Emerald is a precious stone of the first order. It is considered one of the most expensive gems in the world, and is sometimes valued on a par with diamonds, rubies and sapphires.
Since ancient times this beautiful precious jeweler's stone was attributed to unique, extraordinary and even magical properties. They were decorated with crowns, symbols of power, robes of eastern lords and great European monarchs. From it did amulets and antidotes from snake bites.
- Description of mineral
- History of stone
- Emerald deposits
- Emerald varieties
- Chemical composition and physical properties of
- stone Magic properties of emerald
- Mineral healing properties
- Emerald and zodiac signs
- Application of gem
- Interesting facts about stone
- How to distinguish natural emerald from counterfeiting
- Stone care
- Photos of emerald and products from it
Description of the mineral
The emerald is a beautiful jeweled stone of green color. There are emeralds of various shades, from yellowish-green to dark green, slightly casting blue. They may be unevenly colored, but may have longitudinal variations in color intensity. Often in the minerals of the emerald there are various inclusions, cracks, gases and liquids.
The name of the mineral "emerald" originated from the Turkic word "zumrut", which came from the Persian language, as a derivative of the word "zumurrud".In Greece, beautiful stones of green called "smaragdos", which literally means "green stone", and in England - "emerald".The modern name of the stone "emerald" appeared in the Middle Ages, as a derivative of its names in different countries of the world.
The strong healing and even mystical properties of the emerald, along with its marvelous beauty, have allowed it to become one of the most revered gems in the world.to the table of contents ^
History of the stone
The first development of this precious mineral was carried out even 1500 years BC.e.in the so-called "emerald mines of Queen Cleopatra", located near modern Aswan. Cleopatra herself was very fond of these beautiful stones and preferred emeralds to other gems, but their prey in these Egyptian mines was carried out long before her birth.
The mention of these unusual green stones of marvelous beauty can be found in the epic of different peoples:
- So, the ancient Roman writer Guy Pliny in the I in the n.e.described the so-called "Scythian emeralds( emeralds)", which "like no other stones please the eyes, not boring them."
- The Emerald is also mentioned in the Bible, as one of the precious stones that were worn by the breastplates of the Jewish high priests.
- King Solomon spoke about how the emerald cheers his heart, drives away bad dreams and takes away black thoughts.
- The Egyptians revered the emerald as a symbol of the Goddess Isis and the marvelous gift of God Thoth. Decorations of bright green emeralds, meaning eternal youth, can be seen on the mummies of Egyptian pharaohs.
- In Arabia, emeralds were used not only for inlaying jewelry, but also for the manufacture of strong remedies. Local healers were sure that a mixture of emerald dust and milk of a white camel is the strongest antidote.
- Armenian Aesculapius used emerald powder from black cough and bloody diarrhea.
- Georgian sages believed that the crystals of the precious green stone are capable, like a magic mirror, to reveal to man his future.
- At the time of the Incas and Aztecs, this mineral was referred to the sacred group. He was loved, he was worshiped and attributed various mystical properties. So, the Incas revered a huge emerald the size of an ostrich egg, like a mythical deity.
- In India emeralds were considered symbols of love and fidelity and wore them as amulets.
- In Islamic countries at all times, the emerald was considered the main magic stone. He is still appreciated in the Arab world for a special green tint, which is considered a color that belongs to Islam.
- In Russia in the XV-XVII centuries the emerald was revered as a stone of wisdom and composure.
- In the 16th century the Spaniards brought emeralds to Europe, where these beautiful gems gained immense popularity and the glory of healing stones.
- In the middle of the nineteenth century, new deposits of emeralds were discovered in Russia( in the Middle Urals), as well as in the USA and Australia.
Today, the main deposits of emeralds are in Russia, Australia, Namibia, Norway, Zimbabwe, Pakistan, Zambia and, of course, in Colombia. It is in Colombia that in the carbonate rocks of the fields Chiwor and Muso, to this day, the most high-quality and valuable types of emeralds are extracted( about 90% of the world's mining of stone).to the table of contents ^
Emeralds are distinguished mainly in the place of their extraction. Depending on the deposit, shades of extracted stones differ:
- Colombian emeralds are especially valuable gems of bright, grassy-green hue.
- Emeralds Trapiche .They are also mined in Colombia. These green gems are distinguished by a special star-shaped shape with "rays" that depart from its center.
- The Zambian emeralds of are distinguished by their distinctive pure green or slightly bluish tint. They are darker than Colombian emeralds.
- The Zimbabwean emeralds of are distinguished by the presence of inclusions of yellow hue. Such emeralds are rather small, but are valued for very good quality.
- Brazilian emeralds - yellowish green. They are much lighter and purer than Colombia.
- The emeralds of South Africa are usually turbid and light. They mostly go to the cabochons.
- Russian emeralds are opaque and in most cases are filled with inclusions of mica.
Chemical composition and physical properties of the stone
The emerald is one of the transparent varieties of beryl - beryllium silicate and aluminum( Be3Al2( SiO3) 6).The green color of this beautiful gem is due to the presence of impurities of chromium( Cr) in it.
The chemical composition of the emerald includes:
- chromium( Cr) - from 0.01 to 1.0%;
- iron( Fe) - 0.12%;
- vanadium( V) - 0.05%.
