Mexidol is an antioxidant belonging to the pharmacological group of nootropic drugs of the new generation. It is widely used in neurological, psychiatric, surgical and narcological practices, dentistry. More details about the preparation: what helps, dosages, to whom it is contraindicated read further in the article.
- mechanism of action
- Product form
- How to take
- Side effects
- during pregnancy
- children with alcohol
- Amlodipine( Norvaks, Amlotop)
- Betahistine(Betaserk, Vestibo, Betaver)
- Cavinton( Vinpocetine)
- Mexico B6( Pyridoxine)
- Nootropial( Lutset, Piracetam, Memotropil)
- Pikamilon( Pikogam, Pikanoil, Amilonosar)
- Tserakson( Rekognan, Neypilept)
- Tserebronorm( Citoflavin)
- Cereton( Gliatilin, Cerepro, deletions, Holitilin)
- Cinnarizine( stugeron, Stugezin)
- Fenazepam( Phenorelaxan, Fesipam, Elzepam, Tranquesipam)
The main active ingredient is ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate, a salt of succinic acid, which is normally found in the cells of the human body and plants, Cate in the catabolism of all energy substances( fats, amino acids, carbohydrates).to contents ^
Mechanism of action
The drug refers to inhibitors of free radical processes, membranoprotectors. Has nootropic, anti-stress, antihypoxic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant action. Mexidol improves the body's resistance to adverse effects of various factors( ischemia and hypoxia, shock, intoxication with alcohol and antipsychotics / antipsychotic drugs, cerebral circulation disorders).
The mechanism of action of the agent is due to its antihypoxic, antioxidant and membrane-protective effect. Mexidol inhibits the peroxidation of fats( lipids), increases the activity of superoxide dismutase, significantly increases the "lipid-protein" ratio, reduces the viscosity of the membrane and increases its fluidity.
In addition, the preparation:
- reduces the content of "bad" fats( low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol);
- improves the nutrition of the brain, sleep, normalizes post-stress behavior, accelerates rehabilitation after a stroke, reduces manifestations of abstinence syndrome;
- improves myocardial state in IHD, and pancreas - with chronic pancreatitis;
- increases fluidity of the blood, resulting in normal circulation of blood in small vessels and improves nutrition of tissues and brain neurons;
- enhances the action of antidepressants, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers and hypnotics;
- eliminates neurotoxic and neurological manifestations of acute alcohol and drug intoxication;
- normalizes behavior after depression, stress, eliminates tics;
- restores memory and learning disabilities;
- increases the number of ATP and creatine phosphate molecules;
- increases visual acuity as a result of improving the functionality of the retina( used as an additional treatment in ophthalmology).
After taking the medicine inside quickly absorbed and distributed to the organs. It is excreted for 4 hours with urine to a greater extent in the form of metabolites and a small amount - unchanged.to contents ^
Mexidol is available in two dosage forms:
- tablets No. 30 and No. 50 containing 125 milligrams of active ingredient;
- ampoules with a solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection of 2 milliliters, 100 milligrams in an ampoule. The package contains 5-20 ampoules.
In addition to medicines, Mexidol is available in the form of toothpaste and rinse in the following varieties:
- Mexidol dent Complex - used in caries.
- Mexidol dent Sensitive - with sensitivity of teeth.
- Mexidol dent Professional White - for bleaching.
- Mexidol dent Fito - with bleeding.
- Mexidol dent Aktiv - with inflammation of the gums.
- Mexidol dent( rinse).
- Mexidol dent Professional( rinse aid).
- Light craniocerebral trauma and their consequences;
- consequences of acute cerebral circulation disorders, including after transient ischemic attacks, in the subcompensation stage as preventive courses;
- encephalopathy of various origins( dysmetabolic, dyscirculatory, mixed, post traumatic);
- mild cognitive impairment of atherosclerotic etiology;
- is a syndrome of vegetative dystonia;
- ischemic heart disease( as part of a comprehensive treatment);
- anxiety disorders in neurotic-like and neurotic states;
- conditions after acute intoxication with antipsychotics;
- relief of withdrawal syndrome with alcoholism with a predominance of vegetative-vascular and neurosis-like disorders, post-abstinence disorders;
- condition after acute poisoning with antipsychotic drugs;
- effect of stress( extreme) factors;
- asthenic conditions, prevention of the development of somatic pathologies under the influence of extreme factors and loads.
