You decided to choose a water heater for personal use - this is the right solution, since this device will make you independent of the central hot water supply in case of its absence or a significant increase in tariffs. We will tell you about the nuances to pay attention to when selecting a water heater, what characteristics to take into account, in the article below.
- types of water heaters
- Storage water heater
- instantaneous water heater
- Filler heater
- Electric heaters
- Gas boilers
- optionally Tips cylinder
- heater tank
- maximum heating water temperatures
- nominal power and performance
- attachment method and arrangement type heater
- Internal coating of tank
- Control type: hydraulic or hydraulicics
- minimum and maximum water pressure
- Useful functions heaters
- functions of gas water heaters
- Rapid heating
- Water Filter
- water heating temperature is limited
- overheating protection
- Preventing freezing
- relief and return valves
- Magnesium anode
- indicator on and heating
- digital display
- Optional equipment
- Manufacturers of water heaters
Types of water heaterth
All presented to the heaters of the market can be classified in several ways:
- supply water heating;
- method of heating water.
Storage water heater
Storage water heaters are sealed containers with a volume of 5 to 500 liters, inside of which there is a heating element( submerged or dry).Hot water inside the device is constantly, as the flow rate adds cold water, which is gradually heated to the required temperature.
Advantages of storage heaters:
- is relatively small;
- possibility of using heated water several points at the same time.
The main disadvantage is the limited amount of hot water that can be used at a particular moment. Wait for the next portion of water to be heated for at least half an hour.to contents ^
Flow-through water heater
Flow-through water heaters are appliances that immediately deliver warm( and not hot) water - water passes through the built-in powerful teng and exits the tap. Such devices are used mainly with a small consumption of water( for washing dishes in the kitchen, for example).
Advantages of running water heaters:
- small size;
- no need to wait for the water to warm up.
Most models of flowing water heaters are not designed to provide several points at once with water. The power consumption of such water heaters is very high( from 6 kW) - far from every house the wiring is designed for such a load( this point does not apply to gas flow-through water heaters).to contents ^
Filling water heaters are devices used in buildings and buildings with missing central water supply( in garages, in cottages).They are plastic or metal containers with a built-in faucet that attach to the wall above the washstand or sink. The water is poured in manually from another tank, inside the device is a heating water tank, and a thermostat that keeps the water warm.
Advantage of the
water heater This is the only type that can be used in buildings without central water supply.
It is extremely inconvenient to use it because of the need to pour water from other sources.to contents ^
Electric water heaters
Can be installed in any room connected to power supply. May require or not require separate wiring( depending on capacity).Electrical appliances are easy to maintain.to contents ^
Gas water heaters
Suitable only for rooms with supplied gas. More economical, but more difficult to install and operate. The most common gas flow-type water heaters are the most convenient option.
There are also indirect and combined storage water heaters that operate from the boiler of the heating system. They are used exclusively in private homes.to contents ^
Tips for choosing a water heaterto table of contents ^
DHW cylinder volume
This criterion is only important when choosing a storage water heater. When determining the required volume, one can focus on the average water discharge by one person per day. So, for two people it will be enough to have a tank with a volume of 50-80 liters, for three - 80-100 and so on. Note that the water heater produces hot water, the volume of which, when diluted to a comfortable temperature, almost doubles. When choosing a larger heater, take into account that due to the large overall dimensions, it can not fit into the bathroom.
If you plan to install a separate water heater for the kitchen, a storage device with a volume of 15-20 liters will be enough for washing dishes.to contents ^
Maximum water heating temperature
This indicator depends on the type of water heater. For heaters of storage type, the average value should be at least 80-85 degrees. With regard to flow-through type heaters, the maximum temperature of water heating in them reaches 55-60 degrees, while manufacturers indicate the temperature of the heating under certain conditions( the intensity of water flow and the temperature of the water supplied).to contents ^
Rated power and performance
Power and performance also depend on the type of water heater.
Storage heaters consume power in the range of 1.5-2.5 kW.The larger the volume of the heater tank, the greater the power - it will determine the performance of the heater( the time it takes for the water to reach the desired temperature).
The flow-through heaters consume more power than the storage ones, the performance of the device and the possibility of its use depends on the power:
- 3,5-5 kW - productivity is one and a half to three liters per minute. The more intense the pressure of water, the lower its temperature. Devices with this power are suitable for washing or washing dishes;
- 6-8 kW - a performance of three to four liters per minute. Suitable for taking a shower;
- 12-30 kW - performance up to nine liters per minute. Typical for high-power electric and gas water heaters. Such models are equipped with regulators that maintain a constant temperature of the water at the outlet.