Depending on the predominance of one of these elements, the shade of the stone also changes - from a light bluish-green hue to a saturated dark green, emerald.
It is color that is the main criterion for assessing the quality of the stone and, consequently, its value. The more saturated and darker the shade of the emerald, the higher its value.
The next criterion for estimating the gem is its transparency and the presence of defects visible to the naked eye.
Thus, the perfect emerald is a transparent, defect-free stone of saturated color. Its cost can exceed even the cost of a diamond. But by its physical properties, in particular, the strength of the emerald is much inferior to the diamond.
So, its Mohs hardness is 7.5-8.0, and its density is 2.8 g / cm3.
It is sensitive to squeezing and heating, and can easily lose color when exposed to temperatures above 700 ° C.At the same time, with respect to acids and reagents, it is quite stable.to the table of contents ^
Magic properties of the emerald
At different times, in different countries emeralds were attributed different magical properties. But they have always been considered strong and powerful talismans who are struggling with the negative qualities of their owner and are able to develop the best qualities in him.
People who are convinced of the special strength of this stone, are sure that the emerald is able to:
- protect its owner from the influence of dark forces;
- protect from any misfortunes;
- give your owner wisdom and composure;
- protect on long trips;
- to attract wealth and luck;
- to subdue the voluptuousness;
- bring peace and tranquility;
- to promote the continuation of the family;
- to preserve conjugal ties, to preserve peace and harmony in the family.
It is believed that with the help of this magic stone, people with developed intuition are able to decode the signals of the universe and to enter into a connection with the subtle worlds.to Contents ^
Therapeutic properties of mineral
Lithotherapists claim that emeralds can help:
- strengthen memory;
- to reduce heat;
- ward off bad dreams;
- to dispel melancholy;
- heal inflammation;
- cope with infections;
- get rid of night blindness;
- to be healed of psoriasis;
- to lower blood pressure.
This stone is recommended to wear when:
- bladder diseases;
- heartburn and stomach disease;
- pain in the heart;
- headaches and joint pain.
Emerald and zodiac signs
Most of all, astrologers are convinced, the emerald is suitable for Cancers and Pisces. People born under these watermarks, emerald can bring happiness and luck.
This precious stone is suitable for Aries and Sagittarius.
But Scorpios wear jewelry with emeralds is not recommended.to contents ^
Application of the gem
The main application of emeralds is jewelry. Usually it is bordered by a stepped, so-called "emerald cut".However, opaque stones, with inclusions and cracks, are processed exclusively in the form of cabochons.
Only occasionally emeralds of especially large sizes are made decor items. For example, a small( 10 cm high) emerald vase, dating back to the 16th century, carved from a dark green Colombian emerald, is exhibited at the Vienna Art and Industrial Museum.
In Russia, this precious jewelry stone is legislatively declared a currency value.to the table of contents ^
Interesting facts about the stone
According to legend, the Queen of Sheba( the legendary ruler of the Arabian kingdom) preferred the emerald to all other precious stones. Her best outfits were embroidered with emerald embroideries, over which over 1,000 maids worked.
The National Bank of Tehran today stores a hairpin encrusted with three large emeralds, owned by the founder of the Mogul Empire, the Great Mogul Babur. For many years it was used during the coronation of the Persian shahs.
An emerald is considered a fidelity stone, and according to one legend, this gemstone can split when one of the couple's loving couple breaks faithfulness.
One of the legends tells us that the famous Holy Grail was made from an emerald that fell from the crown of the overthrown Satan.
Ancient magicians believed that an emerald could blind a snake and deprive it of sight.
Roman historian Tacitus claimed that the emerald cup, neutralizing poison, more than once saved the life of Emperor Nero, who was being poisoned.
According to legend, it was the emerald that was the sacred stone of the legendary Atlanteans.
In 1993, an emerald weighing 1200 grams was found at the Malyshevsky mine. He was named "President" in honor of the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin.
The world's largest crystal emerald weighing 28 kilograms was found in Brazil in 1974.
The first artificial emerald was grown in 1935 in Germany. To date, such synthetic gems are produced in many countries on an industrial scale.to contents ^
How to distinguish a natural emerald from a fake
To distinguish a natural emerald from a fake, it is necessary to arm yourself with a magnifying glass, a color filter, a refractometer and carefully consider the stone.
- Place the stone under the color filter. The natural emerald, when viewed through a color filter, will acquire a reddish-brown tint, which is explained by the presence of chromium in its composition.
- View the stone through the magnifying glass. In natural stone, you can see various inclusions, small cracks, gases that are not in synthetic analogs. Just do not mix them up with the air bubbles that are in the glass doublets.
- Armed with a refractometer( a device for measuring refraction of light) and measure the refractive index of the stone. In a natural emerald, it should be 1.58, while for a synthetic emerald, it should not be higher than 1.572.
But to be 100% sure that you bought a natural emerald - it is better to contact a specialist-gemologist.to the table of contents ^
An emerald is not only expensive, but also quite capricious. When caring for it, the following rules should be remembered:
- Avoid permanent exposure to ultraviolet light and exposure to strong chemicals.
- Do not use sharp objects when cleaning a stone.
- To give the emerald freshness, you can lower it for a while in a warm soapy solution, then gently wipe with a soft cloth.
- Periodically it is necessary to give a stone to a jewelry workshop for applying a special protective oil.
Pictures of the emerald and its products