Toothpaste Mexodol is used in dentistry with:
- increased sensitivity of teeth;
- gum bleeding;
- reduced immunity of the oral cavity;
- tooth decay.
Pasta kills in the mouth pathogenic bacteria, heals wounds( including purulent) and stimulates regeneration of the mucous membrane.to table of contents ^
How to taketo table of contents ^
Intended for oral administration. Assign inside 125-250 milligrams three times a day;the maximum daily dose is 800 milligrams. The duration of therapy is 2-6 weeks. If Mexidol is prescribed for relief of alcohol withdrawal, the duration of the course of treatment is 5-7 days. Therapy is stopped gradually, reducing the dose for 2-3 days.to table of contents ^
Mexidol is administered intramuscularly or intravenously( drip or jet infusion).Jet medicine is used for relief of withdrawal symptoms, sympathoadrenal and autonomic paroxysms, and for drip - in acute disorders of cerebral circulation. Drip the drug injected at a rate of 60 drops per minute, struino for 5-7 minutes. When administered intravenously, the contents of the ampoule are diluted in an isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Doses are prescribed individually. Begin therapy with a dose of 100 milligrams 1-3 times a day, gradually increasing to obtain the necessary therapeutic effect. The duration of the course of treatment and the choice of dose depends on the severity of the disease, the condition of the patient and the response to therapy. The maximum daily dose is 800 milligrams.
In case of acute circulatory disturbance of the brain, Mexidol is first prescribed by a drop method in a vein from 200 to 500 milligrams 4 times a day for 10-14 days, and then intramuscularly 1-2 times a day at a dose of 200-250 milligrams.
To eliminate the consequences of craniocerebral trauma, the drug is administered drip in a dose of 200-500 milligrams 2-4 times a day for 10-15 days.to table of contents ^
- Acute liver failure;
- acute renal failure;
- hypersensitivity to the drug.
Side effects of
- Allergic reaction;
- disorders of a dyspeptic character( pain or discomfort in the stomach, nausea, belching, heartburn, unsteadiness of the stool, a feeling of rash in the abdomen, swelling, etc.);
- increased drowsiness;
- dryness of the mucosa in the oral cavity;
- reactions of a dyspeptic nature( flatulence, appetite disorder, rumbling in the intestines, lethargy, weakness and so on).
Also, the medicine lowers or increases blood pressure, causes emotional reactivity, coordination disorders, distal hyperhidrosis.to the table of contents ^
The drug is not prescribed during pregnancy and lactation due to insufficient study of the effect of the drug on the fetus.to the table of contents ^
Mexidol in the form of tablets is contraindicated for children due to insufficient knowledge of the effect of the drug. In pediatrics, an injection for injections is sometimes used, but only according to the indications and with the permission of the doctor.to contents ^
The drug reduces the toxic effect of alcoholic beverages, removes alcohol from the body and is used to treat withdrawal symptoms( withdrawal) during the period of getting rid of alcohol dependence.to contents ^
Complete analogs for the active substance: Armadine, Medomexi, Mexicor, Mexicin, Mexiprim, Metostabil, Mexident, Neurox, Cerekard, Pharmasoft, Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate.
Analogues on the mechanism of action:to the table of contents ^
Form release - tablets, gel, cream, solution, ointment;active ingredient - deproteinized hemoderivat of calves' blood.
Activates the metabolism in tissues, stimulates the recovery process and improves their trophism. It is used for insufficiency of cerebral circulation, IHD, craniocerebral trauma, trophic disorders, angiopathy and so on. Often with Methodeol, Actovegin and Kombilipen, Milgamma or other B vitamins are prescribed.
Doses and the method of use depend on the severity and type of the disease. Actovegin is administered parenterally, orally and topically.
Inside prescribe 1-2 tablets three times a day before meals.
The initial dose for parenteral administration is 10-20 milliliters. Then the dose is reduced and the treatment is continued.
