From the first minutes of life, the child's organism begins assiduous adaptation in the new world. From the first hours the baby needs to make a series of vaccinations to protect the unformed immunity of the body. From the very beginning and up to 17 years it is worthwhile to carry out to the child all preventive and mandatory vaccinations for the formation of a permanent immunity to various diseases and infections for life.
- What is vaccination
- As vaccinate
- epicutaneous and intradermal
- What revaccination
- Recommended vaccination
- against hepatitis A
- hepatitis B
- Against Tuberculosis( Mantoux test)
- against pneumococcal disease
- Against meningococcal infections
- Against encephalitic tick
- Against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and hemophilic infection
- Against rednuts, measles and mumps
- Against the flu
- Preparing the child for vaccination
- What to observe after vaccination
What is vaccination
Vaccination( W) is an artificial process of increasing the resistance and resistance of the body to various infectious diseases by introducing into it antigens of microorganismsin the form of a specially prepared material( medicinal vaccine).After the introduction of the antigen into the human body, there is an acceleration and an improvement in the production of their own antibodies for the control of pathogens.
There are two variants of vaccination:
- vaccine prophylaxis - has a preventive goal, is done according to the set schedule;
- vaccine therapy - has a therapeutic direction, is carried out if necessary and only with the appointment of a doctor.
How vaccination is carried out
Different vaccines work according to a clearly defined program. Each drug has its own deadlines and methods of application.to contents ^
The most common form of both injections and injections. It is carried out by injecting a medicinal liquid into a specific muscle:
- for children under 2 years old - in the middle third of the anterolateral part of the thigh, the introduction occurs at right angles;
- for children from 2 years old - in the deltoid muscle of the forearm from the side, the introduction occurs horizontally to the skin.
In this way, "live" vaccinations are carried out mainly from infectious diseases. To get the vaccine just under the skin, the specialist should grab it with two fingers, slightly raise and insert a medicine under the skin fold.
Vaccination can be carried out:
- under the shoulder blade;
- in the middle of the lateral surface of the shoulder;
- in the front of the thigh.
This variant of vaccination is carried out through the nose. The drug is prescribed in the form of aerosols, creams, ointments or aqueous solutions. Most often, such vaccinations are prescribed against viral diseases - influenza, rubella, measles. The drug is injected into the nasal passage, protecting the mucous membrane. The shortage of this vaccination is its short duration.to contents ^
Vaccination occurs by ingesting a medicine. The most common disease from which this method is vaccinated is poliomyelitis. The medicine can be swallowed in its pure form, with a piece of sugar or bread to neutralize the taste of the drug.to the table of contents ^
Nasal and intradermal
In this method, only the indicated vaccination options are given - Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, BCG - the Calmette-Guerin bacillus. As well as Live dry tularemia and antipoietic.
The vaccine is made over the deltoid muscle of the forearm, or between the elbow and wrist. A thin special needle is inserted in a cut upwards so that the vaccine goes over the skin.to contents ^
What is a revaccination
Revaccination( RW) is a repeated incubation, that is, a repeated introduction into the body of a medicinal vaccine to increase the body's resistance to diseases and develop immunity. If necessary, under the schedule or in connection with the disease, repeated vaccination is carried out. In a lifetime, a person can make up to 7 revaccinations. In some cases, revaccination is not necessary at all.
Table. Schedule of all mandatory and prophylactic vaccinations for children from 0 to 17 years old
|Type of vaccination||First vaccination||RW1||RW2||RW3||RW4||Name of vaccine||Notes|
|Hepatitis B, vaccination for children at risk||In the first 24 hours of life||In 1 month||At 2 months||-||In 1 year||Euwax B, Engeriks B, Eberbiwak, Hepatect, HBVax II, hepatitis B vaccine, recombinant yeast liquid, specific human immunoglobulins||Vaccination for children at risk( small, premature, with pathologies).|
|Hepatitis B, vaccination for children not at risk||In the first 24 hours of life||At 1 month||-||At 6 months||-||Euwax B, Engeriks B, Eberbiwak, Hepatect, HBVax II, Hepatitis B recombinantyeast liquid, specific human immunoglobulins||Vaccination is given to children who do not fall into the risk group.|
|Tuberculosis||At 3-7 day of life||At 7 years of||At 14 years of||At 21 years of age||At 28 years of age||BCG, BCG-M||Active specific tuberculosis prophylaxis. BCG vaccination.|
|Pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria||At 18 months||At 6-7 years of||At 14 years of age||At 18 years of age||DTP, ADS, ADS-M, Infarriks, DT Vax, Imovax, DT Adylt||Up to 18months I use vaccines that include pertussis( DTP). Later, bezkolukshevye drugs( ADS, ADS-M) with a reduced content of antigens for each age group are used.|
|Hemophilic infections||At 3, 4, 5, 6 months or 6 and 7.5 months or 1 to 5 years - once||At 18 months||-||-||-||Acts HBD|| Vaccination to children in the group of the following risks: |
for children with immunodeficiency;
for children with anatomical defects;children with oncohematological diseases;HIV-infected children or those born from HIV-infected parents;children who are in educational institutions of closed types.
