Almost every person in his life took antibiotics at least once in his life. Without these drugs, treatment of angina, sinusitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis, sepsis, abscess and other infectious diseases, many of which cause serious complications or can lead to death, is not enough. However, many people do not know how to properly take antibiotics, and use them when self-medication, harming the body.
Antibiotics are a wide range of drugs that are directed against microorganisms. They are divided into 2 main groups by the degree of activity:
- Preparations with a narrow spectrum have selective action and destroy only 1-3 types of bacteria.
- Antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action are more effective medicines, however, along with pathogenic microbes, useful microorganisms of the intestine also strike.
When to take
Antibiotics are prescribed for acute inflammations of a bacterial nature, after surgical interventions to avoid the development of infection, etc. The use of this group of drugs in viral infections is necessary only in those cases when a secondary complicated infection joins them, that is, the organism is poisoned by toxic wastes of vital activity of viruses. This condition is indicated by the following symptoms: high temperature return, increased cough, severe pain in the ears, throat, dyspnoea, etc.
Initially, experts are trying to appoint a drug with a narrow and precise range of activities, as the bacteria quickly become resistant to a particular drug or a variety of substances. If such an antibiotic does not give an effect, a stronger drug with an extended spectrum of action is prescribed.to the table of contents ^
- Only a doctor can prescribe the drug, its dosage and the regimen of admission, which can distinguish a viral infection from a bacterial infection and select the right antibiotic.
- The result of self-medication can be weakened immunity and suppression of the natural intestinal microflora. For the same reasons, antibiotics should not be used as an antipyretic agent and for preventive purposes.
- You can not replace one antibiotic with another or increase the dosage on your own or at the suggestion of a pharmacist. Eat drug
- need exactly according to instructions or prescribed by a doctor, usually 2-3 times a day at regular intervals, regardless of the meal.
- If there is no direct indication how to take an antibiotic, then the general recommendation is 1.5-2 hours before meals. The drugs interact differently with the gastric acid medium and some of them are not resistant to the effects of gastric juice.
- Antibiotics are washed down only with pure, non-carbonated water at room temperature. Other beverages can react with active substances, reducing their activity or causing poisoning. So the milk delays the action of antibiotics, and the substances of the tetracycline series are almost completely neutralized. Orthophosphoric acid, which is contained in some juices, in combination with antibiotics creates toxic compounds. Similar restrictions are on sour-milk drinks, hot tea and coffee.
- When the improvement and disappearance of all symptoms of the disease before the deadline for receipt of antibiotics can not stop taking them. Pathogenic microorganisms can not be removed until the end, and they have developed resistance to the used drug. As a result, a relapse of the disease is possible, and another and more powerful drug will be needed for its treatment.
Side effects of
Taking antibiotics can cause the following unpleasant consequences:
- Development of an allergic reaction: itching, rashes, Quincke's edema, breathing disorder, anaphylactic shock.
- Digestive tract disorder: vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, pain or discomfort in the abdomen, the appearance of an impurity of blood in the stool.
- Nephrotoxic effect( negative effect on the kidneys), which manifests itself: a rare or frequent urination, increased thirst, the appearance of blood clots in the urine, etc.
- Hepatotoxic effect( negative effect on the liver), manifested by the following reactions: increased body temperature, jaundice, increased transaminase level in the blood, deterioration in general condition, sensation of pain in the right hypochondrium.
- Ototoxic effect( negative effect on hearing), manifests itself: noise in the ears, impaired coordination, hearing loss or complete loss of hearing.
- Urologic candidiasis( thrush) and candidiasis of the oral cavity, its development is associated with the suppression of normal microflora, which leads to uncontrolled growth of Candida fungus.
- Changes in blood counts: a decrease in the level of platelets, white blood cells, erythrocytes.
- Other unpleasant effects, such as insomnia, headache, cramps, trembling of the fingers are rare.
- Individual intolerance of the components of preparations.
- Formed resistance to antibiotics of one or another series.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Chronic diseases of the kidneys and liver.
- Drinking alcohol.
With what it is impossible to take
- Sorbents and antacids( activated charcoal, smect, etc.) reduce the activity of antibacterial drugs, so they can not be taken simultaneously.
- Simultaneous use of blood thinners( aspirin, etc.), and antibiotics of cephalosporin and penicillin series increases the risk of bleeding.
- Tetracyclines, penicillins and rifampicins reduce the effectiveness of all oral contraceptives, so it is necessary to change this method of protection for the period of treatment.
To restore the microflora
As a result of antibacterial therapy, the number of "beneficial" bacteria in the intestine is reduced, which often leads to the development of various unpleasant consequences: diarrhea, bloating, discomfort, etc. Therefore, during treatment with antibiotics for food, you need to consume more fermented milk products( yogurt, kefir) and less carbohydrates.
Also in conjunction with an antibacterial drug, it is recommended to take medications that help restore the natural intestinal microflora, that is, probiotics, for example Bifidumbacterin, Linex, etc.
Alcoholic beverages and antibacterial drugs are incompatible, as they increase the risk of any side effect, Example, abdominal pain, nausea, dizziness, etc.
When taking antibiotics such as Trimethoprim, Metronidazole, etc., it is forbidden to drink alcohol, there is a risk of serious consequences: rapid heartbeat, sweating, severe vomiting, etc.
Many antibiotics, penetrating the placenta, have a negative effect on fetal development. Also antibacterial drugs can penetrate into breast milk, which will negatively affect the development of the baby. Therefore, the intake of antibiotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding is possible only on indications and with the permission of a specialist.to the table of contents ^
What antibiotics should be taken to treat a child should be decided only by an experienced specialist, since some types of antibacterial agents can be extremely toxic to a small organism. Also, the doctor prescribes and what to take the baby with antibiotics.