The gel is used to treat and cleanse ulcers and wounds. With radiation injuries and burns, the agent is applied to the affected area of the skin with a thin layer. When treating ulcers, the gel should be applied to the skin with a thick layer and covered with a compress with the ointment of Actovegin to prevent adhesion to the wound. Change of bandages is carried out once in 7 days;with soaking ulcers - several times a day.
The cream is used to improve the healing of wounds, including, after the formation of pressure sores.
Side effects: sweating, hives, fever, sensations of blood rush;burning and itching in the use of ointments, gels or creams.
Amlodipine( Norvax, Amlotop)
Form release - tablets;active ingredient - amlodipine besylate.
The drug is prescribed for arterial hypertension, stable angina pectoris and angina Prinzmetal.
The initial dosage for adults is 5 milligrams 1 time per day, in the future it can be increased to 10 milligrams per day. The course of therapy is prescribed by the doctor individually.
Side effects: visual impairment, palpitations, headache, depression, anxiety, insomnia, dyspnea, rhinitis, nausea, increased appetite, vomiting and so on.
Form release - capsules, drops;active substances - plant extracts of melissa, turmeric, licorice root, rhizome roots and so on.
Phytotherapeutic agent has a stimulating effect and weakens the vasomotor headache, eliminates general fatigue, improves concentration of attention. It also stops platelet aggregation, has a sedative and spasmolytic effect, improves digestion, eliminates nausea, prevents migraine, reduces pain in the joints, and increases concentration.
Adults appoint 1 capsule twice a day or 10-15 drops every 30 minutes, but no more than 6 times a day. Droplets before intake must be dissolved in 100 milliliters of water.
Side effects: allergic reaction in the form of skin rashes, urticaria.
Tablet Release Form;the active substance is fabomotisol dihydrochloride.
The drug is used in adults with neurasthenia, adaptation disorders, bronchial asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, hypertension, also with oncological, dermatological and other diseases.
The optimal dose is - 10 milligrams, the maximum daily - 30 milligrams, if necessary, increase the dose to 60 milligrams. Treatment lasts 2-4 weeks.
Side effects: allergic reaction, headache.
Beta-gistine( Betaserk, Vestibo, Betaver)
Form release - tablets;active ingredient is betahistine dihydrochloride.
The medicine is indicated for Meniere's disease;for the treatment and prevention of vestibular vertigo of various origin;syndromes, including headache, dizziness, tinnitus.
Assign inside during food to 8-16 milligrams( 1 / 2-1 tablet) three times a day. Long-term therapy is prescribed individually.
Side effects: urticaria, skin rash, indigestion.
Form release - tablets;active substances - alpha-dihydroergocriptine mesylate, caffeine.
The drug is used to improve peripheral and cerebral circulation with reduced mental activity, cerebrovascular insufficiency, Meniere's disease and so on.
Assign inside during meal on ½-1 tablet twice a day. Duration of treatment is 2-3 months.
Side effects: nausea, indigestion, headache, dizziness, agitation, tachycardia, pregnancy, lactation.
Form release - capsules;the active substance is sodium polyhydroxyphenylenethiosulfonate.
The drug has an antioxidant and antihypoxic effect. It is used for strong physical and mental loads, chronic fatigue, in the complex therapy of severe injuries, blood loss, respiratory diseases( pneumonia, bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis), stable angina, hypertension and so on.
Capsules are intended for oral administration. A single dose for adults is 2-4 capsules;the daily dose is calculated depending on the body weight, the severity of the disease and the patient's condition;the maximum daily dose is 12 capsules.
Side effects: allergic reactions, rarely - nausea, dizziness.
Form release - tablets;The active ingredient is glycine microencapsulated.
The drug improves brain metabolism, it is shown with reduced mental performance, stressful situations, IHD, deviant behavioral patterns of adolescents and children, various functional and organic pathologies of the nervous system, which are accompanied by emotional instability, increased excitability, neuroses, vegeto-vascular dystonia, violationsleep and so on.
