Age 5 years, psychologists call the senior preschool age and advise parents, first of all, pay attention to the intellectual development of the five-year-old child, his cognitive abilities and communication skills, because very soon the baby will have one of the most important tests in life - enrollment in school.
- Physical development
- Mental development
- Speech development
- World around
- Mental development
- Self-service skills
Five-year preschoolers - both boys and girls - are actively growing, hardly recovering. The age-related physical development of a five-year-old child can be judged by growth and weight. Normally, boys five years weigh from 16.4 to 19.7 kg, and girls - from 15.4 to 19 kg. The growth of five-year-olds should be from 106 to 116 cm( for boys) and from 102 to 111 cm( for girls).The circumference of the chest varies in five-year-old boys in sizes from 52 to 57 cm, in girls from 51.6 to 56.6 cm.
. The baby's motor skills are no less important for normal physical development.
So, normally a child in five years should be able to:
- quickly run 40-60 m;
- run without stopping for 60-90 seconds;
- is free to stand on one leg;
- vigorously bounce in place on one or two legs;
- to jump forward;
- jump over 4-6 parallel lines, located at a distance of 40-50 cm;
- jump from a height of 20-30 cm;
- dexterously jump from foot to foot;
- climb on the gym wall;
- pass, keeping balance, on a gym bench;
- step over obstacles, located at an altitude of 20-35 cm from the floor( for example, through the ladder rails);
- confidently climb and descend the stairs, perhaps with objects in hand;
- toss and catch the ball and small items;
- throw the ball at a distance of 2-2.5 m, aiming at the horizontal target;
- to throw the ball into the distance for a distance of 3 to 6 m alternately with the right and left hand;
- begin to develop a two-wheeled bicycle.
At this age the child is sufficiently developed in order to master new physical exercises and new sports. This is the best time for learning to ride a two-wheeled bike, skiing, cross-country skiing, swimming and even riding. At the same time, it is necessary to devote enough time and energy to the development of the small motor skills of the baby.
So, for the development of fine motor skills, a five year old child should be able to:
- freely handle pen, pencil and brush;
- adjust the force of pressure on the pen, pencil and brush, change the direction of movement of your hand depending on the shape of the object;
- neatly cut out scissors figures of different shapes;
- draw simple objects and figures from life;
- position your drawing on the whole sheet or on a specific piece of paper;
- shaded or shaded drawings neatly, without going beyond the boundaries of their contours;
- navigate in notebooks in a ruler or in a cage.
Mental development of
In five years the child makes a big breakthrough in his mental development. This is an important period of preparation for the school and the requirements that it makes for the child. The intellectual development of five-year-old children comes to the fore and requires constant training and improvement of knowledge in various fields.to contents ^
At the age of five the child must:
- know the numbers up to 10;
- use in speech numerals( ordinal and quantitative);
- compare within 10 adjacent numbers;
- navigate the sheet of paper;
- describe in words the location of a particular object in relation to its relation to other subjects and to itself;
- know all the basic geometric shapes( square, circle, triangle, oval, rhombus, rectangle);
- know arithmetic signs and how to use them.
Normally, a child of five years old must:
- articulate and correctly pronounce all sounds;
- speak expressively and slowly;
- make up the story, based on your own memories and experience;
- draw a picture of 5-6 sentences;
- remember counters;
- recognize at least half the letters of the alphabet;
- to enjoy the past, present and future time.
The world around
At this age the child must:
- know their own first and last names, names, surnames and patronymics of parents and close people from their environment;
- to know what sex it is;
- to know the name of your country, city and your personal home address;
- know your age;
- to know the age of the parents;
- know the names of all the major professions and their distinctive features;
- know who their parents are working with;
- to know the main rules of the road;
- call a group of objects one general word;
- know and call the sequence of seasons;
- know and call months;
- know and call the time sequence of the day;
- to know and call the sequence of days of the week;
- understand what living and inanimate nature means.
By the age of five the baby is growing up before your eyes. Now he increasingly controls his own behavior, according to the established rules and norms. He can independently distinguish a good deed from a bad, showing a sense of justice and compassion. At this age, he asks quite adult, serious questions. For example, about death. The child begins to worry about all the living things that surround him, he pities the lonely people and abandoned animals. Very often, five-year-olds bring homeless kittens and puppies home. They are afraid of any manifestation of death and try to help those they can. This is how five-year-olds, as psychologists say, show a sense of loneliness and a fear of the end of their own lives and those around them.
The basic mental functions of the child continue to develop.to contents ^
At 5 years old the child must:
- keep simultaneously in the field of view at least 6-7 items;
- independently carry out the task on the suggested adult example;
- independently find 4-5 pairs of identical items;
- perform, without interruption, certain tasks within 10-12 minutes;
- find at least 7-8 differences between the proposed items;
- independently add pictures, puzzles or cards, cut into at least 9 parts;
- on the model to collect from the designer any design or shape.
At 5 years old the child should be able to:
- determine the sequence of events;
- find one of the proposed four items one more and explain their choice;
- to select words-synonyms and words-antonyms;
- find and explain inconsistencies in the pictures;
- find and explain the differences between phenomena and objects;
- to solve proposed logical problems and answer complex questions.
In 5 years the child should be able to:
- remember 6-8 pictures for a certain amount of time( from 1 to 2 minutes);
- retell close to the content of a small story;
- know and recite several poems;
- compare on memory two different images.
A five-year-old child is quite an independent little man, capable of dressing himself and wearing shoes, brushing his teeth, brushing his teeth and washing. In addition, he must accustom himself to discipline and perform simple assignments for maintenance in the order of his things and room.
So, at the age of five the child can clean up his own bed, keep his toys in order - add them after the game and even wipe the dust on the shelves where they stand. A five-year-old is able to help with home help: water the flowers, wash the supports from under the flower pots, wipe the dust in the apartment and even vacuum or sweep the floor. With special pleasure, five-year-olds help adults in serving the table, preparing dishes and decorating the house for the holiday.