribe such physiotherapy as ozone therapy( has a drying effect), cryomassage( used for severe itching and reddening of the scalp) as an additional treatment, Darsonval( adjusts the work of the sebaceous glands, blood flow and dehydrates the skin),mesotherapy( provides nutrition to the hair).
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Performing simple recommendations, it is possible to prevent the appearance of dandruff and related complications.

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Hygiene of the scalp

  • Personal belongings such as loofah, comb and headgear are for personal use only.
  • Cosmetics and shampoos should be chosen according to the type of hair.
  • All personal care items should be kept clean and replaced as needed.
  • Wash your head with warm water and soap.
  • When drying hair with a hair dryer on the device, it is recommended to set a gentle mode( warm air).
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Diet and Drinking

Full and proper nutrition plays a major role in the prevention of various skin diseases, including when dandruff occurs. To avoid undesirable changes in the skin of the head, it is necessary to give preference to foods that contain enough minerals and vitamins - cabbage, tomatoes, cheese, fish, liver, walnuts, beef, legumes, milk and sour milk products, greens. Also, you need to limit the intake of products that contribute to the appearance of dandruff - hot, sweet, fatty and salty foods.

To normalize the metabolism and prevent the appearance of dandruff, it is recommended to drink a sufficient amount of liquid, depending on the age and body weight from 1 to 2 liters per day.

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Stress and immunity

Various stressful situations and weak immunity negatively affect the work of the sebaceous glands and the quality of the skin. These factors can provoke the development of dandruff, so it is recommended to avoid stressful situations and spend as much time in the fresh air.

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Folk remedies

When dandruff occurs, hair needs to be nourished, so folk medicine recommends using nutritious, exfoliating and moisturizing masks:

  • Mix 1 egg yolk, 10 milliliters of olive oil, 5 milliliters of lemon juice and 10 grams of honey. Massage the mask in circular motions into the roots of the hair, then cover the head with a towel or a cap and after 40 minutes rinse with warm water. This mask of dandruff should be done at least 2 times a week for 30 days.
  • Mix 50 milliliters of kefir, 1 egg yolk and 10 milliliters of olive oil. The resulting mass is applied to the scalp and held for 1 hour, after which it is washed off and thoroughly washed with shampoo. Folk remedy against dandruff should be applied 2 times a week for 2 months.

In addition to therapeutic masks, it is recommended to use dandruff lotions to reduce itching and eliminate fatness:

  • Mix 5 grams of castor oil, 2 grams of salicylic acid and 100 grams of vodka. Finished product with light circular movements rub into the scalp and leave for 2 hours. Therapeutic lotion should be applied every other day until the disappearance of dandruff.
  • 10 grams of castor oil, 5 grams of birch tar and 100 grams of vodka are mixed and applied to the scalp 1,5 hours before washing. The drug should be applied 3 times a week until recovery.

Contribute to exfoliation of the skin, and also remove itching and irritation of decoctions prepared from beet juice, nettle or calendula. These broths need to rinse your hair after washing your head.

  • May 15, 2018
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