Glycine must be resorbed by placing the tablet under the tongue. For healthy adolescents, children and adults, with a decrease in attention, memory, psychoemotional stresses, the drug is prescribed 1 tablet 2-3 times a day for 14-30 days.
For organic and functional lesions of the nervous system, accompanied by sleep disturbances, emotional lability, and so on, children under 3 years of age are prescribed ½ tablets 2-3 times a day for 7-14 days, then 1 tablet 1 time per day 7-10days. Children older than 3 years and adults are prescribed 1 tablet 2-3 times a day, for 7-14 days.
Side effects: is rarely an allergic reaction( urticaria, rash, redness).
Form release - solution, tablets;active substances - hexiodine dihydrochloride, etofillin, etamivan.
A combined agent that improves cerebral circulation and metabolism. It is recommended to use for brain pathologies of age and vascular nature, post-stroke states, dizziness, persistent cerebral hypertension, stroke and so on.
Tablets are taken orally during or after a meal. Depending on the severity of the disease and the patient's condition, 1-2 tablets are prescribed three times a day( for dosing 60, 50, 20 milligrams) or 1 tablet three times a day( for doses of 60, 100 milligrams).If necessary, the daily dose is increased to 5 tablets. The duration of therapy is 6 weeks.
According to the instructions, the solution is intended for intramuscular injection or intravenous( jet or drip).Depending on the severity of pathology, 1-2 times a day, 1 ampoule is administered. As the condition improves, therapy can be continued with oral medication.
Side effects: decrease in blood pressure, discomfort, tingling in the heart, short-term tachycardia, minor headache, flushing of the face.
Form release - concentrate, tablets;active ingredient is vinpocetine.
Expands the vessels of the brain, improves the supply of oxygen to the brain, increases blood flow and promotes the utilization of glucose. They use medicine for mental and neurological disorders: in case of cerebral circulation( atherosclerotic origin, after a stroke, etc.);with hypertension( persistent increase in blood pressure), memory disorders, speech impairment, dizziness, vasovetagative symptoms and so on.
Tablets are taken orally after eating. Depending on the severity of the disease, adults are prescribed 5-10 milligrams( 1-2 tablets) 3 times a day;the initial daily dose of 15( 3 tablets) milligram, the maximum - 30 milligrams( 6 tablets).Duration of therapy is 1-3 months. In acute conditions, a solution for intravenous administration( drip) in a dose of 10-20 milligrams( 1-2 ampoules) is used.
Side effects: lowering of blood pressure, tachycardia, sleep disturbances( increased drowsiness or insomnia), headache, dizziness, general weakness, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, dry mouth, increased sweating, allergic skin reactions.
Form release - lyophilizate;active substances - a complex of water-soluble polypeptide fractions with a molecular mass.
It is indicated for disorders of cerebral circulation, encephalopathies of various origin, craniocerebral trauma and their consequences, chronic and acute encephalomyelitis and encephalitis, cognitive disorders( thinking and memory disorders), epilepsy, decreased ability to learn, asthenic conditions, delayed psychomotor and speech developmentin children, various forms of infantile cerebral palsy.
The agent is administered intramuscularly. The contents of the bottle before the injection should be dissolved in 1-2 milliliters of 0.5% solution of novocaine, 0.9% solution of sodium chloride or water for injection. Dosage for adults is 10 milligrams;children weighing up to 20 kilograms - 0.5 milligram / kilogram weight;Children weighing more than 20 kilograms - 10 milligrams. The drug is administered once a day for 10 days.
Side effects: is rarely an allergic reaction.
Mexico In 6( Pyridoxine)
Form of release - tablets;active ingredients - pyrodoxine hydrochloride and ethylmethyl hydroxypyridine succinate.
Antioxidant preparation is used as a part of complex treatment in the syndrome of vegetative dystonia, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, autonomic dystonia syndrome, ischemic heart disease, anxiety states in neurotic-like and neurotic states, withdrawal syndrome with alcoholism predominance of vegetative-vascular and neurosis-like disorders, effects of extreme factors,poisoning with antipsychotic drugs, asthenic condition and for the prevention of the appearance of somatic diseases bythe influence of excessive loads and extreme factors.
