Solar and other types of burns are the reaction of the skin to excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, chemicals, large positive or negative temperatures, and electricity. The drugstore sells a lot of drugs that eliminate redness, pain and burning of the skin. If there is no possibility to use them, people's means come to help.
- Types burns
- Solar Thermal Electric
- for children
Typesburns to contents ^
Together with ionizing( radiation) are radiation burns radiation group. Occur due to the penetration of a part of the ultraviolet rays into the surface layers of the skin. As a result, the blood vessels expand, and the blood plasma can go beyond them, forming blisters. There is also an allergic reaction to radiation - activated mast cells containing histamine, which leads to redness and pain.
Most often, the face, nose, forehead, cheekbones, chin burns in the sun or in the solarium. On the body are the shoulders, the back surface of the neck, the upper back and chest, the front part of the thighs. In these places the first appear redness, painful at the touch, a feeling of tightness or crackling of the skin. A sunburn does not appear immediately, but 2-8 hours after sunburn.
In the skin of people, depending on their phototype, there is a different level of melanin( the pigment responsible for darkening the skin).Melanin absorbs ultraviolet, protecting the deep layers of the skin from its harmful effects. Red-haired, freckled people and blondes usually have fair skin, and burn faster than brown-eyed brunettes.
Sun burns are generally not deep and do not require hospitalization. However, in some cases it is necessary to consult a doctor:
- The appearance of blisters with a diameter of more than 5 centimeters.
- Significant lesion of the face or 50% of the body surface.
- Appearance of dry mouth, delay of urination.
- Acquisition of skin wrinkles wrinkled or saggy type.
- Increase in temperature to 39 degrees or more, headache, nausea, impaired consciousness( in this case, we can assume a sunstroke).
Occur due to high temperatures. The striking factors are:
- Flame .This includes a burn both from the fire of a match, and from a forest fire. Depending on the scale, eyes, respiratory tract( on the pharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, the thermal agent, on the trachea, bronchi, and alveoli - combustion products) can be affected. When treating the wound, it is important to separate the fibers of the clothing from the affected tissues of the face and body so that they do not cause the infection in the future.
- Liquid ( boiling water, hot oil, boiling jam).In some cases, the skin lesion is quite deep, reaching the third degree.
- Steam .The area of the burn can be large, but relatively shallow. Often suffer respiratory tract.
- Incandescent objects ( iron, curling iron, teapot, coals).The area of damage is limited by the size of the object and usually has clear boundaries. The depth can reach the highest degree.
Burns of this type cause reactive substances:
- Organic acids( nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric).
- Alkalis( caustic potassium, quicklime, caustic soda).
- Salts of some heavy metals( silver nitrate, zinc chloride).
Often the cause of skin damage are cosmetic products, household detergents and cleaning preparations, hair coloring agents, alcohol-based compounds. Sometimes caustic substances mistakenly take inside, which causes a burn of the oral mucosa, including tongue, pharynx, development of the laryngeal edema and more severe consequences.
Chemical agents that are capable of leaving a burn on the human body also include some aggressive substances released by the animals( jellyfish) and plants( castor, cow, nettle, celandine).to table of contents ^
These are surface or skin surface lesions that occur when exposed to an electric arc or currents passing through a person's body. Such damages can be obtained with lightning strikes, touching bare wires exposed to voltage, using faulty electrical appliances.
The degree of injury, treatment methods and duration of the healing process depend on the depth of the affected tissues:
- 1st degree burn .The upper layer of the skin is damaged - the epidermis. This is expressed in redness, small puffiness and moderate pain sensations when touched. It takes 2-5 days.
- Second degree burn .Deeper lesions of the epidermis, with the appearance of blisters on the reddened skin with a transparent yellowish liquid, which quickly becomes turbid( with chemical burns, blisters are not formed).Restoration of the skin takes up to 14 days, a week later the new skin, which first has a bright pink color, acquires a normal shade.
- Burn III-A degree .Damage to all layers of the skin, except for the deepest( germ).The damaged area is covered by bubbles with a liquid or a jelly-like mass, often a scab is formed - a white or yellowish crust that is not sensitive to touch. Healing takes up to 30 days, the pigmentation takes place after another 1.5-3 months.
- Burn III-B degree .Characterized by the necrosis of all layers of the skin and subcutaneous fat with the formation of large bubbles with bloody fluid. A gray or brown scab may form.
- Burn IV degree .Means the death of tissues under the skin - muscles, tendons, nerves, joints, right up to the bones. The dead tissue is partly charred and discarded for several weeks. The healing is slow, with the formation of scars.
