Lamblias are small protozoan parasites that can survive and multiply in the upper parts of the small intestine of the duodenum. They are larger in size than bacteria, but they are much smaller than helminths, so they can not be seen with the naked eye. Lamblias live on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, causing its inflammation and irritation. The disease, provoked by these parasites, is called lambliasis. More often giardiasis is found in children than in adults. According to statistics, Giardia infected more than 20% of all children worldwide under 10 years old. Therefore, the question of how to treat lamblia is, to date, very relevant.
Lamblias in children
Most often in children, the cause of infection with Giardia is the non-observance of hygiene rules. These are dirty hands, water, unwashed fruits and vegetables. Also these parasites can pass to the nursing baby from a sick mother through milk and dirty hands. Children are constantly with sources of infection: sandboxes, playgrounds, peers. If your child likes to gnaw everything that comes to him, then the risk of infection is quite large.
Lamblia enter the human body in the form of cysts, which in the small intestine are transformed into active trophozoids. Parasites feed on the microflora of the intestine and live up to 40 days, and then again converted into cysts and excreted with feces. However, in this way, getting rid of them is not possible.
Of the cysts, full-fledged lamblia is transformed only if the composition of the bile is broken or insufficient and untimely release occurs. In healthy bile, cysts do not develop and leave the human body through the intestines, without multiplying and leaving offspring. In children, bile excreting systems lag behind in development, but many of them have this age problem and after a while it will resolve itself. Therefore, in most cases, giardiasis passes with age itself.
The danger of Giardiasis for children is that the lamblia getting into the baby's body begins to reproduce very quickly, and they feed on nutrients that the child needs for full development. Parasites secret toxic substances in the process of vital activity, which suppress the immunity of the child and cause allergies in it. Serious is considered infection, when the number of cysts is more than 10( can reach 100).
Lamblias in children: symptoms of
In most cases, infection with Giardia is asymptomatic. Less common is lambliasis, in which the following symptoms occur:
- Chronic constipation or diarrhea
- Elevated temperature
- Abdominal pain
- Weight loss
- Increased fatigue, apathy
- Chronic dysbacteriosis
- Teeth creaking during sleep
- Increased spleen, liver and lymph nodes
- Attacks of suffocatingcough
- Allergic skin rashes
- Elevated amount of eosinophils in the blood
Not one of these symptoms is not specific. All of them can point to another disease. Therefore, to exclude a lambliasis, it is better to hand over the analysis on ljamblii. If the diagnosis is confirmed, then the doctor will decide how to treat lamblia in a child.
Feces should be collected in the morning in a container of preservatives, which must be taken in advance in the laboratory, or in another clean container. It is important to deliver it as quickly as possible to the hospital. Giardiasis is confirmed if cysts or adult lamblias are found in the stool. The accuracy of this analysis is 50-70%.If three times to repeat the analysis of feces, which was collected on different days, then the accuracy will increase to 90%.To fully verify the absence of parasites, an analysis of feces on lamblia should be made 4 times with an interval of 3 days between each analysis.
It is also recommended to take a stool test for the presence of fragments( antigens) of lamblia. A small sample of feces is needed for the study. This analysis is also recommended to pass 4 times with an interval of 3 days to each collection.
Lamblias in the blood
One week after infection with lamblia, antibodies such as IgM can be found in the patient's blood, and after another 1 week, IgM is replaced with other IgG antibodies that are in the human blood for a long time after recovery. Usually, antibodies to Giardia completely disappear from the blood for 2-6 months. Therefore, antibody analysis is not an accurate diagnostic method. Interpretations and norms for the values of antibody titres against these parasites vary depending on the equipment of the laboratory, for this reason they can only be deciphered by a physician who is familiar with the methods of operation of this laboratory.
For the accuracy of the test, blood must be given in the morning, on an empty stomach. Do not eat for 10 hours before taking the test. Also it is not recommended to drink tea, alcohol, juices and coffee. Blood is drawn from the vein.
Lamblias in children: treatment
Treatment of lambliasis should be an experienced specialist, since this disease is rather insidious. Self-treatment can worsen a child's condition, and the disease will go into a chronic form.
Usually, the doctor prescribes two 10-day courses of antiparasitic drugs such as makmiror, metronidazole, with a break of 5 days. The dosage of drugs depends on the weight and age of the child, determined by the attending physician. On the 4th day of treatment, the child's condition can deteriorate dramatically( by 5 days) due to the disintegration of many lamblia in the intestines and the intake of toxins, as well as allergens into the blood. At this time, it is recommended to give the patient laxatives. After treatment, a second examination is carried out, if necessary, tinidazole is prescribed for the purpose of prevention.
In the treatment of giardiasis in children, a big role is played by diet. It is recommended to exclude from the ration of the child:
- Carbonated drinks
- Sausages, sausage
- Whole milk
- Fried dishes, canned food
- Bakery products
The patient needs more sour-milk products, fruits and berries, as the acid is harmful to lamblia. To restore the normal intestinal microflora, it is necessary to take probiotics. To strengthen immunity, you should drink a course of vitamins.
Pediatricians recommend not treating a lambliasis in a child, if he feels normal, as any drugs have a negative effect on the liver and cause various side effects. But if the amount of lamblia in the analysis is large and there is a pronounced symptomatology, then it is necessary to take antiparasitic agents. These drugs are very toxic, so you should strictly follow the dosage.