Mounting method and type of location of the water heater
By the way of fixing, the heaters can be:
The installation method is extremely important when choosing a storage heater, since it has an impressive overall dimensions. Built-in water heaters are suitable for the kitchen, the wall hangs in the bathroom, as well as the floor.
The instruments can be positioned vertically or horizontally, some models allow for both vertical and horizontal installation.to contents ^
Water heater connection( connection point of water pipe) can be:
- bottom( branch pipes pointing downwards);
- top( nozzles are located in the upper part of the body);
It is necessary to choose a specific type, based on the design features of the room in which the water heater will be installed.to contents ^
Internal coating of the tank
The inner coating of the heater tank can be:
- plastic( the cheapest option, however short-lived);
- enameled or glass-ceramic( inexpensive and more reliable option, protecting metal from corrosion, but sensitive to temperature changes);
- titanium or stainless( the most expensive, but the most reliable option).
Control type: hydraulic or electronic
All gas heaters have a mechanical control, so there is no choice.
As for electric water heaters, two options are possible:
In the first case, the control is carried out by the flow sensor. Models with hydraulic control are inexpensive, but they have a significant drawback - the temperature of the water heating depends on the temperature of the incoming water, the power of the device, and also the strength of the water flow.
Models with electronic control ensure the stability of the water flow and its temperature due to the electronic unit, which regulates the power. Expensive models can also limit the flow of water if necessary.to contents ^
Minimum and maximum water pressure
Too low or too high a head of water can damage the device, therefore manufacturers set the maximum permissible values at which the operation of the water heater is possible. In the absence of proper operating conditions, the heater simply does not turn on.to contents ^
Useful functions ofwater heaters to contents ^
Functions of gas water heaters
The possibilities of gas heaters can be completely different from those of electric water heaters. Gas water heaters can have:
- gas control function( the gas supply automatically stops, if for some reason the flame of the gas burner goes out);
- function of auto ignition( piezopodzhig involves switching on the flame by pressing a button, the electric ignition switches on the burner automatically when the hot water tap is opened);
- built-in gas filter( allows to avoid mechanical particles entering the heater);
- open( with natural draft) or closed( with forced draft) combustion chamber, in modern conditions the second option is preferable.
All of the functions listed below can be typical for gas and electric water heaters, or only for electrical.to contents ^
Activation of this function causes the accumulator water heater to run at full capacity( they usually work in economy mode).Some heaters are equipped with two fans, which greatly reduces the time spent on heating the water.to contents ^
Installed at the inlet of pipes into the device and avoids the entry of mechanical particles into the device.to contents ^
Limitation of water heating temperature
This function allows to avoid accidental burns, and also to regulate the water temperature depending on the season. The function is especially useful if the water heater is used by children.to contents ^
The function prevents the heater from failing. In electric water heaters, a thermostat that automatically switches off the heating element when the water reaches the permissible limit is responsible for this function. In gas columns - a valve that restricts gas access to the burner.to contents ^
The function is relevant for water heaters that are installed in country houses and in dachas used only in the warm season. Preventing freezing is achieved due to weak heating of water in the heater with little electricity consumption.to contents ^
Safety and non-return valves
The safety valve protects the water heater from the expansion water generated during the heating of the overpressure.
The non-return valve prevents the heating element from failing when the water supply suddenly stops, because it closes tightly and the tank does not stay dry.to contents ^
It is built into the body of the storage water heater. The main purpose - anti-corrosion protection. It is a replaceable element( service life from five to eight years).to contents ^
Switch on and heating indicator
A small lamp on the panel that lights up when the appliance is switched on is a power-on indicator. A light bulb that ignites when the water is heated and extinguishes after the end of the process is a heating indicator. These indicators are equipped with almost all modern water heaters. The thermometer is built into the most functional models, which shows to what temperature the water is heated at a particular moment.to contents ^
The display can display a wide variety of information:
- indication of activation;
- current water temperature;
- water flow strength;
- resource magnesium anode.
self-diagnostics The built-in electronic system automatically monitors the operation of the device, and all information is displayed on the liquid crystal display. In the event of a malfunction, the system automatically turns off the power.to contents ^
The delivery set of the water heater may include:
- sink( typical for liquid heaters, characterized by mobility and compactness);
- crane( typical for instantaneous water heaters, output directly from the heater);
- shower head and shower hose( supplied with non-pressure water heaters, can be adjustable, with several water spray options);
- remote control.
Manufacturers of water heaters
Give preference to proven and well-known manufacturers, among them:
Take into account all the important nuances when choosing a water heater, then you can make water procedures as comfortable as possible.