Antibiotics are a group of strong natural or synthetic drugs that can suppress the growth of some microorganisms or provoke their death. Without the use of such substances can not do in cases of severe disease in children with bacterial origin: sinusitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, bronchitis, otitis media, sinusitis, whooping cough, pneumonia, meningitis, etc.
- When giving
- penicillin group
- macrolides How to take
- How often can give
- more dangerous for infants
- How to increase immunity after treatment
Antibiotics are treated is not all infectionstional disease. So, the causative agent of diphtheria, fungal diseases, tetanus and botulism in children are toxins. The cause of sinusitis and inflammatory diseases of the bronchial mucosa are viruses. Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, ears and throat, accompanied by febrile conditions, are more likely to be caused by the action of bacteria. Antibiotics affect only the microorganisms and protozoa useless for viral diseases such as influenza, hepatitis B, chicken pox, herpes, rubella, measles.
Thus, if the child has just started a runny nose, has a sore throat or fever, do not immediately use antibiotics. In addition, after the course of one of the drugs of a certain number in the body, the resistance( resistance) of the pathogens to the given drug is gradually developed and the sensitivity to the whole series is weak. Therefore, the appointment of antibiotics for ARVI in children is justified only if the bacterial flora has joined the infection, and this usually does not occur until 3-4 days of the disease.to contents ^
However, doctors do not always have such an opportunity, since the results of smears can be expected only 3-7 days after delivery, and the child's condition is critical at this time in this case prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics.to contents ^
This is the main category of antibiotics that are prescribed to children with respiratory diseases. Penicillins interfere with the synthesis of the basic substances that form part of the cellular membranes of pathogenic bacteria, thereby causing their death.
- Amoxicillin - is prescribed for bacterial diseases of the upper respiratory tract, ENT organs( tonsillitis, pharyngitis, otitis, etc.), genitourinary system( cystitis), gastric( peritonitis, enterocolitis), infectious infections of the skin and soft tissues. Can be administered to children older than 2 years.
- Flemoxin Solutab is a new generation of amoxicillin, which can be prescribed to children from 1 year of age. It is used to suppress pathogenic bacteria( staphylococci, streptococci), treatment of pneumonia, etc.
- Augmentin is a broad-spectrum drug prescribed for children from the first days of life( in the form of drops).Has bacteriolytic( destroying) properties in relation to aerobic, anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative strains. According to the instructions, it is contraindicated in patients with severe impairment of liver and kidney function.
- Amoxiclav is a combined antibiotic for the treatment of sinusitis, acute abscesses, otitis, bronchitis, infections of the genitourinary system, skin, bones, joints, for prophylaxis after surgical interventions. Children are appointed from the first days of life in the form of a suspension.
semisynthetic antibiotic having a greater resistance toenzymes, which produce pathogenic microorganisms. The mechanism of their action is to suppress the growth of bacteria and their ability to reproduce. Assign with ineffectiveness of antibiotics of the previous group, during 2-3 previous months.
- Cefuroxime is an antibiotic with a broad bactericidal effect on strains of microorganisms insensitive to penicillins. It is prescribed for ENT diseases, infections of the upper respiratory tract, urogenital system, gastric tract, etc. Can be used orally, intravenously and intramuscularly since birth.
- Aksetil - is indicated for sinusitis, angina, otitis, stomatitis, pneumonia, urinary tract, skin, etc. Antibiotic dosage is prescribed individually, based on the severity of the disease and the characteristics of the patient's body. Appointed from birth.
- Zinaceph - is prescribed from the infant age in the appropriate body weight dosages for bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, otitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis and other diseases. When using the drug, it is necessary to constantly monitor the activity of the liver and kidneys, can cause dysbacteriosis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Zinnat is an antibiotic with broad bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, children are appointed in suspension from birth.
- Ikzyme is an antimicrobial agent of the third generation. It is used to suppress infectious processes in acute and chronic pathologies of the pulmonary system, ENT organs, urinary tracts, intestines. Allowed for use by children from 6 months.
- Suprax is an antibiotic for children older than 6 months. It is prescribed for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the throat, nose, ears, respiratory system, etc. It constantly requires control over the functions of the kidneys and liver.
- Ceftriaxone - is prescribed for the treatment of infections of the ENT organs, respiratory tract, skin, genitourinary system, with abscesses, for prophylaxis after surgical interventions. It is administered intramuscularly or intravenously to children from birth.
- Sumamed is a new generation antibiotic, it is prescribed for children in suspension with angina, sinusitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, bronchitis, otitis media, infectious dermatosis, etc.
- Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum drug for the treatment of respiratory infections, ENT organs, skinintegument and genitourinary system.
- Chemomycin is a drug with a pronounced bacteriostatic effect on groups of staphylococci, streptococci, gynococci, meningococci. It is prescribed to infants from 6 months.
- Clacid - used to suppress infectious processes of the upper and lower respiratory tract, as well as skin. According to the instructions assigned to children older than 3 years.
How to take
To take antibiotics without harming the developing body of the child, parents should know a few basic rules for taking these drugs:
- The course of treatment with an antibiotic is at least 5 days, a maximum of 14( in severe cases).If even on day 3 of the admission the child is much better, in no case should not stop treatment for at least 48 hours. If the medication is taken incorrectly( unauthorized dose reduction, failure to adhere to the regimen or incomplete course of treatment), only the weakest microorganisms die, although temporary improvement in health is noted. The remaining bacteria mutate, adapt to the previously taken medicine and no longer respond to it. It is necessary to look for a substitute, increase the dose or try an antibiotic of a completely different series.