There are many prescriptions for burn remedies at home:
- Aloe .The branch of a perennial plant is cut along and smeared with burned areas. Promotes rapid healing, soothes the skin, relieves irritation.
- Protein and celandine .In case of burns with blisters, whisk the raw egg of chicken eggs, apply on skin, leave to dry, rinse with cool water. After 30 minutes, make a compress of broth chistel - 1 tablespoon of herbs for 1 glass of water, boil for 10 minutes. The procedures should be repeated several times a day to eliminate pain and wound healing.
- Toothpaste .It is an effective remedy for burns with boiling water. The affected surface must be covered with a thick layer of paste.
- Cabbage .Removes not only the local temperature, but also redness. Apply leaves of fresh or sauerkraut to the affected areas and keep at least 20 minutes. The procedure can be repeated by changing the leaves to fresh ones. For a lotion, brine from sauerkraut will do.
- Potatoes .Peel the raw tuber into thin slices and apply to the affected skin. You can grate the potatoes and spread on the burn. Hold for 30 minutes.
- Sour-milk products .Relieve pain, eliminate redness and swelling of the skin with sunburn. Apply sour cream, kefir or whey to the affected areas, leave for 15-20 minutes, rinse with cool water.
- Onion .In case of lesions by steam, boil 1 onion, chop into gruel and keep on the body for 2 hours, covering with a gauze bandage on top.
- Linseed oil or sea buckthorn oil .When applied to affected areas have a soothing and wound-healing action.
- Mint .Pour 1 tablespoon of chopped leaves 1 cup of boiling water, let it take 1 hour, drain and make from the infusion of the lotion on the burned places. Mint can be replaced with chamomile flowers or plantain leaves. Compresses have an anti-inflammatory effect, stimulate tissue renewal.
- Cucumber .Grate and apply gruel to inflamed areas. The agent has a cooling effect.
- Propolis ointment helps with the appearance of blisters. Melt in a water bath 100 grams of lard( can be replaced with petroleum jelly), add 20 grams of propolis, mix thoroughly and gently lubricate the skin. Keep in the refrigerator. Soda food .When sunburns help a bath with warm water, which should dissolve 1 glass of soda. Damage from hot objects removes the compress from the soda solution. Remedies remove redness and swelling, quickly return the skin to its former form.
- Tea .Compresses with chilled brewing of green or black tea are anesthetizing, antiseptic, soothe the skin. Apply every 2 hours.
- Alkali helps with acid damage or heavy metal salts, neutralize them with an alkali-soda or soap solution, with a burn caused by the action of alkali, it is necessary to apply a solution of acetic or citric acid.
- Egg Yolk .Helps with burns from boiling oil. Raw yolks mixed with a small amount of honey, apply to damaged areas.
Sunlight helpsimprove children's immunity, cope with allergic reactions, increase stress resistance. Under its influence the hormone of happiness serotonin and vitamin D, which is so necessary for the child's organism, is produced.
However, sunburn in a child is much faster than in an adult. There are several reasons for this:
- The superficial layer of children's skin( epidermis) is thinner than in adults.
- The stratum corneum is also insufficiently developed to fully perform its protective function, which causes the delicate skin of children to be more easily traumatized.
- In newborns and children up to 6 months, the formation of pigment melanin in the skin is reduced, which makes them especially vulnerable to sunlight.
In addition, children are very curious, active and restless, so they often get burned by carelessness - by touching the hot surface, boiling water. According to statistics, one third of all victims of burns are children, more than half of them have not reached the age of 3 years.
Parents need increased attention when working with hot objects, during sunbathing, fires when there are children nearby. For any kind of burns, babies up to a year should be shown to the doctor.to contents ^
There are several rules that will help prevent the occurrence of burns, in particular sunny:
- Avoid direct contact with sunlight from 11 to 15 hours, people with very fair skin - from 10 to 16. Inthis time the body should be covered with clothing and headdresses.
- Before leaving the house, apply to the exposed areas of the skin sunscreen products, selected by the skin type.
- During the sunbathing, the body protection must be renewed after each bath in the reservoirs.
For prevention of household burns, it is recommended:
- Do not use electrical appliances with unreliable insulation of wiring, do not repair them yourself if there are no professional skills.
- Remove dangerous items from the children's access area - chemicals and household chemicals, hot objects and hot food and liquids, matches, lighters, close the sockets with special plugs.
- Carry out explanatory discussions with children about safety.
- Remember that smoking in bed is a common cause of fires.