Peanuts: properties, benefits and harm

Delicious and nutritious peanuts are mistakenly called nuts. In fact, peanuts are an annual herbaceous plant of the legume family. From beans and peas, this plant is distinguished by the structure of the flower and the process of fruit formation. The fruits of peanuts ripen underground and resemble a small thick-walled cocoon. Often peanuts are called peanuts.


Contents:
  • History
  • grades Composition
  • Caloric value
  • Nutritional information
  • Useful compounds
  • Cooking
  • Useful properties and applications
  • Use of peanuts in cooking
  • Use of peanut butter
  • How to choose and store
  • Contraindications and harm
  • Interesting facts

Opening history

Scientists suggest that the birthplace of this product is South America. This scientific hypothesis is confirmed by the ancient vase found in Peru, which in shape resembles an earthen peanut. The Spanish conquerors brought peanuts from South America to Europe. Europeans immediately appreciated the taste qualities of this product and began to use it for the preparation of various nutritious dishes.

After a while, the Portuguese brought a peanut to Africa. This culture was not only used by Africans for cooking, but was also used to enrich the soil with valuable nitrogen.


In China, peanuts appeared in 1530 and became a popular food product among the wealthy citizens of the country. In 1825, peanuts began to grow on the territory of Russia.

In 1903, in the southern states of the United States, peanuts became the main cash crop due to the experimental and research activities of George Washington Carver. The famous agrochemist invented about 300 peanut products. Among them were cosmetics, drinks, medicines, dyes and even topographic paint.

Today, the main producers of peanuts are Nigeria, India, USA, China and Indonesia.

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Sorts

The most popular among consumers are the following varieties of peanuts:

  1. Runner. This variety is characterized by high yield. The fruits of peanuts are medium in size, easily fried and most often used for the production of peanut butter. Ranner grows in the southern and eastern United States.
  2. Virginia. The fruits of this variety are of large size and are used for the production of salted nuts and confectionery.
  3. Valencia. This variety is grown in Mexico and the USA.The fruits of peanuts are large and have excellent taste. Most often, the variety Valencia is used for the production of boiled peanuts.
  4. Spanish. The fruits of this variety of peanuts differ strongly pronounced taste, small size and high content of oils. Cultivated in South and North America.
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Composition

The composition of peanut contains valuable amino acids, vegetable fats, minerals, vitamins and other compounds.

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Caloric value

Peanuts are high-calorie foods. In 100 grams - 552 kcal.

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Nutritional value of

Peanuts are rich in fats, vegetable protein, carbohydrates, fiber. This product does not include cholesterol.

Substance Weight( g)
Proteins 26,3
Fats 45,2
Carbohydrates 9,9
Dietary fibers 8.1
Water 7.9
Ash 2,6
Saturated fatty acids 8, 3
Mono- and disaccharides 4.2
Starch 5.7


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Useful connections

The fruits of peanut are saturated with vitamins of group B, vitamin C, E and PP.Peanuts are rich in choline, which stabilizes the functions of the central nervous system.

Substance Weight( mg / μg)
B1( thiamine) 0.74
B2( riboflavin) 0.11
B5( pantothenic acid) 1.767
B6( pyridoxine) 0.348
B9( folic acid) 240
C 5.3
E 10.1
PP 18,9
Choline 52,5

The composition of the peanut contains valuable minerals. Especially rich in peanuts iron, copper, potassium and selenium.

Substance Weight( mg / g)
76
Calcium Magnesium 182
23
Sodium Phosphorus Potassium 658
350
Zinc Iron 5
3,27
1144
Copper Manganese Selenium 1,934
7,2
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Culinary processing

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Ground nut is most often used in raw, boiled or fried form.

To cook the boiled peanuts, rinse the raw fruits with water and put them into a deep container. Then fill it with water so that it covers all the peanuts. Add 15 grams of table salt to the container. Cook the fruit for 2 hours. It has been experimentally proved that in the cooked peanuts the amount of antioxidants-polyphenols increases 4-fold.

Fry raw peanuts in a well-heated oven or frying pan for up to 15 minutes. In this case, peanuts periodically mix with a wooden spatula.

Inshell peanuts are best cooked for 25 minutes in a preheated 180 degree oven.

The benefits and harms of peanuts directly depend on the amount of product that you consume throughout the day. A day is recommended not to eat more than 40 grams of peanuts.

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Useful properties and application of

The use of peanut for human health is high. Daily use of this product:

  • restores the work of the nervous system;
  • regulates the hormonal process;
  • improves sexual potency;
  • increases blood clotting;
  • strengthens the body's immune responses;
  • prevents the development of sclerosis;
  • maintains a normal microflora in the small intestine;
  • improves memory;
  • increases the vascular tone;
  • helps to get rid of insomnia;
  • relieves stress;
  • improves liver and gastrointestinal function.

The peanut contains a valuable natural phytoalexin - resveratrol. This compound:

  • reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases of the circulatory system;
  • weakens the inflammatory process in diseases of the respiratory system.

Ground nut is rich in polyphenols, which protect the body from:

  • the appearance of malignant tumors;
  • development of atherosclerosis;
  • premature aging;
  • development of diseases of the circulatory system.
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Useful properties of peanuts can be used for bodybuilders and weightlifters, because this product includes an easily digestible protein, which is an excellent building material for muscles.

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Use of peanuts in cooking

Ground nut is used for the preparation of spicy sauces, confectionery, halva, salads and hot dishes. Especially popular among lovers of peanuts is a nutritious and aromatic peanut butter, which is made from roasted and then crushed peanuts. Peanut paste also adds salt, sugar and vegetable oils.

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Use of peanut butter

Peanut butter is a nutritious and dietary product that is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, biotin, selenium and lecithin. This product is recommended by dieticians to be added to salads, pastries and soups. Peanut butter is characterized by a high degree of combustion, so it is used for frying.

Peanut oil is used in cosmetology for:

  • skin cell regeneration;
  • smoothing of fine wrinkles;
  • increase the elasticity and elasticity of the skin;
  • activation of protective functions of the epidermis;
  • manufacturing of nutrient masks;
  • improve the condition of hair and nails.

Peanut butter is also used as an effective massage oil.

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How to choose and store

Qualitative peanuts should not be wet, deformed and have a rancid smell. Do not buy a product that is damaged by insects or on which traces of mold are present.

If you choose peanuts in a shell, it should not be very light and rattling when shaken. On the surface of the shell there should be no holes or stains.

It is best to store peanuts in an airtight container. In the refrigerator, peanuts will retain their useful properties for 3 months, and in the freezer - 6 months.

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Contraindications and harm to

Nutritionists prohibit peanuts from people who suffer from:

  • obesity;
  • chronic gastrointestinal diseases;
  • gout;
  • by arthrosis;
  • by arthritis;
  • is an allergy.

In the diet of the baby, groundnut can be injected only from the age of 4 with no allergic reactions.

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Interesting facts

Roasted peanut contains 25% more valuable polyphenol than in the unprocessed product.

To produce 250 ml of peanut butter, you need to use more than 540 nuts. According to statistics, 40 million Americans use peanut butter daily in the United States.

Yana

I have chronic problems with GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. I was using peanuts in large numbers because of ignorance, my skin reacted to this overeating - painful rashes. I read the article, and now I realized that I was generally not allowed to use this nut. .. 🙁 And it's a pity, he's so delicious.

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  • Jun 01, 2018
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