|Polyomelite||At 3, 4-5, 6 months||At 18 months||At 20 months||At 14 years||-||OPV, Imovax Polio||The first 2 vaccinations are carried out by reinforced inactivated polio vaccines, 3rd vaccination and subsequent revaccinations are performed "live"a vaccine.|
|Epidemiological parotitis||At 12 months||At 6 years||-||-||-||Priori, MMR-II|
|Rubella||At 13 years||-||-||-||-||Rubella vaccine for two manufacturers: Serum Institut);Institute of Immunology INC( Croatia)||It is carried out in accordance with the instruction for single vaccinations for children from 1 to 18 years.|
|Measles||At the age of 15-17||-||-||-||-||Measles vaccine( manufactured by the Moscow bacteriological products company)||It is carried out in accordance with the instruction for single vaccinations for children from 1 to 18 years of age.|
|Influenza||At 6 months||Revaccination is performed annually||Revaccination is performed annually||Revaccination is performed annually||Revaccination is performed annually||Vaxgrippus, Grippol, Influvac, Fluarix||Produced according to the instructions for the use of vaccines annually.|
There are a number of mandatory vaccinations that must be made to the baby in the firstyears of his life. It is also worth making revaccinations of these vaccinations if necessary.
Against hepatitis A
Children are very predisposed to contracting this disease. Viruses can enter the body through dirty hands, poor quality water, poorly prepared food, unwashed fruits and vegetables. The virus can live in camps, kindergartens, schools. Vaccination should be done in early childhood.to contents ^
Against hepatitis B
Vaccination should be given to the child in the first minutes of life. Infection with hepatitis B can occur even through breast milk from a sick mother. Immunity after vaccination in a newborn develops instantly. To fully protect the child from this disease for life, it is worth making 2 revaccinations in 1 month at 6 months.to contents ^
Against tuberculosis( Mantoux test)
Mantoux test is an integral annual vaccine for children from 1 to 14 years old. At 14 years of age, BCG is revaccinated, which should protect the body for the rest of life. The Mantoux reaction is performed by the cutaneous method, leaving a hem behind. If this scar remains within 4 millimeters the child is protected from tuberculosis. If the hem is larger or a cone is formed at the site of the puncture, it is worthwhile to take care and examine the baby. Parental rejection of Mantoux reduces the immunity of the child in the fight against aggressive strains of bacteria.to contents ^
Against pneumococcal infections
These diseases are very dangerous. The development of infections occurs by ingestion of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccination is able to protect the baby from infection with bronchitis, pneumonia and other lung diseases. In this category of the development of diseases of almost 85 strains, the PNEVMO-23 vaccination will help prevent the development of the 23 most dangerous of them.to table of contents ^
Against meningococcal infections
This category of diseases refers to the infectious. Often infectious diseases require long-term treatment and have irreversible negative consequences. The child should be vaccinated at the age of 1 to 5 years, at this age the child is very susceptible to this kind of infections. The carriers of the disease are infected people, meningococcal bacteria do not live outside the person.
Against encephalitic tick
After the bite of the encephalitis tick, irreversible processes occur in the body of both the adult and the child. Seriously affects the central nervous system, the structure of the brain and nerve endings of the spinal cord. Vaccination is mandatory for children and adults. The tick activity is observed in the period May-June. Habitat forest, grass, shrubs.to table of contents ^
Against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and hemophilic infection
Vaccination against these diseases is carried out:
- triple vaccination - at 3, at 4.5 and 6 months;
- first revaccination - after reaching 18 months of age.
- against poliomyelitis - at 20 months and at 14 years;
- against diphtheria and tetanus - vaccine ADSM at 7 and 15 years of life, and then every 10 years.
Against rubella, measles and mumps
Vaccination against these diseases is performed by intramuscular route, at the age of one year. Revaccination is needed in 6 years.
A combined Priorin or Trimovax vaccine( administered with a single syringe) is used. Often it is well tolerated, it leaves strong and long-lasting immunity. If the child has had one of the listed diseases after vaccination, then a second injection is not required. If, however, had been ill before the first vaccination, the vaccine is not needed at all.to table of contents ^
Mandatory annual vaccination for both children and adults. Every year, the flu develops new serotypes of the virus stamp, so each vaccine contains new improved protective components.to the table of contents ^
Preparing the child for vaccination
Before taking the injection, the child should be carefully prepared:
- to perform all the necessary tests( blood, urine);
- pass the examination of a neurologist and an allergist;
- not give the child 2 days before going to the hospital for new types of food;
- drink allergy medications 2-3 days before vaccination;
- take to hospital with a vaccination certificate;
- before going out of the house to measure the temperature of the child;
- to check which vaccine( name, whose manufacture, expiration date) will be administered to the child.
What to observe after vaccination
After the introduction of the vaccine to the child, it is necessary to follow the rules:
- monitor the temperature of the child's body;
- the first days after the vaccination did not go out with the baby to the cold;
- does not wet the puncture sites;
- does not change the usual diet;
- should be visited by a doctor when heat, redness, skin rashes, general malaise, nausea, diarrhea or vomiting occur.
It is not necessary to do the vaccination if:
- the child is sick with a viral disease;
- the child has a body temperature above 37 degrees;
- tests of urine and kid's blood have abnormalities;
- the child is allergic to egg white( most of the drugs for vaccination have it in its composition);
- the child has allergic reactions, atopic dermatitis;
- climatic conditions on the street do not meet the requirements for vaccination;
- the child has a dysbacteriosis.