The initial dose for adults is 1-2 tablets 1-2 times a day, then take 1 tablet three times a day;the maximum dosage is 6 tablets per day. The course of therapy can be 2-8 weeks. If necessary, repeat courses.
Side effects: diarrhea, nausea, allergic reactions, dry mouth, hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid, the appearance of a sensation of compression in the limbs, numbness.
Nootropil( Lucetam, Pyracetam, Memotropil)
Form release - tablets, capsules, solution;the active substance is piracetam.
The drug at the cellular level improves metabolic processes and blood circulation, restoring brain activity. Nootropil has protective functions that eliminate or prevent the development of the consequences of disruptions in the work of the brain departments after physical damage, intoxication, exposure to electric shock. Prescribed for violations of brain activity, dizziness, chronic alcoholism, brain intoxication, concussions, Alzheimer's disease and in cases of poor perception of information in children.
The dose for adults, depending on the severity of the disease and the patient's condition, is 30-160 milligrams per kilogram of weight divided into 4 doses;children from 8 years and teenagers - 3.2 grams in 2 admission. If it is not possible to take the drug orally, switch to the parenteral method of administration.
Side effects: depression, irritability, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain, abdominal pain, anxiety, confusion, dermatitis, urticaria, itching, angioedema, hyperthermia, thrombophlebitis, arterial hypotension and so on.
Picamylon( Pikogam, Picanoyl, Amilonosar)
Form release - tablets, solution;active substance - nicotinoyl gamma-aminobutyric acid.
The drug has nootropic, antioxidant, tranquilizing, antiaggregatory action. It is used for disorders of cerebral circulation, vegetovascular dystonia, alcoholism, senile psychosis, craniocerebral trauma, primary open-angle glaucoma. At the course of admission Pikamilon increases mental and physical performance, improves memory, reduces headache, normalizes sleep, promotes the disappearance of feelings of anxiety, fear, tension. Improves the condition of patients with speech and motor impairments.
Depending on the disease, the severity of the course and the patient's condition is prescribed from 20 to 50 milligrams per day three times a day. Duration of treatment - 1-2 months. Parenterally administered intramuscularly or intravenously( struino or drip).The dose is selected individually for each patient. For adults, most often appoint 100-200 milligrams 1-2 times a day, the maximum daily dose is 20-40 milligrams.
Side effects: excitement, headache, dizziness, irritability, itching, nausea, rashes.
Ceraxon( Recognan, Neupilept)
Form release - solution for injection and internal administration;active ingredient is citicoline sodium.
The drug is effective in the treatment of acute periods of IHD, craniocerebral trauma, during the recovery period of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, behavioral and cognitive impairments in brain pathologies.
In the acute period of the disease, intravenous or intramuscular administration is prescribed. The average dose is 500-2000 milligrams every 12 hours. Duration of treatment is 6 weeks, then go to oral intake. Before use, the product should be diluted in 100 milliliters of water and drink during meals.
Side effects: allergic reaction, dizziness, headache, decreased appetite, shortness of breath, swelling and so on.
Form release - tablets;active ingredients - succinic acid, riboxin, riboflavin, nicotinamide.
The drug improves the metabolism of the brain and is used in complex treatment for chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency, encephalopathy of various origins( alcoholic, hepatic, etc.), also in the recovery period of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation.
Adults take 1 tablet three times a day after eating;the maximum daily dose is 5 tablets. The course of therapy is 4-6 weeks, 2-3 times a year.
Side effects: allergic reaction in the form of itching, rash and redness of the skin.
Cereton( Gliatilin, Cerepro, Dellezit, Holitilin)
Form release - capsules, solution;the active substance is choline alphoscerate.
The medication is indicated for the consequences of stroke, cognitive impairment, loss of attention, apathy, impaired attention, cerebral infarction, organic psychiatric disorders, coordination disorders, senile dementia, motivation impairments, head trauma consequences, discirculatory encephalopathy, organic behavior disorders and so on.
Solution for injection is used in acute conditions. Enter the drug intravenously or intramuscularly. The daily dose of 1 ampoule, the course - 10-15 days. In the recovery period after acute conditions, capsules are prescribed. Scheme of admission: 2 capsules in the morning and 1 capsule in the afternoon. The course of treatment is up to 6 months.
