Pistachio trees are considered the most ancient flowering walnut trees. Their ripe fruits are dyed green and have a half-open shell. Pistachios are the only edible nuts that do not need to be exfoliated before cooking. Today, the popularity of pistachios among buyers is fully justified, because they are distinguished by their unique nutty taste, delicate aroma and high nutritional value.
- Varieties and types
- Caloric value
- Nutritional information
- Useful compounds
- Useful properties and application
- Use of pistachios for men
- Use in cooking
- Valuable properties of pistachio oil
- How to choose and store
- Contraindications andharm
- Interesting facts
History of discovery
Man began using pistachios for cooking and treating various diseases for more than 9000 years of Nazie. Pistachio trees grew in the Middle East and Turkey. According to Islamic legends, pistachios first brought Adam to the ground. He took them with him, leaving the garden of Eden. Since then, "smiling nuts" are considered in eastern countries a symbol of joy, wealth and love. In Persia and Syria, pistachios are still a must for celebrations, and they are also used as a wedding souvenir.
In Europe, these miracle nuts were imported in the 1st century AD by the emperor Vitelius and immediately began to be used for cooking delicious dishes. It is known that the Queen of Sheba was a lover of pistachios and grew them on her own land solely for her own use.
Travelers and merchants always took pistachios in their way, which perfectly satisfied hunger, restored strength and well kept.
In the early 20th century pistachios began to be widely cultivated in America. Today, only in California, about 136 million tons of pistachios per year are harvested.to contents ^
Varieties and types
The food world market has 12 main varieties of pistachios. Of these, 8 varieties are cultivated in Iran. Quality varieties of this nut must meet a number of requirements:
- the presence of a thin shell, which spontaneously crack when maturing;
- large size, the average weight of the nut - 1 g, and the length of the fruit - a minimum of 20 mm.
- high yield;
- resistance to pests, diseases and temperature changes.
Pistachio varieties are classified according to their external characteristics: shape and size. The most popular among consumers are the following varieties:
- Akbari - the core of the elliptical nut. The length of the fetus is 24 mm.
- Fandugi - the core of the rounded nut, reaches a length of 32 mm.
- Ahmad-Aghai - the core of the nut is elongated, it has a maximum length of 24 mm.
- Badami - the core of the nut is almond-shaped, reaching a length of 28 mm.
- Kale-Guchi is the core of the rounded nut. The maximum length of the fetus is 26 mm.
Pistachios are divided according to the method of their disclosure into two types:
- Pistachio natural opening. The kernels of these nuts spontaneously open the outer shell after full maturation.
- Pistachio mechanical opening. These nuts are opened after preliminary soaking by mechanical means. Such pistachios have shriveled kernels of small dimensions, as well as low cost.
It is important that the core mass in pistachios of natural opening is 40% larger than in the nuts of mechanical opening.to Contents ^
The use of pistachio for human health is determined by its unique composition. This product is rich in nutrients, minerals and vitamins.to contents ^
Pistachios are a high-calorie product. In 100 grams of the product - 556.3 kcal.to table of contents ^
Pistachios are a natural source of energy and nutrients. In 30 g of this product contains as much fiber as in one serving of oatmeal.
|water Mono and disaccharides||2|
This nut contains vitamins B and vitamin E, which normalize the work of the central nervous system and restore the functions of the organs of vision.
|Substance||Weight( mg / μg)|
|B5( pantothenic acid)||1|
|B9( folic acid)||40|
Pistachios are rich in macroelements and trace elements. Especially much in the nuclei of this nut contains calcium, potassium, phosphorus, copper and boron.
|Substance Weight( mg / g)|
|Sodium Phosphorus Potassium||600|
|Iron Sulfur Zinc||60|
|Copper Manganese Selenium||3,8|
|Boron Molybdenum Vanadium||200|
This product is sold on the shelves in raw, dried, fried, salted and sweetened form. Most of all, there are useful compounds in the kernels of the nut that have not been cooked. The daily rate of nut consumption is about 30 grams.to contents ^
Useful features and applications
Systematic use of this product:
- rejuvenates the body cells;
- reduces the risk of developing cancer;
- inhibits the aging process of the body;
- improves heart function;
- regulates heart rate;
- activates the work of the brain;
- lowers blood sugar levels;
- stabilizes the pressure;
- improves vision;
- helps to cope with stress stress;
- strengthens bones and tooth enamel.
The above properties of pistachios are explained by the presence in its composition of a large number of phenolic compounds, B vitamins and carotenoids.
Doctors-nutritionists are often recommended to include this nut in the diet of people who suffer:
- liver disease;
- with ulcerative colitis;
- with diabetes mellitus;
- infectious diseases;
- skin diseases;
- with macular degeneration;
- pathologies of the cardiovascular system.
Nut kernels have antioxidant, disinfectant, tonic and immunostimulating properties. Pistachios must necessarily be present in the daily menu of the elderly and athletes.to the table of contents ^
Use of pistachios for men
The kernel of this nut contains a lot of zinc and folate salts. These compounds have a beneficial effect on masculine health:
- increases testosterone production;
- improve sperm motility;
- increase sexual activity.
In the eastern countries pistachios are necessarily included in the nutrition of men, since they are considered to be a strong aphrodisiac.to the table of contents ^
Use in cooking
Dishes cooked using pistachios are distinguished by their unique taste and nutritional value. This nut is perfectly combined with meat products, vegetables and fruits. Pistachios can be added to salads, desserts, confectionery and first courses.to contents ^
Valuable properties of pistachio oil
Pistachio oil is used in cosmetology and has the following properties:
- is emollient;
- is anti-inflammatory;
- is wound-healing.
Pistachio oil is effectively used for:
- pigmentation spots on the skin;
- improving the general condition of the skin;
- smoothing of fine wrinkles;
- treatment of cracks and other skin lesions;
- recovery of skin elasticity;
- strengthening of nails;
- activating hair growth;
- treatment of stomatitis.
Oil is used as a basis for the preparation of nutritious cosmetic masks.to the table of contents ^
How to choose and store
When choosing a nut, pay attention to its appearance. Quality pistachios have:
- dark-white color of the inner shell;
- the kernels are green;
- large sizes.
You do not need to buy pistachios if there are cracks, mold marks on their surface or they have an unpleasant rancid smell.
Unclean nut kernels are recommended to be placed in a sealed container and stored in a cool place for 3 months. Pistachios without a shell should also be placed in a sealed package and stored in the refrigerator for 3 months, and in the freezer - 6 months.to table of contents ^
Contraindications and harm
Doctors-nutritionists advise to refrain from unlimited use of pistachios:
- to small children;
- to allergy sufferers;
- to people who are obese and pathologies of the digestive system.
The benefits and harm of pistachios, which are sold in a salty form, are not yet fully understood by dietitians. Excessive consumption of salted walnuts can provoke a person to increase blood pressure, swelling and disruption of the excretory system. Nutritionists are not advised to get involved in salted pistachios and combine this product with beer.to the table of contents ^
Picking pistachio is carried out only at night. During the day, under the influence of sunlight, the leaves of the pistachio tree produce essential oils, the aroma of which causes nausea and dizziness in a person.