- The antibiotic should be taken at the same time every day. If you need to take the medicine 2 times a day, then you need to do this exactly every 12 hours.
- If the preparation is given to small children in the form of a suspension or drops, the contents of the vial are thoroughly mixed until the liquid becomes uniform and the whole precipitate dissolves.
- Almost all antibiotics should be taken with food or immediately after it, with plenty of water( not tea, compote, milk, juice or mineral water).
- To maintain a normal level of intestinal microflora and avoid the development of dysbacteriosis in a child should be in parallel to take bifido- or lactobacillus( appointed by a doctor).
- At the time of taking antibiotics it is advisable to keep the child on a diet: to exclude fatty, fried, smoked food, acidic fruits. The use of antibiotics in itself greatly inhibits the function of the liver, and heavy food significantly increases the load.
- Any antibacterial drugs are prescribed only by a doctor. Dosage is calculated based on the severity of the disease, the characteristics of the body and the general condition of the child.
- If there is no improvement within 48-72 hours after the onset of antibiotics, the doctor should be consulted immediately to correct the treatment. The same actions of parents and if a child has an allergic reaction or other side effects.
- It is always necessary to record when, what drugs, which course was taken before, whether there were allergic reactions or other side effects in children.
How often to give
The less often antibiotics used to treat children, the better. Over time, any antibacterial drug develops resistance in pathogens, which can complicate the treatment of diseases for the rest of their lives. Another argument "against" - a big load on the growing body of the child.
Some advice for parents on taking antibiotics:
- if the disease is not very serious, antibiotic drugs should be avoided;
- if the child has never been given antibiotics, then therapy should be started with the weakest medication, but the doctor prescribes the choice of the drug and its dosage;
- after the treatment for some time, the child should be given probiotics to restore normal microflora and absorbent drugs( Enterosgel or Polysorb) to remove toxins and decay products of pathogenic bacteria from the liver and body;
- with the next serious illness the doctor will prescribe the child a stronger drug;
- recently appeared a lot of antibacterial drugs for local use( for example, a spray for the throat Bioparox, drops in the nose of Isofra, Polidex, drops for the ears of Sophradex, Garazon, Fluimutsil antibiotic IT for inhalations, etc.) less noticeably affecting the children's body.
- is dangerous. It is not recommended for children to take antibiotics of the aminoglycoside group, which have a negative impact on the hearing and kidney system of the child. These include Kanamycin and Gentamicin.
- Children under the age of 8 are not allowed to prescribe tetracycline antibiotics( doxycycline, tetracycline, minocycline).The latter can contribute to the thinning of tooth enamel, as well as slowing the growth of the skeleton.
- Taking levomycetin can lead to the development of aplastic anemia in children.
- To the category of antibiotics banned for children are also fluorinated quinolones( pefloxacin, ofloxacin), they disrupt the normal development of cartilage of the joints.
All these groups of antibiotics are prescribed to children only in exceptional cases, when the disease can not be treated with other drugs, and the benefit of taking an antibiotic outweighs the possible risk.
Babies are prescribed antibiotics only in extremely severe cases. They are usually administered orally( considered the most gentle method) in the form of suspensions or drops. The finished mixture has a limited shelf life, so in pharmacies it is sold in the form of a vial with a powder for dilution of the suspension. After the end of treatment the drug is no longer suitable for long-term storage. If there are reasons why a child can not take the medicine through the mouth, he is given injections.
Drugs approved for use in infants:
- Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Cefuroxime, Ascetil, Ceftriaxone, Sumamed - from the first days of life;
- Ikzim, Zinnat, Panzef, Hemomycin - from 6 months;
- Flemoxin - from 1 year;
- Amoxicillin - from 2 years;
- Clacid - from 3 years.
How to increase the immunity after treatment
Widely used probiotic preparations:
- Lineks - restores natural intestinal flora, eliminates diarrhea in a child after taking antibiotics. Can be appointed from the first days of life.
- Bifiform - promotes the colonization of bacteria that produce lactic and acetic acid, which prevents the propagation of pathogens. Approved for use in newborns.
- Bifidumbacterin - restores the flora, improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, has immunomodulatory properties. Can be appointed from the first days of life.
- Lactiv-ratopharm - contains bifido- and lactobacilli, positively affects the microflora and the entire body of the child. Prescribed for children from 2 years.
- Hilak - normalizes the pH-balance of the stomach, suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria. It is prescribed for children from birth.
Simultaneously with taking antibiotics, children with low immunity are shown to use drugs that increase the body's resistance to infectious and non-infectious infections, and tissue regeneration.
The main groups of immunomodulators:
- Interferon - prevents the infection of the body by infections, increases the protective forces. It is prescribed for children from 1 year.
- Immunoglobulin - contains many antibodies that successfully resist pathogens and viruses. Can be prescribed to children from the first days of life.
- Anaferon is a homeopathic immunomodulator that increases the level of antibodies in the body. It is authorized to use from 6 months.
- Aflubin is a complex homeopathic preparation that possesses immunostimulating, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory properties. It is prescribed for children from birth.