Side effects: rash, urticaria, nausea, diarrhea, pharyngitis, increased irritability, dizziness, convulsions, dry mucous membranes, aggression, headache, anxiety, insomnia, frequent urination.
Cinnarizine( Stugeron, Stugesin)
Form release - tablets;the active ingredient is cinnarizine.
The drug is a blocker of calcium channels with an effect on the vessels of the brain. It is indicated in IHD, conditions after craniocerebral trauma, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, vestibular disorders, migraine and so on.
Dosage for adults is 25-75 milligrams three times a day;for children - ½ adult dose. With increased sensitivity to the drug, therapy starts with ½ dose, increasing gradually. The duration of the course of treatment ranges from several weeks to several months.
Side effects: headache, drowsiness, fatigue, dry mouth, indigestion, sweating, skin rashes and so on.
Phenazepam( phenorelaxane, fesipam, Elzepam, Tranquesipam)
Form release - tablets, solution;active ingredient is phenazepam.
Has a pronounced anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety, soothing effect. It is indicated for the treatment of neurotic, psychopathic, neurotic-like conditions, which are accompanied by fear, anxiety, tension, irritability, emotional lability. Also used for sleep disorders, vegetative dysfunctions, tics and hyperkinesias, myoclonic and temporal epilepsy.
A single dose of the drug is 0.5-1 milligram, the daily average depending on the disease is 1.5-5 milligrams, it is divided into 2-3 admission. The maximum daily dose is 10 milligrams.
Side effects: drowsiness, headache, depression, memory loss, heartburn, CNS depression, diarrhea or constipation, decreased appetite, skin rash and so on.
Form release - tablets and powder;the active ingredient is gamma-amino-beto-phenylbutyric acid( aminophenylbutyric acid).
Nootropic drug improves the functional state of the brain, helps to eliminate or reduce feelings of anxiety, anxiety, tension, fear, normalizes sleep and has an anticonvulsant effect. In addition, it reduces asthenia and vasovegetative symptoms( including sensations of heaviness in the head, headache, emotional lability, and so on), increases mental and physical ability. Also improves psychological indicators( memory, attention, accuracy and speed of sensory-motor reactions).
Take internally( regardless of food).For adults, the dosage is 200-500 milligrams three times a day;if necessary, increase the dosage to a maximum of 2.5 grams. For children under 8, the dose is 50-100 milligrams;8-14 years - 250 milligrams. Multiplicity of reception 3 times a day. The duration of the course of therapy is 1-2 months, if necessary, after 6 months, repeat the course of treatment.
Side effects: stimulation, increased irritability, headache, dizziness, nausea, drowsiness, allergic reaction, pronounced drowsiness, decreased blood pressure.
Form release - tablets;active ingredient is phenotropil.
The drug is indicated for diseases of the central nervous system of various origins, neurotic states, depression, stress, convulsions, obesity, chronic alcoholism and so on.
Tablets are taken orally after a meal. The average single dose for adults is 100-200 milligrams, the maximum daily intake is 750 milligrams. The duration of therapy is 30-60 days. You can repeat the chicken after 1 month.
Side effects: insomnia, agitation, skin hyperemia, increased blood pressure, sensation of heat.
Form release - tablets, solution;active ingredient is ethylmethyl hydroxypyridine malate.
Antioxidant agent used for acute disorders of cerebral circulation, autonomic dystonia syndrome, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, mild cognitive disorders of atherosclerotic origin, acute intoxication with antipsychotic drugs, anxiety disorders and so on.
For complex treatment, prescribe 100 milligrams( 1 tablet) three times a day. Dose, depending on the severity of the pathology may increase. The maximum single dose is 200 milligrams, the daily dosage is 800 milligrams. The course of therapy - 2 months.
Also the drug is prescribed intramuscularly and intravenously( drip and jet).Doses are selected by the doctor individually. Begin treatment with a dose of 50-100 milligrams 1-3 times a day, gradually increasing until the required effect is obtained.
Side effects: rarely - nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sleep disturbance, flatulence.