Ljamblii: symptoms in adults
In adults, giardiasis is asymptomatic in most cases. In cases where the lamblia is fixed in the intestine, you may see:
- Nausea, weight loss
- Stool disorder
- Mucus in the feces
- Abdominal pain
- Fatigue and weakness
During the first month of developing lambliasis, most people disappear and the disease passesin a chronic form, which periodically causes bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea. The patient has signs of a lack of vitamins:
- Pale skin
- Blue under the eyes
- Snails in the corners of the mouth
- Allergic rashes
Lamblings interfere with the normal functioning of the intestine. They release metabolic products that are toxic to humans.
Lamblias: treatment of adults
With acute lambliasis, detoxification measures are performed, suction and digestion processes are restored. With this form of the disease prescribe drugs with a probiotic effect( fazizhin, furozolidone, trichopol).But acute giardiasis is extremely rare. More often, chronic lambliasis is detected. Treatment of lamblia in adults, when the disease is in this form, consists of 3 stages.
- The first stage is preparatory. It is 1-2 weeks and is aimed at eliminating toxicosis, improving the enzymatic activity of the intestine, correcting the immune status. At this stage it is necessary to observe a diet aimed at worsening the reproduction of parasites( vegetable oil, vegetables, dried fruits, porridges).The amount of carbohydrates consumed should be limited.
- The second stage. It takes from 5 to 10 days. Antiparasitic therapy with such drugs as trichopolum and furazolidone is carried out. At the same time, measures are taken to reduce the allergic reaction of the body to intoxication from the effects of drugs.
- Third stage. It lasts 2-3 weeks, its purpose - to increase the body's defenses. Conditions are created that prevent the proliferation of lamblia. It is recommended to follow a diet, which improves the intestinal peristalsis( vegetables, fruits, baked apples, dairy products, vegetable and fruit purées, cereals).To increase the immunity apply herbal preparations and multivitamin complexes. Cope with dysbacteriosis will help probiotics, enzymes and prebiotics.
If lamblias were found in adults that caused intestinal dysfunction, the following medicines are most often used:
- Furazolidone. Possible side effects: itching, nausea, rashes on the skin.
- Metronidazole. It is most effective and low toxicity in the treatment of Giardiasis. Possible side effects: vomiting, nausea, headache, bad taste in the mouth and insomnia.
- Nemosol. He has a wide range of possible side effects. This is a headache, fever, a violation of the liver and others.
- Tiberal. It takes two days. Side effects are mild. Occasionally there is a distortion of taste sensations, skin reactions, changes in hepatic functional tests and hypersensitivity reactions.
- Macmirror.7 days are accepted. Side effects: vomiting, nausea, bitterness in the mouth, heartburn, diarrhea, itching, skin rash, gastralgia.
Lamblias in the liver
Many believe that lamblia in the liver, the presence symptoms of which are very much reminiscent of the manifestations of cholelithiasis, can cause cirrhosis and cholecystitis. But this is not so. Near the liver are bile ducts, which can become inflamed and there is a feeling that discomfort comes from the liver.
Modern studies have shown that lamblia can not live in an intact gallbladder and ducts, since bile kills them. Therefore, giardiasis is not able to cause severe liver disorders, cholecystocholangitis and nervous system damage.
Lamblias are associated with intense parietal digestion, which occurs at the surface of the small intestine epithelium. Their life activity is provided by products of membrane origin, and they can not survive in other organs. Lambliasis of the gallbladder and liver is practically not possible.
Ljamblii: treatment folk remedies
How to get rid of lamblia will tell folk medicine.
- Garlic must be crushed and a little diluted with warm water. In this mixture, moisten cotton wool or a tampon and insert it into the anal canal for 20 minutes. The procedure should be done after the toilet, 2 times a day. In order not to irritate tissues with garlic, you should periodically treat them with cream. This method is also suitable for treating children.
- Scrape off the pulp from half the coconut, then grind it on a grater and add to coconut milk. Store the product preferably in the refrigerator( about 2 days).Take three times a day on a teaspoon before eating. After a week of taking a break for 2 weeks, then you should resume treatment.
- Take in equal proportions dried cloves and flax seeds, grind everything in a coffee grinder. This phyto drug can be added a few spoonfuls of food or eaten dry, with a sip. Take 3 days after 3 days.
- 1 tablespoon chopped dandelion root is added to 1 cup boiling water. This infusion is heated in a water bath for 15 minutes( it is necessary to stir all the time).Then the broth cools and filters. This infusion is stored in the refrigerator for 1 day.
- Mix the same amount of gruel from horseradish and garlic. A quarter cup of this mixture should be added to a half liter of vodka. Infuse for 1.5 weeks, then drain. Use 3 times a day for a tablespoon 20 minutes before meals, tincture should be diluted with water a little.
Folk methods are good at fighting lamblias, but self-medication can be dangerous, so it's best to seek the advice of an experienced doctor.
Prevention of Giardiasis
In order not to become infected with Giardia, it is necessary to follow a few simple rules:
- Observe sanitary and hygienic standards
- Drink only boiled or filtered tap water
- Thoroughly wash all fruits and vegetables
- Teach children basic hygienic skills( wash handsbefore eating, do not gnaw on nails, etc.)
- Do not swallow water while swimming in a pond.
Remember, it is much easier to prevent a disease than to treat it later. Video on the subject: